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ton, Jay, Rush, Adams, Rittenhouse, exist. There is indeed a difference of Maulison, Monroe, and a thousand other political character, or what will express high-minded gentlemen, soldiers, ora. it better, a varying intensity of repubtors, sages, and statesmen, was account- lican feeling discernible in the different ed a hive of pick pockets and illiterate component parts of this great Union; hinds.
but all are now equally devoted to the
national institutions, and in all differMr. Jefferson atfords a splendid elu- ence of opinion, aslınit the necessity of cidation of a remark contained in my the minority yielding to the majority. last letter,-that the literary strengti And, what is yet more important, these of America is absorbed in the business differences of opinion do not hinge upon of the state. In early life, we find this the merits or demerits of foreign nadistinguished philosopher and elegant tions, French or English, Dutch or scholar, called from his library into the Portuguese. The wish of your venersenate, and from that inoinent engaged able friend is now realized ;-his counin the service, and finally charged with trymen are Americans. the highest offices in the commonwealth. now make the tour of the states, and Had he been born in Europe, he would Henry of New-England, with infinite have added new treasures to the s:orę safety to the peace of their citizens; and of science, and bequeathed to posterity even Massachussets herself would now the researches and generous conceptions blush at the name of the Hartford cou. of his well-stored and original mind, vention. not in hasty“ notes," but in tom?s Genet is, or was at least when the compiled at ease, and framed with that author was last in Albany, a peaceable nerve and classic simplicity which and obscure citizen of the state of New inark the 66 Declaration of his coun- York. It is curious in a democracy, to try's “ independence." Born in Ame- see how soon the factious sink into inrica,
significance. Aaron Burr was pointed “The post of honour is a public station;" out to me in the Mayor's court at New to this therefore was he called ; and York, an old man whom none cast from it he retires, covered with years an eye upon except an idle stranger. In and honours, to reflect upon a life well Europe, the bustling demagogue is sent spent, and on the happiness of a people to prison, or to the scaffold, and metawhose prosperity he did so much to pro- morphosed into a martyr; in America, mote. The fruits of his wisdom are in he is left to walk at large, and soon no the laws of his country, and that coun- one thinks about him. try itself will be his monument,
BLACK SLAVERY. The elections which raised Mr. Jef. I must here refute a strange asserferson to the chief magistracy, brought tion, which I have seen in I know not with them a change both of men and how many foreign journals, namely, The most rigid economy
that the United States' government is was carried into every department of chargeable with the diffusion of black government; some useless offices were slavery. Every act that this governdone away; the slender army was far- ment has ever passed regarding it, has ther reduced, obnoxious acts, passed by tended to its suppression ; but the exthe former cougress, repealed, and the tent and vature of its jurisdiction are American constitution administered in probably misunderstood by those who all its simplicity and purity.
charge upon it the black slavery of KenThe policy of Mr. Jefferson, and that tucky or Louisiana ; and they must be of his venerable successor, Mr. Madi- ignorant of its acts who omit to ascribe son, was so truly enlightened and mag- to it the merit of having saved from nanimous, as to form an era in the his- this curse every republic which has tory of their country. The violence of grown up under its jurisdiction. the fallen party vented itself in the most There are at present twenty-two scurrilous abuse that ever disgraced the republics in the confederacy; of these, free press of a free country; it did twelve have been rendered free to black
it essayed even to raise the and white; the remaining ten continue standard of open rebellion to that go- to be more or less defaced by negroverument of which it had professed slavery. Of these five are old states, itself the peculiar friend and stay. and the other five either parted from
these, or formed out of the acquired It inay now be said, that the party territory of French Louisiana. Thus, once misnamed Federal has ceased to Kentucky was raised into an indeMONTHLY MAG. No. 363.
4 K pendent
pendent state by mutual agreement be
DANIEL BOON. tween herself and Virginia, of which Among others I mention, with plea. she originally formed a part. Tenessee, sure, that brave and adventurous North by mutual agreement between herself Carolinian, who makes so distingnished and Carolina, to which she was origi- a figure in the history of Kentucky, the nally attached. Mississippi was sur.. venerable Col. Boon. This respectable rendered to the general government by 'old man, in the eighty-fifth year of his Georgia, to be raised when old enough age, resides on Salt river, up the Misinto an independent state; but with a souri. He is surrounded by about forty stipulation that to the citizens of Geor- families, who respect ħim as a father, gia should be continued the privilege and who live under a kind of patriof migrating into it with their slaves. archal government, ruled by his advice Louisiana proper, formed out of a small and example. They are not necessitous portion of the vast territory ceded persons, who have fled for their crimes under that name, came into the posses- or misfortunes, like those that gasion of the United States with the thered mto David in the cave of Adul. united evils of black slavery in its most lum: they all live well, and possess the hideous form, and the slave trade pro- necessaries and comforts of life as they secuted with relentless barbarity. The could wish. latter crime was instantly arrested ; The Lord of the wilderness, Daniel and under the improving influence of Boon, though his eye is now somewhat mild laws and mental instruction, the dimmed, and his limbs enfeebled by a horrors of slavery have been greatly long life of adventure, can still hit the alleviated,
wild fowl on the wing with that dexIn 1787, the congress passed an act, terity which, in his earlier years, ex. establishing a temporary government cited the envy of Indian hunters; and for the infant population settled on the he now looks upon the “ famous river" lands of Ohio; and the government then Missouri with feelings scarce less ardent established has served as the model of than when he sarveyed with clearer that of all the territories that have since vision, “ the famous river Ohio." The been formed in the vacant wilderness. grave of this worshipper of nature, The act then passed contained a clause wild adventure, and unrestrained liwhich operated upon the whole national berty, will be visited by the feebler territory to the north-west of the Ohio. children of future generations with By this,“ slavery and involuntary servi. such awe as the Greeks might regard tude" were positively excluded from those of their earlier demigods. The this region, by a law of the general go- mind of this singular man seems best vernment. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and pourtrayed by his own simple words. Michigan, have already sprung up in 5 No populous city, with all the variethe bosom of this desert; the three ties of commerce and stately structure, first independent states, and the latter could afford so much pleasure to my about to pass from her days of tutelage mind as the beauties of nature that i to assume the same character.
find here." Thus saved from the disgraceful and LIBERTY OF THE PRESS. ruinous contagion of African servitude, The Americans are certainly a calm, this young family of republics have rational, civil, and well-behaved peostarted in their career with a vigour and ple; not given to quarrel or to call each a purity of character that has not an other names; and yet, if you were te equal in the history of the world. Ohio, look at their newspapers, you would which twenty-five years since was a think them a parcel of Hessian soldiers. vacant wilderness, now contains half a An uvrestricted press appears to be the million of inhabitants, and returns six safety-valve of their free constitution; representatives to the national congress. and theyseem to understand this; for they In the other and younger meinders of no more regard all the noise and sputter the western family, the ratio of increase that it occasions than the roaring of the is similar. It is curious to consider, vapour on board their steam-boats. that the adventurous settler is yet alive, Were a foreigner, immediately upon who felled the first tree to the west of landing, to take up a newspaper, (es. the Alleghanies. The log-hut of Daniel pecially if he should chance to land Boon is now on the wild shores of the just before an election,) he might supMissouri, a host of firmly established pose that the whole political machine republics stretching betwixt him and was about to fall to pieces, and that he the habitation of his boyhood.
had just come in time to be crushed in
its ruins. But if he should not look at be said to form the basis of American
priated a fund of a million and a half But if the declamation of the press of dollars to the support of public passes unregarded, its sound reasoning, schools. In Vermont, a certain porsupported by facts, exerts a sway be- tion of land has been laid off in every yond all that is known in Europe. township, whose proceeds are devoted Here there is no mob. An orator or a to the same purpose.
In the other writer inust make his way to the feel- states, every townshiy taxes itself to ings of the American people through such amount as is necessary to defray their reason. They must think with the expense of schools, wbich teach him before they will feel with him; reading, writing, and arithmetic to the bat, when once they do both, there is whole population. In larger towns these nothing to prevent their acting with him. schools teach geography, and the rudi
It would be impossible for a country ments of Latin. These establishments, to be more completely deluged with supported at the common expense, are newspapers than is this ; they are to be open to the whole youth, male and fehad not only in the English but in the male, of the country. Other seminaries French and Dutch languages, and some of a higher order are also maintained will probably soon appear in the Spanish. in the more populous districts; half It is here not the amusement but the the expense being discharged by approduty of every man to knoir what his priated funds, and the remainder by a public functionaries are doing: he has small charge laid on the scholar. The first to look after the conduct of the instruction here given fits the youth for general government, and, secondly, the state colleges; of which there is after that of his own state legislature. one or more in every state. The uniBut besides this, he must also know versity of Cambridge, in Massachuswhat is passing in all the different sets, is the oldest, and, I believe, the states of the Union : as the number of most distinguished establishment of the these states has now multiplied to kind existing in the Union. twenty-two, besides others in embryo, Perhaps the number of colleges there is abundance of home-politics to founded in this wide-spread family of swell the pages of a newspaper; then republics, may not, in general, be facome the politics of Europe, which, vourable to the growth of distinguished by-the-bye, are, I think, often better universities. It best answers, howunderstood' here than on your side of ever, the object intended, which is not the Atlantic. But, independent of po- to raise a few very learned citizens, litics, these multitudinous gazettes and but a well-informed and liberal-minded journals are made to contain a wonder- community. ous miscellany of information; there The child of every citizen, male or is not a conceivable topic in the whole female, white or black, is entitled, by range of human knowledge that they right, to a plain education; and funds do not treat of in some way or other; sufficient to defray the expense of his not unfrequently, I must observe, with instruction are raised either from pubcousiderable ability; while the facts lic lands appropriated to the purpose, that they contain, and the general or by taxes sometimes imposed by the principles that they advocate, are often legislature, and sometimes by the difhighly serviceable to the community. ferent townships. EDUCATION.
The American, in his infancy, manThe education of youth, which may hood, or age, never feels the hand of
oppression. Violence is positively for
RELIGION. bidden in the schools, in the prisons, It is impossible to apply any general on ship-board, in the army ;-every rule to so wide spread a community as where, in short, where authority is this.
the exercised, it must be exercised without
Religion is like the fashion. appeal to the argument of a blow, One man wears his doublet slashed,
Not long since a master was dismiss- another laced, another plain, but every ed from a public school, in a neigh- man has a doublet. So every man has bouring state, for having strack a boy. his religion. They differ about trimThe little fellow was transformed in a ming." But we cannot subjoin another moment from a culprit to an accuser. axiom of the same philosopher: “Every “ Do you dare to strike me ? you are religion is a getting religion.
It gets my teacher, but not my tyrant." The nothing; and so, whatever it be, it is school-room ma le common cause in a sincere and harmless. moment: the fact was enquired into, Some contend that liberality is only and the master dismissed. No apology indifference; perhaps, as a general for the punishment was sought in the rule, it may be so. Persecution unnature of the offence which might have doubtedly fans zeal, but such zeal as it provoked it. As my informer observed, is usually better to be without. I do “ it was thought, that the man who not perceive any want of religion in could not master his own passions was America. There are sections of the unft to controul the passions of others; country where some might think there besides, that he had infringed the rules is too much, at least that its temper is of the school, and forfeited the respect too stern and dogmatical. This has of his scholars.” By this early exemp- long been said of New England, and, tion from arbitrary power, the boy ac- undoubtedly, the Puritan ancestry of quires feelings and habits which abide her citizens is still discernible, as well with him through life.
in the coldness of their manners, as in In the education of women, New the rigidity of their creed. But it is England seems hitherto to have been wonderful how fast these distinctions peculiarly liberal. The ladies of the are disappearing. An officer of the eastern states are frequently possessed American navy, a native of New Eng; of the most solid acquirements, the mo. land, told me, that when a boy he had dern, and even the dead languages, and sooner dared to pick a neighbour's a wide scope of reading; the conse- pocket on a Saturday, than to have quence is, that their manners have the smiled on a Sunday. “ I have since character of being more composed than travelled through all parts of the Union, those of my gay young friends in this and over a great part of the world, and quarter. I have already stated, in one have learned, consequently, that there of my earlier letters, that the public are all ways of thinking; and I find attention is now every where turned now that my fellow-countrymen are to the improvement of female education. learning the same.” In some states, colleges for girls are es- You will conceive how great is the tablished under the eye of the legisla- change wrought in the religious temture, in which are taught all important per of the Eastern States, when I menbranches of knowledge.
tion, that the Unitarian faith has been I must remark, that in no particular latterly introduced, and, in some parts, is the liberal philosophy of the Ameri- las made such rapid progress as procans more honourably evinced than in mises, ere long, to supersede the docthe place which is awarded to women.
trines of Calviu. There were, of course, The prejudices still to be found in Eu- some vehement pulpit fulminations in rope, though now, indeed, somewhat Massachussets when these mild teachers antiquated, which would confine the of morals and simple Christianity first female library to romances, poetry, and made their appearance. belles lettres, and female conversation Philadelphia, and even New York, to the last new publication, new bon- had their zealots as well as Boston. In net, and pas seul, are entirely unknown the latter city they were few, but perhere The women are assuming their haps more noisy on that very account. place as thinking beings, not in despite it is some years since, a Calvinistic of the men, but chiefly in consequence preacher here exclaimed to the nonof their enlarged views and exertions as elect of his congregation, “ Ha! ha! fathers and legislators.
you think to get through the gates of
heaven by laying hold of my coat; but to have this effect, and seldom to proI'll take care to hold up the skirts.” duce, excepting upon such as may be
American religion, of whatever sect, affected with constitutional weakness (and it includes all the sects under of the lungs, any effect that is not deheaven,) is of a quiet and unassuming cidedly beneficial. Most people will character ; no way disputatious, even pronounce the autumn to be the pride when more doctrinal than the majority
of the American year.
It is indeed may think wise. I do not include the fraught with beauty to all the senses; strolling methodists and shaking qua- the brilliant hues then assumed by nakers, and sects with unutterable names ture, from the dwarf sumac with his and deranged imaginations, who are berries and leaves of vivid crimson, up found in some odd corners of this wide to the towering trees of the forest, world, beating time to the hymns of twisting their branches in extreme and Mother Ann, and working out the mil- whimsical contrasts of gold, red, green lennium by abstaining from marriage. orange, russet, through all their varie
The Shakers, as they are called, emi- ties of shade; the orchards, too, then grated to America some forty years laden with treasures, and the fields ago. Ann Lee, or Mother Ann, their heavy with the ripened maize; the skies spiritual leader, was a niece of the cele- bright with all the summer's splendour, brated General Lee, who took so active yet tempered with refreshing breezes; a part in the war of the revolution. the sun sinking to rest in crimsons, She became deranged, as it is said, from whose depth and warınth of hue the family misfortunes ; fancied herself a painter would not dare to imitate. second Virgin Mary, and found fol- The winter ;-those whom it likes, lowers, as Joanna Southcote and Jemi. may like it. The season has its beauty ma Wilkinson did after her.
and its pleasures. Sparkling skies There is a curious spirit of opposition shining down upon sparkling snows, in the human mind. I see your papers over which the light sleighs, peopled full of anathemas against blasphemous with the young and the gay, bound pamphlets. We have no such things along to the chime of bells which the here; and why? Because every man is horses seem to bear well pleased. In free to write them; and because every country and city, this is the time of man enjoys his own opinion, without amusement; the young people will run any arguing about the matter. Where twenty miles, through the biting air, religion never arms the hand of power, to the house of a friend; where all in a she is never obnoxious; where she is moment is set astir; carpets up, music seated modestly at the domestic hearth, playing, and youths and maidens, laughwhispering peace and immortal hope to ing and mingling in the mazy dance, the infancy and age, she is always respect- happiest creatures beneath the moon. ed, even by those who may not them- Is it the bright climate, or the liberty selves feel the force of her arguments. that reigns every where; or is it the ab
CLIMATE IN NEW JERSEY. sence of poverty, and the equal absence This is a climate of extremes ; you of fextreme wealth ; or is it all these are here always in heat or frost. The things together that make this people former you know I never object to, so cheerful and gay-hearted ? and as I equally dislike the latter, I The spring :-there is properly no should perhaps be an unfair reporter of spring; there is a short struggle beboth. The summer is glorious; the tween winter and summer; who someresplendent sun shining on, shining times fight for the mastery with a good on,” for days and weeks successively; deal of obstinacy. We have lately seen an air so pure, so light, and to me so a fierce combat between these two great genial, that I wake as it were to a new sovereigns of the year. In the latter existence. I have seen those around days of March, summer suddenly me, however, often drooping beneath alighted on the snows in the full flush fervors which have given me life. By of July heat; every window and door the month of August, the pale cheeks were flung open to welcome the stranand slow movements of the American ger, and the trees were just bursting women, and even occasionally of the into leaf, when angry winter returned men, seem to demand the invigorating to the field, and poured down one of breezes of the Siberian winter to brace the most singular showers of sleet I the nerves and quicken the current of ever witnessed.
The water, freezing the blood. The severe cold which suc- as it fell, cased every branch and twig ceeds to this extreme of heat, appears in crystal of an inch thick, su trans