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40. A great number of Adverbs are formed by combining the syllable -ly (from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning like) with Adjectives; as, greatly, truly, fully, nobly, happily. Some Adjectives, derived from Nouns by the addition of -ly, as yearly from year, are used as Adverbs also; thus, we speak of payments being made weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly.

The word very, now only used as an Adverb, was formerly used as an Adjective, with the meaning true, real: “Art thou my very son Esau ?”

41. The older writers use Adjectives in the place of Adverbs for emphasis, to qualify at once both the Subject and the Verb. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank.—Shakespeare.

I as free forgive you,
As I would be forgiven.Shakespeare.

Grinn'd horrible a ghastly smile.Milton.

Hope springs eternal in the human breast.—Pope.
Many Adverbs in common use coincide in form with Adjec-
They forced the natives to buy dear and to sell cheap.

Macaulay. 42. The comparatives and superlatives of Adverbs are chiefly formed by prefixing more and most; as, more nobly, most wickedly.

But some Adverbs have degrees of comparison formed like those of Adjectives; as, often, oftener; soon, sooner, soonest.

43. The following are some irregular forms of comparison of Adverbs : much


well better best. little less least.


worst. far further furthest. nigh





44. The word the, put before a comparative, sometimes stands for an Adverb with the meaning by how much or by so much.

The more, the merrier; and the fewer, the better cheer.
The fewer men, the greater share of honour.—Shakespeare.
The sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better.


III.-Numerals. 45. Numerals are Adjectives and Adverbs used in expressing numbers. The Numerical Adjectives are divided into three classes : 1. Cardinal, answering the question How many ?

One, two, three, etc.
2. Ordinal, answering the question In what order ?

First, second, third, etc.
3. Words expressing multiples of a unit; as-

Twofold, threefold, etc. Double, triple, etc. 46. Series of Numerical Adverbs are

First, secondly, thirdly, etc.
Once, twice, thrice, four times, five times, etc.

Singly, doubly, trebly:
NOTE.—The form firstly occurs, but first is the better form.


Prepositions. 47. A Preposition is a word that connects a Noun or Pronoun with some other word in a sentence, so as to limit or point out the application of that word. For example, in the sentence,

The sports of children satisfy the child,

the Preposition of connects the Noun children with the word sports, so as to limit the application of that word.

Prepositions are so called, because they are usually placed immediately before the Nouns with which they are used.

48. Prepositions enable us to express with accuracy many relations of place, time, cause, circumstance; for example

1. Place.
We use Prepositions to express-

Motion from a place; as, from, off, out of.
Motion to a place; as, to, into.

Rest in a place; as, in, at, on.
2. Time : as

Before, after, during, since.
3. Cause or Origin : as

Of, from, out of.
4. Circumstance or Instrument: as

With, by.
The Noun or Pronoun connected with the sentence by a
Preposition is always in the objective case :

I heard it from him. 49. Many of our Prepositions may be arranged in pairs, one of each pair expressing a relation exactly the contrary of the relation expressed by the other ; such are, before and after, over and under, within and without, from and to, out of and into. 50. Many Prepositions are used as Adverbs: for example

Without untainted, innocent within,
She feared no danger, for she knew no sin.—Dryden.
Above, below, without, within, around,
Confused unnumbered multitudes are found.-Pope.
An honest man, close buttoned to the chin,
Broadcloth without, and a warm heart within.-Cowper.

51. A Preposition and a Noun, alone or qualified by an
Adjective, together make what is called a Prepositional
Prepositional phrases are used to qualify-

(1) A Noun.
Faults in the life breed errors in the brain.—Cowper.
(2) An Adjective.
Weary with toil I haste me to my bed.--Shakespeare.
(3) A Verb.

Men learn wisdom by experience. 52. A prepositional phrase, qualifying a Verb, may stand in any part of the sentence. Such phrases are called Adverbial Expressions, and they are much used for defining the place, time, manner, cause, or purpose of an action. For emphasis they are often put at the commencement of a sentence.

In days of old there lived of mighty fame
A valiant prince, and Theseus was his name.-Dryden.

The woodman's heart is in his work,

His axe is sharp and good :
With sturdy arm and steady aim

He smites the gaping wood. - Hood.
By many names men call us,

In many lands we dwell.-Macaulay.
In his whole life Nelson was never known to act unkindly

towards an officer.-Southey. Sometimes we find a prepositional phrase detached, for emphasis, from the Noun that it qualifies :

Of Nelson and the North
Sing the glorious day's renown.-Campbell.
Of such information I have need. - Cowper.


53. Instead of the prepositional phrase, of the Queen, we often use the word Queen's, which we call the Possessive Case of the Noun Queen.

The mark ’, called Apostrophe, denotes the omission of a vowel, e.

In this form we have a remnant of an Anglo-Saxon case ending in es: thus

Anglo-Saxon Nominative, Fisc, a fish; Scip, a ship.

Anglo-Saxon Genitive, Fisces, fish's; Scipes, ship’s. NOTE 1.-Words ending in s-sounds have frequently the apostrophe with no s added : as Look! in this place ran Cassius' dagger through.—Shakespeare.

Charles' wain is over the new chimney.--Shakespeare. and sometimes, as in the phrase for conscience sake, the apostrophe and s are both omitted.

Yet we write St. James's Square, and perhaps we ought to write for conscience sake.

NOTE 2.- Plurals ending in s have the apostrophe with no s added : as

Our sons their fathers' failing language see,

And such as Chaucer is shall Dryden be.—Pope. NOTE 3.-In such a phrase as The Queen of England's daughter, the words The Queen-of-England are to be regarded as making up a single Noun.

54. There are two chief uses of the Possessive Case, in both of which it has an office like that of the Adjective: 1. To qualify, as an attribute, another Noun: Order is heaven's first law.Pope.


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