Renewable Energy Strategies for Europe: Electricity systems and primary electricity sources
Published in association with The Royal Institute of International AffairsTechnologies for generating electricity from primary renewable sources hydro, wind, solar cells, wave and tidal power - are developing rapidly. So too are Europes electricity systems, which are undergoing momentous change as governments and the European Commission move to introduce competition and new environmental policies into the sector. This study examines the implications of these combined trends for the role of primary renewables in European electricity.In the centralized electricity monopolies of old, the small unit scale and the dispersed, fluctuating nature of most of these sources were serious drawbacks. But in the emerging liberalized electricity systems, this book argues, renewables will be able to develop into major commercial industries based on their special characteristics and continuing technical improvements. With appropriate complementary policies, the regulatory liberalization now sweeping European electricity could lead to renewable sources contributing as much as half of Europes electricity within three decades.
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applications areas assessment benefits buildings cables capacity capital centralized Chapter companies competitive constraints contribution conventional correlation countries Denmark devices discount rate distribution e/kWh economic ecus electricity demand electricity liberalization electricity supply electricity systems end-use environmental estimated Europe European Commission European electricity expansion finance fuel global greater grid grid-connected hydro power Iceland impact increase industry installed integrated investment islands issues large hydro liberalization North Sea Norway nuclear onshore operation options output particularly photovoltaic planning plant possible potential power systems production programme projects reduce regions relatively remote renewable electricity sources renewable energy renewable sources scale schemes small hydro solar thermal storage strategy stream energy structure Table target tariffs technical technologies tidal tidal power tion transmission tricity TWh/yr utilities variable sources Volume wave energy wind energy wind power wind turbines windfarms