Air Pollution in the Ural Mountains: Environmental, Health and Policy Aspects

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Igor Linkov, R. Wilson
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - Science - 455 pages
Mankind has created pollution, and has suffered its consequences since time immemorial. This has intesified greatly since the industrial revolution. One of the main problems in society, and a major function of government is how to cope with this pollution. 80 years ago the maxim used to be "the solution to pollution is dilution"; to dilute any pollted water supply in a large river, or to build a tall chimney stack to dilute air pollutants into the air so that concentrations of pollutants are always low. Since 1950 western countries have gone further and made major attempts to reduce the emissions of the most important pollutants. The discussion of what is an important pollutant has changed. To S02 and heavy metals such as cadmium or arsenic we now add fine particles and even (when we discuss global climate change) C02. The experience and practice of the western countries was only partly followed in the USSR (although the switch from use of coal to natural gas in major cities around 1970 was very important). Since the collapse of the USSR it has become fashionable both in the west and inside Russia to blame all society's ills on pollution. The statistics do not bear out that conclusion, but pollution remains an important issue which can be reduced without significant detriment to other societal values.
 

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Contents

Pollution Stress to Siberian Forests 31
55
Status Results of Validation
75
The Use of Portable Instrumentation for Assessing Environmental
115
Influence of Air Pollutants in the Be Size Distribution of Atmospheric
135
Environmental Conditions in the Areas Exposed to Emission from the
141
Assessment of Risk to Childrens
181
Evaluation of Existing Environmental Information Systems in
195
Existing Health Information Systems in the Russian Federation and 219
218
Prioritizing Environmental Activities in Nizhnii Tagil Based on the 277
276
The Role of Economic Valuation in Decision Making About Air Pollution
291
Optimal Control Applied to Air Pollution
307
Automated Information System for Decision Making Support Designed
351
Retrospective Analysis of the Environment and Community Associated with
375
Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition around an Iron Smelter Complex 383
382
Air Pollution in Poland
405
Radioactive Contamination of the Techa River
423

Public Health Trends in a Transitional Russian City 19591994 239
238
Ecopathology of Mercury Pollution
261
Perspectives on United States Methods of Human and Environmental
263
Radioactive and Trace Elements in the Ural Mountains Report of the 441
440
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