Scotland After the Ice Age: Environment, Archaeology and History, 8000 BC - AD 1000
This book charts the environmental transformation of Scotland from the end of the ice age in an empty land 10,000 years ago to the Viking invasions of an established society 9,000 years later. When the icefields and glaciers disappeared forests covered the land and sea level rose to create the Hebridean islands. Elk, aurochs, bear, boar, red deer, beaver and horse crossed the land bridge from Europe to colonise the land, first followed by hunter gatherers and later by waves of Celts, Romans, Scots, and Normans, each marking the landscape in distinctive ways. This book brings together environmental, ecological, historical, geological, and archaeological approaches to show how changing climatic conditions and this sequence of cultural impacts shaped the succession of Scottish landscapes which have led to its present unique, beautiful, fleeting forms and variety.The seventeen authors are scholars from a range of fields, all writing for students and general readers. The first six chapters consider interactions of human ecology, climate, landscape, soils, vegetation and faunal change. The next seven are a chronological narrative history of Scotland’s environment over 9,000 years. The final chapter unites these systematic and historical approaches. The book is extensively illustrated with maps and photographs. The paperback edition includes a new and extensive guide to further reading.
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agriculture Alcock animals Antiquaries of Scotland Antonine Wall Archaeological Reports British areas Armit artefacts assemblages Atlantic Birks bone Bonsall Britain British Archaeological Reports broch Bronze Age cal BC century cereal clearance climate change coastal Copyright cropmarks cultivation deposits East Lothian economic Edinburgh University Press Edwards environment environmental erosion evidence excavation extensive farming fauna Fife Figure gleys Hanson Highlands hillforts Historic Historic Scotland Holocene human impact indicate Iron Age Knap of Howar land landscape late Lateglacial later Loch London lowlands Mellars Mesolithic midden millennium BC monuments Neolithic Norse North northern Obanian occupation Orkney Oronsay Outer Hebrides Oxford pattern peat period Perthshire Pictish Plate podzols Postglacial Prehistoric Proceedings Quaternary radiocarbon dates Ralston recent record red deer remains Reports British Series Ritchie Roman sediment settlement Shetland Skara Brae Society of Antiquaries soil southern species stone structures suggested Uist upland vegetation Viking Western Isles Whittington woodland