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Stabb’d in my angry mood at Tewksbury ?3
- whom I, some three months since, Stabb’d in my angry mood at Tewksbury?] Here we have the exact time of this scene ascertained, namely August 1471. King Edward, however, is in the second Act introduced dying. That King died in April 1483; so there is an interval between this and the next Act of almost twelve years. Clarence, who is represented in the preceding scene as committed to the Tower before the bu. rial of King Henry VI, was in fact not confined nor put to death till seven years afterwards, March, 1477-8. Malone.
4 Fram'd in the prodigality of nature,] i. e. when nature was in a prodigal or lavish mood. Warburton.
b—and, no doubt, right royal,] Of the degree of royalty be. longing to Henry the Sixth there could be no doubt, nor could Richard have mentioned it with any such hesitation; he could not indeed very properly allow him royalty. I believe we should read:
and, no doubt, right loyal. That is, true to her bed. He enumerates the reasons for which she should love him. He was young, wise, and valiant; these were apparent and indisputable excellencies. He then mentions another not less likely to endear him to his wife, but which he had less opportunity of knowing with certainty, and, no doubt, right loyal. Fohnson.
Richard is not speaking of King Henry, but of Edward his son, whom he means to represent as full of all the noble properties of a king: No doubt, right royal, may, however, be ironically spoken, alluding to the incontinence of Margaret, his mother. Steevens.
abeggarly denier, ] A denier is the twelfth part of a French sous, and appears to have been the usual request of a beggar. So, in The Cunning Northerne Beggar, bl. I, an ancient ballad:
“ For still will I cry, good your worship, good sir,
I 'll be at charges for a looking-glass;
The same. A Room in the Palace.
Enter Queen ELIZABETH, Lord RIVERS, and Lord GREY.
Riv. Have patience, madam; there 's no doubt, his
majesty Will soon recover his accustom'd health.
Grey. In that you brook it ill, it makes him worse : Therefore, for God's sake, entertain good comfort, And cheer his
grace with quick and merry words. Q. Eliz. If he were dead, what would betide of me? Grey. No other harm, but loss of such a lord. Q. Eliz. The loss of such a lord includes all harms.
Grey. The heavens have bless'd you with a goodly son, To be your comforter, when he is gone.
Q. Eliz. Ah, he is young; and his minority
Riv. Is it concluded, he shall be protector?
Q. Eliz. It is determin’d, not concluded yet:9 But so it must be, if the king miscarry, o
verbially. Proper in old language was handsome. See Vol. IV, p. 322, n. 1. Malone.
-I'll turn yon' fellow in his grave: ) In is here used for into. Tbus, in Chapman's version of the 24th Iliad:
Mercurie shall guide
And (he gone) let him ride “Resolv'd, ev’n in Achilles tent." Steevens. . It is determin'd, not concluded yet:) Determind signifies the final conclusion of the will : concluded, what cannot be altered by reason of some aet, consequent on the final judgment. Warbwrça.
Enter BUCKINGHAM and STANLEY.
Stun. I do beseech you, either not believe
Q. Eliz. Saw you the king to-day, my lord of Stanley?
Stan. But now, the duke of Buckingham, and I, Are come from visiting his majesty.
Q. Eliz. What likelihood of his amendment, lords? Buck. Madam, good hope; his grace speaks cheer
fully. Q. Eliz. God grant him health! Did you conser with
1 Here come the lords of Buckingham and Stanley.] [Old copies.com Derby.) This is a blunder of inadvertence, which has run through the whole chain of impressions. It could not well be original in Shakspeare, who was most minutely intimate with bis history, and the intermarriages of the nobility. The person here called Derby, was Thomas lord Stanley, lord steward of King Edward the Fourtb's houshold. But this Thomas lord Stanley was not created earl of Derby till after the accession of Henry the Seventh; and accordingly, afterwards, in the fourth and fifth Acts of this play, before the battle of Bosworth-field, he is every where called lord Stanley. This sufficiently justifies the change I have made in his title. Theobald.
2 The countess - Richmond, ] Margaret, daughter to John Beaufort, first duke of Somerset. After the death of her first hus. band, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, half-brother to King Henry VI, by whom she had only one son, afterwards King Henry VII, she married first Sir Henry Stafford, uncle to Humphrey duke of Buckingham. Malone.
And sent to warn them 3 to his royal presence.
Enter GLOSTER, HASTINGS, and Dorset. Glo. They do me wrong, and I will not endure it:Who are they, that complain unto the king, That I, forsooth, am stern, and love them not? By holy Paul, they love his grace but lightly, That fill his ears with such dissentious rumours. Because I cannot flatter, and speak fair, Smile in men's faces, smooth, deceive, and cog, Duck with French nods and apish courtesy, I must be held a rancorous enemy. Cannot a plain man live, and think no harm, But thus his simple truth must be abus'd By silken, sly, insinuating Jacks? Grey. To whom in all this presence speaks your grace?
Glo. To thee, that hast nor honesty, nor grace. When have I injur'd thee? when done thee wrong?Or thee?-or thee?—or any of your
to warn them -] i. e. to summon. So, in Julius Cæsar : “ They mean to warn us at Philippi here.” Steevens.
- speak fair,
Duck with French nods and apish courtesy,] An importation of artificial manners seems to have affordell our ancient poets a never failing topic of invective. So, in A Tragical Discourse of the Haplesse Man's Life, by Churchyard, 1593:
“We make a legge, and kisse the hand withall,
- with lewd complaints ] Lewd, in the present instance, signifies rude, ignorant; from the Anglo-Saxon Laewede, a Laick. Chaucer often uses the word lewd, both for a laick and an ignorant person. See Ruddiman's Glossary to Gawin Douglas's Translation of the Æneid. Steevens.
Q. Eliz. Brother of Gloster, you mistake the matter: The king, of his own royal disposition, And not provok'd by any suitor else; Aiming, belike, at your interior hatred, That in your outward action shows itself, Against my children, brothers, and myself, Makes him to send; that thereby he may gather The ground of your ill-will, and so remove it.
Glo. I cannot tell;—The world is grown so bad, That wrens may prey? where eagles dare not perch: Since
every Jack became a gentleman, There's many a gentle person made a Jack. Q. Eliz. Come, come, we know your meaning, bro
ther Gloster; You envy my advancement, and my friends; God grant, we never may have need of you!
Glo. Meantime, God grants that we have need of you: Our brother is imprison'd by your means, Myself disgrac'd, and the nobility Held in contempt; while great promotions Are daily given, to enoble those That scarce, some two days since, were worth a noble.
Q. Eliz. By Him, that rais'd me to this careful height From that contented hap which I enjoy’d, I never did incense his majesty
of your ill-will, &c.] This line is restored from the first edition. Pope.
By the first edition Mr. Pope, as appears from his Table of Editions, means the quarto of 1598. But that and the subsequent quartos read—and to remove. The emendation was made by Mr. Steerens. The folio has only
“ Makes him to send, that he may learn the ground." Here clearly a line was omitted: yet had there been no quarto copy, it would have been thought hardy to supply the omission : but of all the errors of the press omission is the most frequent; and it is a great mistake to suppose that these lacunæ exist only in the imagination of editors and commentators. Malone.
may prey - ] The quarto, 1598, and the folio read-make prey. The correction, which all the editors have adopted, is taken from the quarto, 1602. Malone.
8 Since every Jack became a gentleman,] This proverbial expres. sion at once demonstrates the origin of the term Jack so often used by Shakspeare. It means one of the very lowest class of people, amongst whom this name is of the most common and fa. miliar kind. Douce.