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remain to prevent it being extin- in that noble animal-all tar and guished-I shall fire the village as pitch with you" we pass through.'
Mr Bang had before now been “ He gave the word to face about, awfully gravelled, whenever he and desiring the men to follow at came in contact with the few words the same swinging run with which of German which had been introthe whole of the infantry had origi. duced into the Log, but at present nally advanced, he spurred his horse he was nonplussed altogether. Taagainst the hill, and soon disappeared. king up the thread of the story
“My host's resolution seemed now which we have just dropped, the taken. Turning to the sergeant Log went on to say, “ That the stuhl • My good fellow, the reconnoisance wagen had carried on for a mile farwill soon be returning; I shall pre- ther or so, but the firing seemed to apcede it into the town."
proximate, whereupon our host sung “ The man, a fine vieux moustache, out”-“ Lord,” said Aaron, “what hesitated.
a queer dialect! Why, deuce take “ My friend saw it, and hit him in me if I can pronounce it! I say, a Frenchman's most assailable quar. Thomas, how do you give this ?” ter."
" Why, as it is written, my dear “ Which is that, Tom?” said Aaron; sir; but stop, I will read' it- Fahrt “ stem or stern-a priori, or a Zu, Schwager- Wir Kommen nicht pos.?"
weiter." The tenderness of the German “Now, don't, my dear sir," said I, pronunciation, if he had ever heard intreatingly. He read on,-" The it spoken, would have saved all the ladies, my good man--the ladies worthy fellow's scruples. you would not have them drive pell- " The driver of the stuhl wagen mell in with the troops, exposed most skulled along, until we arrived at likely to the fire of the Prussian ad- the beautiful, at a mile off, but the vanced guard, would you ?”
beastly, when close to, village of “ The man grounded his musket, Blankenese." and touched his cap-Pass on.
“ Vile style that," again chimed “ Away we trundled, until coming in Aaron, "absolutely vicious--why, to a cross-road, we turned down to- Tom” wards the river, and at the angle we “ Now, my dear sir,” said I, could see thick wreaths of smoke “ I have repeatedly told you I was a curling up into the air, shewing that mere boy, and” the barbarous order had been but “ Poo, poo," quoth the planting too effectually fulfilled.
attorney ; " let me jog on.” « « What is that ?' said ***. A “When the voiture stopped in the horse with his rider entangled, and village, there seemed to be a nonplus. dragged by the stirrup, passed us at ation, to coin a word for the nonce, full speed, leaving a long track of between my friend, and his sisters. blood on the road. "Who is that? They said something very sharply; The coachman drove on, and gave and with a degree of determination, no answer; until, at a sharp turn, that startled me. He gave no ano we came upon the bruised and now swer. Presently the Amazonian breathless body of the young officer, attack was renewed. who had so recently obeyed the sa « « We shall go on board,' said vage behests of his brutal command- they. er. There was a musket-shot right "" Very well,' said he ; but have in the middle of his fine forehead, patience, have patience.' like a small blue point, with one or “No, no; Wann wird man sich two heavy black drops of blood cinschiffen müssen? oozing from it. His pale features “By this time we were in the heart wore a mild and placid expression, of the village, and surrounded with evincing that the numberless lacera- a whole lot, forty at the least, of tions and bruises, which were evin Blankenese boatmen. We were not dent through his torn uniform, had long in selecting one of the fleetestbeen inflictedon a breathless corpse.” looking of those very fleet boats,
“But what became of the empty when we all trundled on board, and horse, Tom ?" I laughed.
I now witnessed what struck me as “Ah, you nauticals -no interest being an awful sign of the times.
The very coachman of the stuhl wa “ Lord, man, it had a pudding in
“What," struck in little Wagtail,
“ to our poster"-another yawn--
Why do you know," said Mr ed one of the fore.legs of the baWagtail—“ I-why, I never in all lanced chair with his toe, while he my life saw a pork pie.”.
finished Gelid's sentence by inter" My dear Pepperpot,” chimed in jecting, ‘iors,' as the Conch fell back Gelid,“ we both forget. Don't you and floundered over on his stern. remember the day we dined with His tormentor drawling out in wickthe Admiral at the Pen, in July last ?” ed mimicry
“ No,” said Wagtail,“ I totally for “ Yes, dear Gelid, so sure as you get it.” Bang, I saw, was all this have been landed down on your poswhile chuckling to himself—“I ab- teriors now, ab, you shall be handed solutely forget it altogether." down to your posterity hereafter, by
“ Bless me,” said Gelid, “ don't that pestilent little scamp Cringle.
it will be paulo post futurum, with
steward's entering with his tallow
the log to-morrow, Tom, eh ?” said "No," said Wagtail, “ really I do el Señor Bang. not.”
Tithes-are they not a grievous years under cultivation, is liable to impost-are they not a tax upon in the subtraction of a tenth of its produstry — paid by the consumer ? duce, which goes into the granary of Irish tithes—are they not peculiarly the clergyman, or is by him comodious and oppressive, superadding muted for money. Now, in consito all the other objections to which dering whether this is, or is not, a they are liable, this chief one, that grievance, the first question that ocpeople of one denomination are com- curs is, does such land, or does it pelled to pay the religious instruc- not, pay a rent? For, if it does, it is tors of those of another? These are quite clear that its produce is more questions much agitated at the pre. than sufficient to pay the wages of sent day; and to the consideration labour and the profits of stock; and of which we have resolved to devote tithe can only be a grievance when, a few pages.
by a collusion between landlord and The view which we propose to tenant, a rent is exacted and agreed take will be strictly practical. We to, which encroaches on the rights of will, therefore, consider tithes not the clerical proprietor. In that case, as they were, but as they are ; not he must either forego his just deas they have reference to the rights mand, or enforce it by compelling of the clergy “ en posse,” but to the the tenant to pay him his dues out exercise of those rights “ in actu ;" of the fund destined to the replacing our object being to see how the pre- of his capital. For instance, supsent system actually works, and to pose the produce of the land repreendeavour, with as much fairness as sented by
40 possible, to ascertain the value of If we represent the wages of the objections that have been alleged labour and the profits of against it.
stock by In the first place, it is to be observed, that a very considerable por There will remain, after these tion of the land of this country is not are deducted, subject to tithe. We believe about Now the full tithe of the gross one-third, at least, may be so reckon produce will be ed. But the amount of this exemption is usually measured by the in So that here will remain to crease in the rent of such land, over the cultivator, after tithe is and above the rent of land not so
26 exempted. Now, that the tenant can be benefited by a mere transfer to the Unless, therefore, the produce relandlord of proceeds which would presented by this last number be otherwise belong to the clergyman, insufficient to remunerate the labour is more, we think, than the new doc- and capital employed by rearing it, trines of political economy have as it is clear that tithe can be no grieyet made plain to the common sense vance to the farmer. And if it be of mankind. But of this anon. insufficient, why should the labour
It is, in the next place, to be con- and capital be so employed ? If the sidered, that by law all lands for the former were compelled to cultivate first time brought into cultivation, under adverse circumstances, he are exempt from tithes for seven might complain. But when he years: a provision which would seem chooses to do so, either bis conduct is well calculated to render that possi- unwise, or his complaint is unfoundble case, which is such a favourite ed; and, in neither case, can he or with our modern illuminees, namely, ought he, to look for redress from that land which cannot pay a rent, the legislature. Should he, however, may yet be subjected to tithe, a per- say, that he would be very well safect nonentity in practice.
tisfied with the return indicated by The case which we are to consi- the number 26, but that a large deder, therefore, is simply this, that duction must be made from that in land which has been at least seven the shape of rent, the answer is ob
vious, as an honest man, he should quish the land. But, if they resolve not agree to pay a rent which should to hold the land, let them adhere to leave him unable to liquidate a claim the conditions. These are no harder that was anterior to such an obligation. now than they were at first. And
Now, in point of fact, is any land the tenants of any of these propriesubject to tithe, which either does tors might, with as much colour of not, or might not yield a rent? We justice, withhold from them their believe not. We believe, that in the rents, as they withhold from the miUnited Empire none such could be nisters of religion the funds allocatruly specified. And, if this be so, ted for their maintenance, and secuis it not clear to demonstration, that red to them by the very instruments tithe is not considered, either by land- by which the right of exacting these lords or tenants, an impost which rents was created. overburdens the land ? Since, if they It should, then, be constantly held did so consider it, they could not in mind, that tithe is a lien upon demand, or submit, to a rent, with- land which precedes rent; which was out acting, at the same time, with created before rent was paid; for cruelty, impolicy, and injustice. which a due allowance was made in
When a farmer is about to make the various arrangements between an offer for land, he considers the landlord and tenant; and which, various claims to which it is subject, therefore, without any hardship, and which must be satisfied before may, and by common equity ought it can make him any return; and he to be satisfied, before any rent should either will not, or ought not, to make be exacted. any offer which does not leave him It will, however, be said, that, al. a profit in the concern, after all pre- though neither landlords nor tenants vious charges have been paid. Now, have reason to complain of tithes, if it do leave him this profit, he may the public at large may have reason be glad of his bargain; and, if it do so to complain; in as much as tithes not, he has no one to blame but him are paid by the consumer. This is self.
the new form which the question But the proprietor, he who holds has assumed, and which has been the land in fee, is not he a sufferer given to it by the late David Ricarby the exaction of tithes ? Certains do. It deserves, and it shall receive ly not. He is possessed of the land an attentive consideration. either by grant or purchase. If by Ricardo's notion respecting tithes the former, tithe was expressly re is a kind of corollary deduced from served; so that that portion of the his theory of rent. To understand produce never was his. If by the the former, therefore, it will be nelatter, the amount of tithe was taken cessary to state the latter. into account in estimating the value The cause of rent he asserts to be of the land, and the purchase-money the varying fertility of different soils. was only an equivalent for its value And rent itself he defines to be the diminished by that amount, so that difference between the produce of in neither case can the proprietor be the same amount of capital, when said to be aggrieved.
employed upon inferior and superior If, indeed, a tyrannical govern- land. It will, he says, be the same ment were to force upon an honest thing to a cultivator to invest a smalland patriotic gentleman a property er capital in the cultivation of proof three or four thousand a-year, ductive ground, and pay a certain upon condition of his paying tithes, rent, as to invest a larger capital in we think he would have much rea the cultivation of ground for which son to complain. But when he ac he may pay no rent, but which is less cepts the grant gladly upon such productive. conditions, we rather think it a lit If Ricardo had contented himself tle unreasonable in his successors, with stating this as a fact, without whose rights are all derived from proceeding to assign it as a cause, or him, to set up any claim to hold the to make it the foundation of a theory, land without complying with these it would be all very well. It might even conditions. If they are discontented serve to illustrate the law according with the conditions, let them relin- to which rent varies. But it is sur
prising, that it should have escaped other. In both cases this kind of his penetration, that rent would exist conclusion is a pure fallacy, a simple if there was no difference in the fer- 'non causa pro causa. On the truth tility of land, provided only its extent or falsehood of this hang the merits was limited : and that it is that, as of the whole of what is called the compared with the wants of mankind, Ricardo Theory of Rent, and the and not its varying fertility, that is consequences derived from it.” the cause of rent, which, although it In point of fact, the inferior soils, may be in many instances measured, instead of being the cause why rent yet is never occasioned by that dif- increases, are rather causes why it is ference of productiveness to which limited in its amount. The only effect by him it is solely attributed. But of their non-existence in any given upon this subject we cannot do bet case would be, to cause the rent of ter than lay before the reader the the superior qualities of land to be clear and conclusive observations of higher. They are brought into culColonel Thomson. In his tract, en- tivation for the purpose of reducing titled, “ The True Theory of Rent,” the monopoly price, which would be he thus writes-" In this account, obtained by the cultivation of better the matters of fact stated in the out. land, if there were no other compeset are entirely and absolutely true. titors in the market. The fallacy lies in assuming to be the “ The value of corn," says Ricause, what in reality is only a con- cardo, “is regulated by the quantity sequence. Proof spirit sells for a of labour bestowed on its produccertain price, and more diluted spi- tion on that quality of land, or with rits sell for inferior prices till they that portion of capital which pays no come to that which is worth no more rent.” Principles of Political Eco. than water ;-therefore, the reason nomy.-P. 62. why proof spirit sells for a high “ The value of corn,” observes price is, that there are weaker spi. Colonel Thomson, “is not regulated. rits which are selling for a lower'; by this ; but does itself regulate the and if there had happened to have quality of land and the portion of been no weaker spirits, the proof capital, that can be brought into acspirit would not have sold at all. tion with a profit. The inverted proThis is a specimen of the kind of position, as given above, amounts to fallacy involved. There is precisely saying, that the price of corn is rethe same nullity of proof, that what gulated by the cost for which it can is quite true with respect to the con- be produced, on the best quality of comitant circumstances when they land, or with the least portion of cahappen to exist, is therefore the es- pital that can be brought into actisential and inseparable cause, with. vity, with a living profit at the going out which the principal phenomenon price ; or, in other words, that the could not have taken place. When price is regulated by the price, which it happens, or even if it always hap- is reasoning in a circle." pens, that there exist soils of various “ Again,” Ricardo says, “nothing degrees of productiveness down to is more common than to hear of the that which does no more than replace advantages which the land possesses the expense of cultivation with the over every other source of useful necessary profit, and that men are produce, on account of the surplus moreover acquainted with the art of which it yields in the form of rent. forcing increased crops, by the appli. Yet when the land is most abundant, cation of more capital-all that is most productive, and most fertile, it stated with respect to the rent being yields no rent; and it is only when equal to the difference between the its powers decay, and less is yielded highest and the lowest returns, is as in return for labour, that a share of necessarily and undeniably true as the original produce of the more ferany thing that has been stated with tile portion is set apart for rent.” respect to proof spirit. But all this Upon this, Colonel Thomson reis no manner of evidence that these marks." Among the properties here circumstances are the causes of the assigned as the causes of no rent, the principal phenomenon, and that it property of abundance, or of unapcould not have existed without propriated land not having begun to them,-in one case more than in the be scarce, is the only effective one.