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ness to the efforts of the Catholic bourbood in any numbers emigrated since clergy in exciting the efforts of un- the time of that meeting ?-A very great ruly mobs on various occasions. He number, and many more are going, and

those who cannot go are sorry they can.

not. “ Has not Captain Rock's law against

“ Then you think that the Protestants tenants coming in been directed against who remain in the country continue in every class of his Majesty's subjects, the country because they cannot afford Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and

to pay their passage ?--Not that exactly, Protestants ?-I do not know that, but

but because they cannot dispose of their I know the whole is influenced by the Ca- property. Many of them could pay their tholic priests.

passage, but they cannot dispose of their “ How do you know that ?-By seeing property; for the landlords have said them head it, and seeing their influence they shall not dispose of their farms, and over them.

there they must remain. “ How often did you see a priest at the

“ Do you mean to eonvey to this Com. head of a mob?-Six or eight times in mittee that the same persons who are different situations.

combinators against the payment of tithes “ What was it you saw that convinced

are the persons who, under the name of you that the priests were heading the Blackfeet and Whitefeet, have been dismob for mischief ?-I saw them beading turbing the Queen's County ?-It is posthe mob, and I saw by their signs and sible there may be a different system; signals they were accelerating their move

but I think in general principle, and in ments instead of repressing them.

the description of people, they are the " What were their movements ?-I

same." saw them winking and nodding at them,

With whom the opposition to tithe and apparently encouraging them.

“ You think it perfectly possible they originated, and by whom it was orgamight be winking at them to disperse nized, is fully known; and to elucithem ?—I do not think that; indeed the date it, we shall quote an authority whole demeanour was more like exciting; which the Catholic agitators will and they could, if they would, have dis- hardly controvert, that of Dr Doyle. persed them at the two bridges.

“ You have written strongly upon the “ Is there any other instance connect subject of tithe, and in a manner very ed with their demeanour?— Yes; I think

much calculated to influence the judgtheir whole appearance was hostile. ment of those who may be influenced,

“ You have told the committee you either by your writings or the authority of saw one of those priests winking; did the writer ? I rejoice that any memyou see any other particular act done by ber of the Committee should think so those priests besides the winking-any favourably of my writings. particular act you can state ?-I saw bim “Do you not think they were very fourish this way with his hand to the much calculated to move the people? I people to come (waving his hand); I saw should be a very untit person to judge of him do other things that made me think any production of my own. he was rather exciting, than retarding “ Did it not happen that within your them in their operations.

diocese this opposition to tithe first com“ What was the result of a meeting menced, and to which it has been nearly when the priest headed the mob in that as yet confined ? I think the first opposition way?-It ended in giving a consequence to tithe originated in my diocese. - What I to the mobility, that induced a great num- wrote got into the newspapers, and ber of others that would not to have through them into the hands of the bulk joined them, and to give a solidity and of the people, and from that period, no strength to their party, and give them a

doubt, my writings may have contributed character, which in Ireland is every thing. very much to the opposition. Instead,

“ Did you remain there the whole of however, of endeavouring to exculpate that time ?-- Yes, I did, till they disper. myself from this as matter of blame, I sed."

take no small credit to myself for having Such has been the terror excited commenced that opposition, though I regret by these proceedings that the Pro- exceedingly that it is attended with disas

ters or breaches of the peace. testants are generally quitting Kil.

“ In that work did you not express kenny, unless forcibly detained by their landlords. The same witness yourself to this effect, that you hoped adds

the opposition of the people to tithes

would be as lasting as their wve of justice ? “ Have the Protestants in that neigh- A very happy form of expression which


occurred to me, and which I like exceed- are so, and yet those very persons would ingly.

have no sort of hesitation in taking up a “You published a pastoral letter after stone and committing murder. The this other writing, in which you advise cause of this readiness to sacrifice life is the people, though not to a breach of the one of those things that ought to be in. peace, yet by every art and ingenuity in quired into, and if possible, the feelings, their power to prevent the payment of by which they are influenced, eradicated tithes? I advised them to erercise their wit from the minds of the people.” and ingenuity in that way.—Certainly in

And it is to this ardent, reckless, writing pastorals, I never look to the go- and impassioned people, so perfectly vernment as a government. I have always careless of life, and reckless of blood, a view to the peace of the country, and

that Dr Doyle addresses the “pastothe authority of the law. I feel myself ral letter," exhorting them to " totally unconnected with government ; and

ercise their wit and ingenuity in though bound as a subject in duty to resisting the payment of tithe,” give them any support in my power, and hoping that their opposition to my business in society has no reference to them ; so that in writing pastorals I look it would be as lasting as their love only to the interests of religion, and to the of justice.”. It is not surprising that good of the people over whom I am placed after such injunctions, carried into Bishop, through the Providence of God.” effect, as they are proved to have Dr Doyle adds, and adds truly, mobs, the state of Ireland should have

been, by the priests heading the that in these famous pastorals, which become so desperate, that, as expresscommenced the insurrection against ed in the King's Speech,“ the executithes, be recommended to the peo- tion of the law has become impractiple to abstain from violence and

cable," " and universal anarchy preoutrage. With what success such a

vails. recommendation was likely to be at

We might extend these interesting tended, we leave those to judge who know the fervid character of the quotations to any length ; but we

must forbear, how strongly soever Irish, and can appreciate the justice of the following emphatic statement viction that the salvation of Ireland,

we may be impressed with the confrom that very competent witness, possibly the fate of the empire, deSir Hussey Vivian.

pends on a general appreciation of “ In offering an opinion on the state the truths they contain. of Ireland, there is one thing I should The value of this testimony will wish to notice, and that is, the extraor- not be duly appreciated, unless it dinary carelessness of human life amongst is recollected that it was brought forthe lower classes. I have endeavoured, ward by a Whig Committee, and as far as possible, to find out whence it came out in answer to questions put arises that men who appear so kind in by Whigs, and from witnesses selecttheir dispositions, so grateful for any lit- ed by them. The Committee was tle kindness bestowed upon them, as the almost entirely composed of Whigs lower class of Irish generally are, should and Agitators. It embraced Mr Stanexhibit such little apparent reluctance to

ley, Sir Henry Parnell, Lord Ebringdestroy their fellow creatures. I have

ton, Mr O'Connell, Lord Killeen, asked the Catholic clergy; I have ex

Lord Duncannon, the Earl of Ospressed my astonishment that they, who

sory, Mr James Grattan, and all the have such power and influence over the minds of the lower classes, do not pre, rial party from Ireland. They took

leading gentlemen of the Ministevent it; but neither they nor others I have spoken to on the subject pretend to the direction in summoning the witaccount for it.

nesses, and the labouring oar in con“Do you not think it may be owing to ductiug the examinations, as must be the abject state in which they exist, which evident to every one from the quesmakes their lives of little value ?-Yes, tions put, which were generally calI can understand that as applying to them- culated, and obviously intended, to selves, but not as applying to the lives of bring out an answer favourable to other persons; it is a most remarkable the proceedings of government. Yet thing. If you go into their houses, and from their witnesses and their quesyou are kind to them, they appear grate- tions bas come out the evidence ful beyond measure, and I believe really which has now in part been detailed.

• Second Report on Tithes, p. 325.


Whoever considers these valuable measures must be resorted to, and extracts with attention, cannot fail the most violent steps adopted, to of being impressed with the follow. stifle a state of anarchy which threating truths, which contain the princi ens the empire with dissolution. ples on which alone the pacification 6. That the ultimate object of all of Ireland can be effected.

this disorder and organization is to 1. That prior to the political agi establish the Catholic religion, ditation which the Whigs and Agitators vide the church lands, resume the have raised up of late years for party forfeited estates, and massacre the purposes, and especially to force Ca. Protestants, or drive them out of the tholic Emancipation upon a reluctant country, and establish a separate legislature, the disturbances of Ire

government in close alliance with land, how great and distressing so

France. ever,

had never acquired a political 7. That the only chance of character, or become formidable to serving the empire from dismemberthe stability of the empire; but arose ment, is instantly to put down this only from local causes, and discon atrocious system of agitation, and tents owing to the administration of deprive the Irish for a time of those landed property.

political rights, which they have 2. That when Catholic Emancipa. shewn themselves unfit to enjoy, and tion was urged as the great means of employed only to their own and their overthrowing the Tory administra- neighbours' ruin. tion, the Whigs and Agitators took 8. That such a system requires a advantage of the fiery spirit which firm and resolute executive, and can these local grievances had occasion never be carried into effect with any ed, and turued it into the new chan chance of success, unless it is based nel of political discontent; and crea on the cordial co-operation of the ted a complete organization through Protestants and yeomanry; a body out the Catholic party to the last against whom no disorders have degree formidable to any regular been proved; whose interests and government.

affections are identified with those 3. That when it was found that of Great Britain; and whose conEmancipation was a mere delusion, duct, under the most trying circumand no practicable benefit had ac- stances, when deserted by the Gocrued from it to the people, their vernment, and assailed by the Cadiscontents and exasperation rapidly tholics, has been at once dignified, increased, and under the guidance of humane, and heroic. the Agitators, were directed to fresh 9. That the Catholic priests have demands, the extinction of tithes, shewn themselves unworthy memand the repeal of the Union. bers of a Christian Church; reckless

4. That in exciting this new insur- and audacious agitators, who have rection the people were stimulated not scrupled to set a nation on fire by the direct advice and exhortations to gratify their spiritual and tempoof their dignified clergy ; and pro- ral ambition, and are answerable to ceeded on a system directed, orga God and man for the unnumbered nized, and completed by the Agita crimes which have been committed, tors; and that in arraying these un in the frantic career into which they happy persons in this manner in bave impelled their flocks, and all direct hostility to the government, the blood which may require to be they are morally responsible for the shed before the restoration of order terrible consequences which have is effected. ensued from what they knew of the 10. That having done this to reimpetuous passions of the people press the disorders-of Irelaud, Gowith whom they had to deal, and vernment must instantly proceed their total disregard of human life. with some really healing and benefi

5. That the weakness of Govern cial measures; and that of these the ment, in rewarding and patronising very first is to remodel the adminithe Agitators, and doing nothing to "stration of the criminal law; take its suppress the insurrection in its com- execution, in a great measure, out of mencement, bave brought it to its the hands of the local magistrates, present unexampled height, when, and establish a system of vigorous by their own admission, sanguinary prosecution by public authorities,

whose operations never are suspend- agitation, Catholic ambition, and Mied, similar to that which has so nisterial weakness, bave reduced this long been in operation, with such unhappy country, there is no openadmirable effects, in the northern ing for hope, which we can see, but part of Great Britain.

in the vigour, patriotism, and couThe state of things is growing so rage of the Protestant party, and the rapidly worse in Ireland under the admirable organization which they anarchy which, under the agitation have attained under the direction of of their demagogues, and the weak the Conservative Society. The names ness of their government, has grown of the founders and leaders of that up to so extraordinary a height, that noble establishment deserve to be the preceding picture, highly colour- enrolled in the records of their couned as it is, now falls greatly short of try's fame. The able and patriotic the truth. To demonstrate this, we Mr George A. Hamilton was the first shall transcribe the catalogue of country gentleman who joined it, crimes reported to Sir Hussey Vic and as such richly deserves the elovian in 1830, and contrast them with quent eulogium pronounced on him the list, furnished by Mr Stanley, by Mr Boyton; and his example has from the two counties of Queen's been followed now by almost all the and Kilkenny alone, within the last patriotic or noble of the land. In twelve months.*

their patriotism and energy, is to be We are by no means insensible to found the last sheet-anchor of their the many real evils of Ireland, and distracted country in the tempest of shall, in succeeding Numbers, exa- revolution ; and we rejoice to find, mine the causes of the prevailing from the altered tone and intentions distress, and the means by which it of Government on Irish affairs, that may be alleviated. Of these, the they are at length awakened, in establishment of poor's laws, and of words at least, to a sense of the only a vigorous system of government, means which remain for the salvaworks calculated to give bread to tion of the country; and if they once those who are dispossessed of their embrace the right feelings, they canfarms, and relieve them from the not fail soon to enter into a cordial grievous distress to which they are union with the intrepid party who now subjected on such an event, have so long, and with so litile exform the most conspicuous. But ternal aid, stemmed the progress of these are too important subjects to disaster in their country. be attempted in this paper.

Edinburgh, Feb. 8, 1833. In the terrible state to which Whig

* From July 1831, to August 1832. In Leinster province, including Kilkenny, Wexford, Carlow, Kildare, Queen's County, Wicklow, Meath, and Lowth,

24 Murders.
106 Persons shot at.
35 Houses robbed of Arms,
26 Acts of Incendiarism.
27 Cattle maimed.
116 Houses attacked.

To English readers, this appears a pretty formidable catalogue for a single province in one year ; but it sinks into nothing, compared with that which Mr Stanley has reported of Queen's County and Kilkenny alone for the last twelve months. Kilkenny, 1832

Queen's County, 1832.


60 Houses Burnt,

34 Burnings and Burglaries


626 Burglaries, 519 Malicious Injuries,

115 Hougbing Cattle, 36 Serious Assaults,

209 Serious Assaults,



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The Hon. Member added, “ That this list, frightful as it is, contained only a small portion of the offences which had been committed against the law, and were reported to the police and the other authorities. He would ask the House, whether he law was obeyed, when those who were the victims of the outrages suffered in ilence, and refused to become prosecutors, from the fear of being denounced enemies o their couutry?"-Debate on Address, Feb. 5, 1833.


2 A


THE OLD CONSTITUTION. WHEN our dearest interests are cause their cities and towns still have risked

upon the issue of a “perilous the common stir of life in their experiment;" when fear and a thrill. streets, and the green of tree and her. ing sense of insecurity drive cheer- bage is still smiling on their land. fulness from our hearths, and sleep External nature does not exhibit the from our beds; and the hope of safety agonies of the dead. But still rests upon sacrifice, and therefore una the record is written; history rewillingly admitted, and upon break- mains the monument of the buried, ing asunder the sacred bonds that and our admonition ; and if it do have linked us to kindred, friends, not shew us such horrid spectacle and country,—and we look abroad as the Roman Legions beheld when, into the wilderness of the world for six years after the defeat of Varus, an uncertain, and at best an unen- they broke in upon the scene of masdeared shelter, it is no wonder if sacre of their countrymen, it will powerless indignation against the still paint enough to make us shudauthors of the calamity is succeeded der, and reflect upon the principles by entreaty, and in our despondency by the practical force of which huof other means, we appeal to the manity has been rendered thus ferovery persons who seem engaged to cious. I know what France-but a few effect our ruin. The victim in his years before, happy France, the land of last agony entreats mercy even at amenity and cheerfulness — acted, the hands of the merciless assassin. witnessed, and suffered; and I see We reason with the unreasonable, no charm in the character of England and would sway the insane by giving that will protect us if we follow the them credit for judgment. Nor is same principles. I believe the pothis a time to tax an individual effort pulace of this country may be renwith vanity. I feel that it is my home dered as cruel, as bloody-minded as that may be invaded, my property the same class were in France. I that may be legally plundered ; that believe no country has any real proit is myself may be persecuted, under tection from the natural violence of the popular ban, for my political opi- man, capable of frightful exaggeranions; that in a revolution that I see tion, but its government, its constimore than probable, my own flesh tution; and it is to the altered characand blood, my children, helpless fe- ter of our own, that I confess I look males, may be worse than destitute— with indescribable fears. I am not though of the class of the people-a duped by the late comparative calm proscribed race to be hunted to tor- after our tempestuous struggle. We ture and death by a fiendish rabble. wait but as spectators, seated in exThese fears will obtaia pity from pectation of the drawing up of the some, (whose incredulity is a noble eurtain ; our deeper interest, the eulogy upon our old constitution,) agitation of our passions, will be betand ridicule or affected contempt ter exhibited when the action of the from the many. But I cannot shut important drama, be it tragedy or my eyes to the horrors of the first otherwise, shall commence. My French Revolution, nor can I possi- worst apprehensions are still alive bly exaggerate the miseries suffered within me. Yet would I make an apby thousands of my own and my peal, a last appeal,- I say a last, bea children's condition.' I know from cause I am convinced that the fate of the history of the world, and parti- England is in the hands of the precularlyof that Revolution, that cruelty sent Parliament, and I am convinced is progressive; and that mankind are from all history, that a further indul. not aware to what point of savage- gence in democratic principles must ness and atrocity their own natures overthrow every valued institution, are capable of being directed. I am and the very name of our limited not deceived, because the surface of monarchy. I appeal to all conjuncthe earth does not still shew unbu, tively, and to each separate estate of ried the bones of the thousands mas. the realm. May they well consider sacred in those bloody days, nor be- their real position, why they are so

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