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gwear by non-interference. They creased, as to be utterly irreconcimust hold the Truck-system to be able with the preservation of health best. Why should not wages be or even life; infancy itself is forced paid in soap and tallow? But of all into the market of labour, where interference between master and it becomes the unresisting victim man, the most odious, because the of cruelty and oppression; while, most imperative—the most tyranni- as might be expected from such cal-must be the institution of the an unnatural state of things, the reSabbath. The following sentences of muneration for this increasing and Mr Sadler's Speech deserve to be excessive toil is regularly diminishwritten in letters of gold.
ing, till at length multitudes among “The Sabbath is a constantly-recur- us are reduced, in their physical conring example of interference between dition at least, below the level of the the employer and the employed,solely slave or the brute.” and avowedly in favour of the latter: But what think ye of free agents and I cannot help regretting, that al- in the shape of children from four to most every other red-letter day has nine years of age, and, if you please, been long ago blotted out from the upwards ? What is the real condition dark calendar of labouring poverty of these sons and daughtergthese whose holy days are now too 'few boys and girls-these infants of liand far between' to cheer the spirits berty ? Out of sight out of mind, or recruit the health of our indus- for the present if you choose trious population. It was promised, with bastards and orphans. The indeed, and might have been expect commonplace objection, that the paed, that the great inventions of re- rents are free agents, and that, therecent times would have restored a fore, the children ought to be refew of these ;-would have some garded as such, will hardly apply to what abridged human labour in its orphans,--and too often bastards are duration, and abated its intensity: orphans at the best,-for too often and it is only by effecting this that better would it have been for them machinery can justify its very defini- bad their father been hanged before tion, as consisting of inventions to their birth, and had their mother shorten human labour. I look for- died in childbed. The Factories are ward to the period when machinery too full by far of such free agents; will fully vindicate its pretensions, and Mr Sadler can see no harm in and surpass, in its beneficial effects, legislating for their protection from all that its most sanguine advocates those showers of cuffs and kicks to have anticipated : when those inven- which now “ their naked frailties tions, whether so complicate and mi- suffer from exposure.” But let us nute as almost to supplant the human look at the legitimates. He separates hand, or so stupendous as to tame the parents, who, in their free agenthe very elements, and yoke them to cy, send their children to infantile the triumphal car of human industry, slavery, into two classes; those who shall outstrip our boldest expecta- by extreme indigence are driven to tions, not so much, indeed, by still do so with great reluctance and bitfurther augmenting the superfluities ter regret; those, who dead to all the of the rich, as by increasing the com- instincts of nature, instead of proforts, and diminishing the labour of viding for their offspring, make their the poor; thereby restoring to the offspring provide for them, and not mass of our fellow-beings those phy. only for their necessities, but for sical enjoyments, that degree of lei. their intemperance and profligacy. sure, those means of moral and men. The first class, say we, are not to be tal improvement, which alone can pitied oply, but to be protected; advance them to that state of happi. they must not be blamed; their“ poness and dignity, to which, I trust, it verty but not their will consents;" is their destiny to attain. Hitherto, and many, perhaps most of them, do however, I repeat, the effect has been what they can to cheer their cbilfar different. The condition of the dren's lot, but they have little in operative manufacturers has been their power. They see them often rendered more and more dependent so utterly wearied and worn out at and precarious: their labour, wben night, that they have to beat them to employed, is in many cases so in keep them from falling asleep before they have had their scanty supper. it is well known that the whole of The most affectionate heart ceases these are evaded and rendered little at last to send up to the eyes useless better than a dead letter. But Mr tears, the well-spring itself is dried Sadler was not discouraged by all up, and where all is arid, love weakthose failures. He has not been disens and dies. The other class, Mr couraged by his own defeat. The Sadler strongly says, count upon report of the Committee, of which their children as upon their cattle, he was chairman, is before the puband they make the certainty of having lic. Lord Morpeth, it would seem, offspring the indispensable condition has felt himself compelled to give up of marriage, that they may breed his Bill, an Eleven or Twelve Hours' what he calls a generation of slaves Bill, introduced in opposition to
-what men, in their own conceit Lord Ashley's Ten Hour Bill, in an wiser than he, call a race of free unparliamentary and even ungentleagents. Such is the disgusting state manly manner, (which we should not of degradation to which the system have expected from him, and we leads. It shews us fathers “without shall not suffer ourselves to fear that the storge of the beast or the feelings Mr Sadler's triumph will yet be of the man;" and all this wickedness complete in that of his Noble Sucand woe must be suffered to wax cessor, in the cause of humanity, liwider and wider, rather than revoke berty, and justice. the principle of non-interference! Mr Sadler is too good and too
Not so thought the late-not so, wise a man to deal in violent and inwe venture to affirm, thinks the pre- discriminate abuse of the men who sent-Sir Robert Peel. The former uphold and act upon the present bas recorded his deliberate judge factory system. In contending for ment upon this subject in a document the necessity of his measure, he does which he delivered to the Committee not implicate the conduct of the millon the Bill he introduced in 1816. owners generally; many of whom he “ Such indiscriminate and unlimited is well convinced are among the employment of the poor, consisting most humane and considerate of of a great proportion of the inhabi. employers. Their interests, as well tants of the trading districts, will be as the welfare of the children, greatattended with effects to the rising ly demand legislative protection, and generation so serious and alarming, he respectfully inscribes his speech that I cannot contemplate them with to John Wood, Esq., junior, of Bradout dismay. And thus that great ford, and those mill-owners, who, effort of British ingenuity, whereby like him, earnestly wish for the the machinery of our manufacturers regulation of the present factoryhas been brought to such perfection, system. The great invention of Sir instead of being a blessing, will be Richard Arkwright, originally used converted into its bitterest curse." for the spinning of cotton, has at Early in this century, he obtained length been applied, with the neces. the first act for the protection of the sary adaptations, to a similar process poor children employed in cotton in all our manufactures; and he holds factories; and sixteen years after that it would be the grossest injus. wards, he carried another measure tice, as well as insult, to argue that of a similar but more comprehensive those engaged in the cotton-trade nature. Sir John Hobhouse, the ses- (where Parliament has several times sion before last, obtained another act, seen it necessary to regulate the lahaving the same benevolent object bour of children) were one whit less in view. But, alas! on every occa- humane and considerate than those sion selfish opposition has virtually engaged in spinning any other masucceeded in defeating the original terial. The same law should apply intention of those who have succes to all. It is against the system he sively proposed such measures. It fights-not against the men who have has succeeded in lengthening the got involved in it by the operation term of infantile labour, in connect- of causes hard to resist, and which ing every art to one particular he thoroughly understands. The evil branch of the business, in introdu- has been progressive; competition, cing provisions which have rendered not with foreign markets, but bethem liable to constant evasions, and tween capitalists at home, has carried it to a bieight which it cannot to shudder so often at the thought perhaps exceed, for it has reached of “ some sleeping killed;" nor be the limit set by Nature's self, and then justified in exclaiming, “All flesh and blood would “thaw, and murdered !” resolve itself into a dew," under any It is impossible, Mr Sadler tells severer misery.
us, to furnish any uniform account The evidence in the Report will of the hours of labour endured by be called ex parte. The same learn- children in the Factories, and he is ed persons, who have been quoting careful not to represent extreme French, are now quoting Latin; and cases as general ones. Yet is it the having attracted little attention by bounden duty of Parliament to prothe senseless cry of “ Laissez nous vide against such extreme cases, just faire," they are entitled to be heard, as it provides againstatrocious crimes. and they will be heard, when, claim. The following were the hours of laing the privilege of a fair hearing, bour imposed upon the children emthey rationally say, “ audi alteram ployed in a Factory at Leeds the partem.” Meanwhile, we deal with summer before last. On Monday the evidence before us--and it is morning, work commenced at six such as we cannot by any power of o'clock; at nine, half an hour for fancy imagine to be rebutted. If it be, breakfast; from half-past nine till we shall rejoice over the delapidated twelve, work. Dinner, one hour ; falsehood as it falls into rubbish. from five till eight, work; rest for
No desire have we-any more half an hour. From balf-past eight than Mr Sadler-to make out a case till twelve (midnight), work; an against the mill-owners. So far from hour's rest. From one in the mornit, we freely and fully admit that ing till five, work ; half an hour's there are many evils necessarily in- rest. From half.past five till nine, herent in the labour in factories. work; breakfast. From half-past They will endure for ever. No le- nine till twelve, work; dinner ; gislative enactments-noregulations, from one till half-past four, work. however wise and humane-will en: Rest half an hour; and work again tirely remove them-while the be- from five till nine on Tuesday evenings working there breathe by lungs, ing, when the labour terminated, and their blood circulates from their « and the party of adult and infant hearts. The atmosphere must be hot, slaves" are dismissed for the night, and dusty, and polluted; and there. after baving toiled thirty-nine hours, fore does humanity demand for them with brief intervals (amounting only who must inhale it, a few more gulps to six hours in the whole) for reof fresh air. Sickness and sorrow freshment, but none for sleep. Ons enough, and too much, will there be Wednesday and Thursday, day-work under a Ten Hours' Bill-but many only. From Friday morning till Sawill then escape death, who now turday night, the same labour rewither away out of a languid life, peated, but closed at five-to show old-looking dwarfs though yet in that even such masters can be mertheir teens. The engine will, under ciful. This is one of the extreme any bill, clutch up boy or girl, and cases—but they are not of very rare dash out their brains against the occurrence; ordinarily the working ceiling, or crush them into pancakes hours vary from twelve to fourteen ; by pressure against the walls, or they are often extended to sixteen ; seem to be devouring them, as, in but in some mills (are we right in horrid entanglement, mutilated body saying so ?) they seldom exceed and deformed limbs choke the steam- twelve for children. fed giant, till, for a few moments he The length of labour varies accordcoughs - rather than clanks — over ing to the humanity of the employer, his bloody meal, and threatens even and the demand for his goods at parall at once to stop, when away he ticular seasons. Thus sometimes goes again, free from all impedi- the operatives, mostly children, are ment, as if fresh-oiled with that liba- worked nearly to death ; at other tion, and in scorn of his keeper, who, times, they are tbrown partially or in consternation, has been shivering totally out of work, and left to begamidst the shrieks like the ghost of gary or the parish. Averaged a paralytic. But we shall not have throughout the year, their work may
not seem excessive. But is it just, tious how he reads the report, (600 asks Mr Sadler, that the owners folio pages,) for such are the horrors should be allowed to throw out of and the miseries it relates, that, beemployment all these children at a fore he gets half through, he will die few days' notice, and to work them of laughing, in giggle-convulsions. at an unlimited number of hours the What can be conceived more ludi. moment it suits their purpose? Just crous, in parts, or as a whole, than or unjust, it is say we-a lamento the following picture painted by us able condition for the children and from the life? we do think with Mr Sadler, that, if A Factory child-say, a smally girl, the effect of his bill were in some “Simon's sickly daughter"-must be measure to equalize the labour, and at her work-say at four o'clock of thereby prevent those distressing a snowy winter-morning-else she fluctuations, distressing in both ex- will be cursed-fined-or strapped. tremes, it would so far accomplish a Her father's house is a long mile most beneficial object.
from the mill-and has no clock. Man is said to be distinguished To ensure punctuality, the smally from the other living kinds, by being sickly wretch (“ nature,” says Mr a laughing animal. While Mr Sadler Sadler, laughably, “is not very wakewas dwelling with disgust and indig ful on a short night's rest, after a long nation on the shocking cruelty of day's labour,") has been roused forcing girls approaching to puberty much too early, by one of her pato work far beyond their strength, rents shaking the sleeper, “ more in and was describing the miserable sorrow than in anger;" and with the effects of such slavery on their per- sleet in her face, away she sets off to sons and constitutions, a biped, whose the town just as the cock, after his feathers were all in his nest, vainly first few faint crows, has again put attempted to prove that he was not his head under his wing, on bis perch a dungbill fowl, by-laughing. His between his favourite partlets. 'Tis laugh, however, was so much like a no uncommon case; “ whoever," says chuckle, or a clack, that it failed even Mr Sadler, “ has lived in a manufacto establish his sex. His risibility turing town, must have heard, if he was excited by hearing that the dan- happened to be awake many hours ger and difficulty of childbearing before light on a winter's morning, were thereby increased; and that the patter of little pattens on the paveyoung wives, who had all childhood ment, lasting perhaps for half an and girlhood long been forced to hour together, though the time stand at their work for perhaps four- appointed for assembling was the teen hours a-day, ran a great risk of same.” She works for some hours perishing miserably in parturition before breakfast, after what some He made that statement on the au- folks would have called no supper thority of Dr Llewellyn Jones be- and then what a breakfast-covered fore the Lords' Committee of 1818, with dust! Nor is she allowed to eat who said that during the short pe- it, such as it is, sitting; but must riod of his practice at Holywell, swallow a mouthful now and then as (where there were extensive cotton best she may, standing and working factories,) he met with more difficult at the beck of that engine. Her work, and dangerous cases than a gentle, it is true, may not be of a very hard man of great practice in Birmingham, or heavy kind. Nay, it is even light. Mr Freer, had met with in the whole But her eye must be quick, and her course of his life. This sounded so hand nimble, and her mind on the excessively funny to our two-legged alert-for if she have “a bad-side," legislator, that “ he could not retain smack comes the strap across her his laughter for affection,” just as shoulders. It is not so much the certain gifted individuals are said in degree of the wretch's labour that Shakspeare to lose the power of a wears her out, as its duration. Weaslightly different kind of retention, risome uniformity, continued posi“when the bagpipe plays i'their nose.” tion, constant and close confinement Indeed, Mr Sadler's speech, from be- these are cruel to body and mind, ginning to end, must have been to and these are her portion. A cockney him a source of infinite amusement. in a counting-house “ wielding his We advise him as a friend to be caus delicate pen," as he “ pens a stanza while he should engross," is wearier ty, should you not think that it must at nightfall in his embroidered vest, necessarily be injurious to the health, than the naked coalheaver who has without any fact to rest upon, as a hoisted from the hold of a Newcas- simple proposition put to a gentletler a ton of black diamonds to each man in the medical profession” This of his twelve pots of porter. At mid- seems to be any thing but a poser, day “to dinner with what appetite But the Doctor, putting his goldshe may," and some hours after, a headed cane to his under lip, and cup of thin sugarless tea, for nothing shaking his head like a Mandarin, else will stay on her stomach. There replieth in slow and measured is a demand-and work must go on speech, “Before I answered that till midnight. She gets drowsy, and question, I should wish to have an lies down on the floor to snatch some examination to see how the case stood. sleep. The overlooker espies her If there were such an extravagant white face upon her thin arm for a thing to take place, and it should appillow-blue eyelids shut-pale lips pear that the person was not injured apart; and, to cure that lazy trick, by having stood three-and-twenty dashes over her head, and neck, and hours, I should then say it was not breast, and body, a bucketful of water. inconsistent with the health of the perWell may our legislator laugh at the son so employed !" There is a blockrecital, for all the imps there laugh head for you of a CL. (150) M.D. louder than he at the reality, and it power indeed! If the Doctor be yet cannot be denied, that the practical alive, we beg to ask him, “Do you joke is of the first water. And now think it injurious for a child to fall the whole gang of small sweaty sickly out of a window in the third story?” slaves is at work in spite of the stu- We are prepared for his answer. por of sleepiness,--and how think ye “Before I answer that question, I do they contrive to keep themselves should like to have an examination awake? By all manner of indecen- how the case stood.” Well-be has cies of look, speech, and action, pos- an examination; and, strange to say, sible in purgatory. Fathers have not a bone in the child's body has sworn to it, and wished they had been broken, and so little the worse been childless. Weak, sickly, rick was the little lively fellow of the acety, chicken-breasted, crooked, de cident, that he went to school trundcrepit, spine-distorted Sally,scarcely ling his hoop, that very afternoon. nine years old, to that lcering de The Doctor, palming the fee, with his formed dwarf Daniel, answers ob- wisest face delivers his opinion scenity to obscenity, at which the that Tumble-down-Dick is none the street-walking prostitute would worse-we deliver ours gratis, that shudder, and fear the downfall of he was much the better. But that is not the day of judgment!
the question. The question is, “ Is Yet it is maintained by some that it likely to be injurious to a child to the factories are healthy. Let us fall out of a window three stories speak first of the health of the body high on pavement?” We assert that -afterwards of the soul.
it is highly so-the Doctor must have We hold in the highest honour the an examination to see how each parmedical profession. But it contains ticular case stands or rather fallssome queer practitioners. We have and no doubt should he find a boy's before us“ Ā Summary View of, and brains scattered about, he will proExtracts from, the Evidence" of cer. nounce them bad symptoms. The tain medical gentlemen, who attend. Doctor was next asked in the Lords' ed as witnesses against the Bill, in Committee, “ Is it your opinion, as a 1818. Let us hear Drs Richard medical man, that recreation and Holmes, Henry Hardie, Edward Gar- exercise in the open air are necesbutt, Surgeons Thomas Wilson, Wil sary for growing children ?" He liam James Wilson, James Ainsworth, answered, “I cannot certainly give Thomas Turner, and Samuel Barton. an opinion upon that.” Poo-p00
Dr Holmes is thus addressed : Doctor-you might certainly have “ Suppose I were to ask you, whe- given an opinion. Could a mouse ther you thought it injurious to a flourish all summer below an invertchild to be kept standing three-and- ed toddy-tumbler? There is no saytwenty hours out of the four-and-twen ing; but surely he would be happier,