« PreviousContinue »
and probably fatter, were he living such circumstances, from receiving in a meal.garnel. Dr Hardie was those things into the lungs 2-Exequally cautious.
PECTORATION IS OCCASIONED, WHICH “ At what age do you think it BRINGS IT BACK AGAIN. would be perfectly safe to the con- “Is not a constant state of expecto. stitution of an infant, working in the ration injurious to health 2-No. temperature of 80°, to work eighty « Would not a constant state of hours per week? I have no fact expectoration be injurious to the to guide me in replying.
health of a very young person? “How many hours in the day do NOT A SLIGHT EXPECTORATION.” you think children, from six to twelve Who said it was slight? years of age, may be employed in a “Is it not, in your judgment, as a temperature of 809 at an employ- medical man, necessary that young ment which requires them to stand persons should have a little recreamuch the greater part of their time, tion or amusement during the day? consistently with safety to their con- -I do not see it is necessary.” stitution ?-I cannot answer that Now, gentle reader, which of those question. I have no fact to direct me two, the doctor or the surgeon, do to any conclusion.
you think the more audacious block« Supposing that one set of chil. head? Call Edward Garbutt. (Endren are employed continually to do ter Dr Garbutt.) night-work, and another set employ. “Do you think that children from ed to do day-work, as a medical man, six to twelve years of age, being emdo you think there could be any ma ployed from thirteen to sixteen bours terial difference in the effect on their in a cotton factory, in an erect posihealth respectively?--I have no fact tion, and in a temperature of about to go upon, and therefore cannot give 80°, is consistent with safety to the an opinion.”
constitution ?-Not having examined Never was a man so destitute of children under these circumstances, facts as Dr Henry Hardie. Heaven I am totally unable to give an anbless him! Had he never heard be- swer to the question.” fore his examination, of the effect Suppose we put the question thus of different degrees of temperature -" Do you think that children from on the human body? Of the Torrid four to six, being employed from Zone? Of the Antarctic Circle ? and eighteen to twenty hours in a cotton so forth. If, since ignorance be bliss, factory, in an erect position, con'tis folly to be wise, he must have stantly expectorating the filaments lived on the earth in the third hea of cotton, and in a temperature of ven. On that principle, if on no 120°, is likely to make them rosy other, assuredly he is no fool
and robust?" The doctor's answer “Something has been said about would be the same-"I am totally dust and flue; are you of opinion unable to give an answer to the ques. that the flue and waste of cotton can tion." be inhaled into the lungs so as to be These three blockheads would apinjurious ?-No, I am not.”
pear to be exceeded by a fourthThomas Wilson, surgeon and apo- James Ainsworth, surgeon. thecary, delivers the same opinion “ Can a child of six years of age about lungs.
to twelve be employed for thirteen “Should you think it a dangerous to fifteen hours daily, in a temperathing to a young person to be from ture of 80°, and in an erect position, day to day inhaling the finer particles consistently with safety to its conof the filaments of cotton ?--No. stitution ?-I never saw an instance
“ You think it would not be inju- of the kind As A FACt brought before rious at all, to be receiving day after me, and therefore cannot say. day, those particles of cotton-No. “I am supposing such to be the
“Do you think it would produce fact, and ask you your opinion upon no effect at all upon the lungs of a it? Then I must meet that with a young person ?- I think not-very supposition which I wish to avoid. Tittle.
[What can that be?) I have no “ Be so good as to state how the FACT. My experience does not enconstitution would be safe, under able me to answer that question.
· “ You are incapable of answering “ What is your opinion ? - I the question, not baving before you should think you would wish me to the fact of a child so situated ?-I have some ground: I HAVE NO HAVE NO FACTS, and must, therefore, GROUND for that opinion, and therebeg leave to declinegiving an opinion. fore do not wish to form it. . You are equally incapable, whe “ But from your knowledge of a ther the question be thirteen, four- child's structure ? – I HAVE NO teen, or fifteen hours ?—There must KNOWLEDGE TO GUIDE ME. be a limit, but with that limit I am “Do you think it would be too unacquainted.
much for the physical strength of a “ You sensibly say, and properly child to be kept fourteen hours a-day so, there must be a limit. If a per- upon its legs 2-I am not prepared son about to institute a cotton ma- to answer to THE FACT. nufactory, were to ask your opinion, “I ask not to the facts, but to for humanity's sake, how many hours your opinion. I ask of a medical he might employ children from six gentleman, a man who professes meyears to twelve, in a temperature of dical science, and would wish to be 80°, and in an erect position, and thought so, what is his opinion ?this day after day, in as much as there You would not wish me, or any is a limit, what limit would you re- other man, to advance an opinion commend ?-I do not think that any WITHOUT ANY FACTS to found that man I am acquainted with would opinion on ? put such a question to me ; it is one " If you tell me, as a medical genthat I could not think it proper to re- tleman, that you can form no opiply to any man.
nion at all, that you are not compe“ Is it that you feel incapable of tent to form an opinion at all upon even recommending any limit un. the subject, I am satisfied. I am der those circumstances ? --IN com- not competent, from not being in MON CONVERSATION I SHOULD TELL POSSESSION OF THE FACTS. HIM, THAT HE ASKED ME A VERY “ Should you not expect that the STRANGE QUESTION, AND SO SHOULD persons employed in beating cotton, TURN MY BACK UPON HIM IMMEDI from which a great quantity of deleATELY.
terious dust and dirt results, would “ Supposing that I had the honour be affected by it?-I HAVE NO REAof your private acquaintance, and SON TO THINK SO. were to put that question, what.“ And, with reference to a young would be your answer?-I SHOULD person, you have never formed any LEAVE YOU."
opinion of the effect on his health, · Call Thomas Wilson, surgeon and of being kept twelve hours, without apothecary, (enter Thomas.) “ Do intermission, in a room of the temyou think it would benefit á child's perature of 740 2-I HAVE NO FACTS health of eight years old to be kept TO GO BY." twelve hours upon its legs?—Really This fifth blockhead appears to I AM NOT PREPARED TO ANSWER THAT bear off the cap and bells from all QUESTION.
competitors. He stands like “ Tene“ What do you think of it?-I riffe or Atlas unremoved.” And really cannot tell you.
all who follow seem but small insig" Is your medical skill so limited, nificant ninnies in comparison. that you can form no opinion whether A Lords' Committee is one place, or not it would be injurious ?-I and a Court of Justice is another. conceive that would be quite a mat Had those doctors, surgeons, and ter of opinion !!
apothecaries, been calied to give evi“ I ask your opinion.--As I HAVE dence in a court of justice, and spoNO FACTS to go by, I do not feel ken with such obstinate insolence prepared to answer the question. and ignorance, Judge, Jury, and
“ You cannot form an opinion Counsel, would all have more than whether a child of eight years' old suspected their honesty, and they being kept standing fourteen hours, would not have left the witness' box without intermission, would be in with flying colours. It is a libel, we jurious to his health or not?-I understand, to call almost any mediHAVE NO Fact to guide me.
cal man, from physician to the king,
down to horse hedge-doctor, a other medical men, the aggregate quack. Therefore we do not call number was 824, of whom 163 were any of these Galens, Esculapiuses, healthy, 240 delicate, 43 much stuntor Hippocrateses, quacks. But we ed, 100 with enlarged ankles or knees, call them once more-dead or alive and 37 distorted in the inferior ex-audacious blockheads.
tremities, and 258 unhealthy; and he Mr Sadler alludes to such evi- took alternately a dirty and a clean dence as we have now quoted; and Factory, in order to satisfy himselfhints that much of the same sort will three reported to be the cleanest, and be forthcoming soon; nay, that cer- three the dirtiest, in the town of Stocktificates and declarations will be ob- port. He visited Church-gate Sunday tained from divines and doctors as school, containing 1143 children. Of to the morality and health which that number there were 291 girls the present system promotes and and 275 boys employed in Factories; secures. It was said before the and their countenances betrayed Committee of 1818, that the children such sickliness, wanness, and illwho were worked without any regu- health, that he could at once distinlation, were not only equally, but guish, without giving the masters the more healthy and better instructed trouble to separate them from the than those not so occupied; that rest employed differently, who were night-labour was in no way prejudi. blooming and ruddy. All those aucial, but actually preferred; that the thorities agreed that employment artificial heat of the rooms was really in Cotton Factories brings on disease advantageous and quite pleasant; and shortens life. Dr Simmons says, and that nothing could equal the re- that the children look so much worse luctance of the children to have it than others, that, in the general po. abated; that so far from being fa- pulation of Manchester, he could altigued with, for example, twelve most unerringly point them out on hours' labour, the children perform the streets. They are all in POSSESed even the last hour's work with SION OF FACTS; but, independently greater interest and spirit than any of facts, they all deliver opinions of the rest!
founded on their knowledge of the Medical men, however, of a very nature of things, without hesitation different stamp were examined before and without doubt, as to the pernithe Committee of 1818—Winstanley, cious and deadly effects of those ocAshton, Graham, Ward, Bellot, Dean, cupations, on which the above auda. Dudley, Boutflower, Simmons, Jar- cious blockheads persisted in declarold, and Jones-all highly respect- ring their incapacity to form any able, some of them of the highest judgment. Dr Perceval, “ a name eminence. They spoke out like ho- equally dear to philosophy and phinest and skilful men, and gave their lanthropy,” who saw the rise, proopinions which were wanted; and gress, and effects of the system, and they stated facts, too, and melancholy closely connected though he was ones "which made them shudder.” with many who were making rapid Dr Winstanley says, that in general fortunes by it, expressed himself the children in Cotton Factories are upon the subject, says Mr Sadler, as sickly and small in stature, and un- a professional man and a patriot, in healthy in their general appearance, terms of the strongest indignation. with sallow complexion, sbewing a He says, even of the large Factories, great debility of constitution, and a which some suppose need little reguwant of muscular strength; that, on lation, that they “are generally injuexamination of about a hundred of rious to the constitution of those them in a Sunday school, he found employed in them, even when no forty-seven had received consider particular diseases prevail, from the able, three very considerable, and close confinement which is enjoined, others greater or less injuries; and from the debilitating effects of hot that when the Factory children were or impure air, and from the want of separated from the rest, the differ- the active exercises which nature ence in the appearance as to health points out as essential to childhood and size was striking at first sight. and youth. The untimely labour of Dr Ashton gave in a report, shewing the night, and the protracted labour that, in six Factories he visited with of the day, not only tend to diminish future expectation as to the general He found men who had attained the run of life and industry, by impair- age of from forty to fifty (in dusty ing the strength, and destroying the occupations) almost universally disvital stamina of the rising generation; eased. With respect to the children but it too often gives encourage- in mills, if you ask them, “ Are you ment to idleness, extravagance, and pretty well ?” They say, “ Yes." profligacy, in the parents, who, con- They have not any particular ailtrary to the order of nature, subsist ment, but if you examine them they by the oppression of their offspring." have not that degree of health, that He afterwards asserts the necessity muscular power, and that buoyancy of establishing “a general system of of spirits to be found in children not laws for the wise, humane, and equal confined and congregated in mills. government of all such works." The insufficiency of the period of
The evidence of the distinguished sleep he thinks a very great cruelty Medical Men examined before the of the system. And the same time Committee last summer, is all to the of labour in mills he thinks more same effect. Mr Samuel Smith, sur. injurious than it would be in private geon in Leeds, says, that the digestive houses, or the house manufacture. organs of the children are soon ma- In the present state of things he terially impaired in their powers- thinks that physical education, or the extreme debility and lassitude follow improvement of health, is most ur-50 that although the body is not gently required; and that is imposreduced to a state of actual disease, sible without some regulation that and though there may not be any could give air and exercise. decided organic change in any parti- The evidence of Sir Anthony Carcular viscera of the body, yet still it is lisle shews a master mind. At every very different from a state of health, blow he knocks the right nail on the They are “ out of condition," and head. From forty years' observation when the body is reduced to that and practice, he is satisfied that vigorstate, there is a continual tendency to ous health, and the ordinary duration disease. He has no hesitation in of life, cannot be generally maintainsaying, that if a number of Factory ed under the circumstances of twelve children should be attacked by the hours' labour, day by day. He speaks cholera, the mortality would be not of children, but of adults. But greater and more sudden than among during the growth and formation of the same number of children in other the young creature, its liability to employments. There is never a year deviate from the natural standard is passes-but he sees several instances much greater than in the adult. Unwhere children “ are in the act of less the young creature be duly exbeing worn to death by thus working ercised and not overlaboured, duly at Factories." Nor does he hesitate fed and properly treated with regard to confess his belief, after much to the needful regulations of life, all scientific detail, as laid before the will go wrong. All domesticated Committee—that if the same causes creatures that are kept in close concontinue to operate a few generations finement, and worked at too early more, the manufacturers of Yorkshire, an age, or too severely, become deinstead of being what they were fifty teriorated in form and vigour, and years ago, as fine a race of people as are more or less injured, so as to unwere to be found throughout the fit them for the performance of their country, will be a very diminutive ordinary and habitual labours. And and degenerated race. Mr Thackrab, are the young of the human race an exsurgeon, Leeds, says, in reference to ception from the general law of life? the more dusty occupations, that the We must not, he says, be deluded by lungs are sooner or later seriously outward shew. Children brought altered in their capacities, and the up from early life in warm rooms power of respiration diminished; may enjoy an apparent degree of that after middle age, inflammatory health until almost the age of matuaffections or change of structure are rity, but they never obtain vigorous found in the lungs and air tube, and a health. They are unfit to carry on number of maladies of other parts are a succeeding generation of healthy connected with or result from those human beings; nor is there any thing changes of the pulmonary organs. more hereditary than family tendencies, particularly such as are en- opinion, for their own sakes, and for gendered by such habits as are hurt- the sake of future generations of ful to the first formation of physical English labourers; because every structures.
succeeding generation will be proWhen asked if he does not think gressively deteriorated, if we do not that the general custom of society stop these sins against nature and which abridges the duration of la- humanity. Nature has been very bour during half the year, six winter wise in punishing all the offences months, (in factories how small the we commit against her in our own difference!) is dictated by the nature person. If young persons between and condition of human beings-he nine and eighteen are worked longer answers, that it arises from the Law than twelve hours, including two for of Animal Life. In the winter season meals, their employers, he adds, must the whole animal creation requires consider them machines or mere greater rest than in the summer sea animals, not moral beings. Sir Anson. The whole creation, man, ani- thony does himself great honour by mals, birds, fishes, insects, rise, if the spirit in which he speaks of the they be day-creatures, with the rising poor. On Sabbath let the children, sun, and go to rest with the setting he says, go to church-let the church sun, winter and summer. Even the be well ventilated, and there from a nocturnal creatures do not wander good scholar and divine, let them all night; they only go out at twilight, derive instruction, moral and reliand early in the morning. During gious. He cannot, as matters now the stillness of midnight, the whole are, approve of Sunday schools. It creation is at rest. Dr Blundell, on is only changing the week-day labour the same subject, says simply and of the body, for the Sunday labour finely, “ day-labour, I think, is more of the mind. Let the little wornconsistent with health than night out creatures have some little time labour. Many animals are by nature for repose, for domestic enjoyment nocturnal; man is not; to them the and instruction, and for the exercise star-light is, I presume, agreeable; of the domestic and kindred affecbut man finds it a pleasant thing to tions. For behold the light of the sun.” All these are truths which it might
“ Gravely says the mild physician," seem any one might know; but enun. “I am of opinion that the instinctive ciated by men of science, they strike and natural affections of the industhe sides of a bad system like cannon- trious classes of society are more balls. Do you think that a child pure, more sincere, and more active, under nine years of age ought to be than among the educated classes ; I doomed to habitual long labour in a have witnessed sacrifices on the part Factory? You or I say no—and em- of people in the lowest condition of ployers laugh at us; Sir Anthony life, which I never saw among peoCarlisle says no-and they frown and ple educated artificially from the bite their lips. But he says more commencement of life. The yearnthan-no; he says, “ My own opi. ings of those people after their pronion is, as a matter of feeling, that to geny, and their filial affections, disdo so is to condemn and treat the parage the heartless manners and child as a criminal; it is a punish- cold morals which too often prevail ment which inflicts upon it the ruin in fashionable life.” And is it not, of its bodily and moral health, and in great measure, for sake of people renders it an inefficient member of in fashionable life, with their "heartthe community, both as to itself and less manners and cold morals,” that its progeny. It is to my mind an the Factory-System, by its unnatural offence against nature, which, alas! labours, dulls and deadens those afis visited upon the innocent creature fections in the hearts of the poor, instead of its oppressor, by the loss which this man of experience and of its health, or the premature de- wisdom so truly and beautifully destruction of its race." A sixty-two scribes ? pound shot from a carronade - Dr Blundell, on being asked what at point-blank distance - whiz - he thinks of some of the extreme through the Factories. Children de- cases of long-continued labour, withmand legislative protection, in his out intermission for sleep, which