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have sometimes occurred for months portion to the exhaustion of the sentogether at factories, involving chil. sorial power. Let me take the life dren and young persons, replies, of a day to make myself clearly unthat to convince him that it could be derstood. It consists of alternate endured without great injury, would action and repose; and repose is not require evidence unbiassed and cu. sufficient without sleep. The altermulative, and of several consentient nation of the day and the night is a witnesses ; and that, after all, he beautiful provision in the order of would wish for the evidence of his Providence for the healing of man, own sight and touch. Sir William so that the night repairs the waste of Bliggard, we perceive, on being ask- the day, and he is thereby fitted for ed a somewhat similar_question, the labour of the ensuing day. If answers, “ Horribly so." From such he attempt to live two days in one, labour, and from labour not nearly or to give only one night and two approaching it in continuance, such days' labour, he abridges his life in as is common in factories, Dr Blun. the same, or rather in a greater prodell would expect dyspeptic symp- portion-for as his days are, so will toms, and all its consequences ; ner
be his years." vous diseases; stunted growth ; lan Dr Farre was in his youth engaguors; lassitude; general debility; ged in medical practice in the West and a recourse to unusual stimulants Indies--in the island of Barbadoes. to rid the mind of its distressing feel. He informs us, that there the labour ings. “I look,” says he,“ upon the of children and very young persons factory towns as nurseries of feeble consisted in exercising them in gabodies and fretful minds."
thering in the green crops for the The evidence of Dr Farre is at stock—not in digging or carrying once a medical and a moral lecture; manure. Such long continued lanor is it possible to peruse it without bour as that by which the children loving and venerating the man. To in our factories are enslaved, would the usual questions about air and not have been credited in Barbadoes. exercise, with due intervals for rest The employment of the Negro chiland meals, he says all that need dren was used only as a training for or can be said in one line" they health and future occupation. Perare so essential that without them haps the selfishness of the owners medical treatment is unavailing;” saved them from sacrifice. Be it so. and then he says solemnly-"Man Here the selfishness of the employcan do no more than he is allowed ers sends them to sacrifice. Dr or permitted to do by nature, and in Farre boldly speaks the truth" In attempting to transgress the bounds English factories every thing which Providence has pointed out to him, he is valuable in manhood, is sacrificed abridges his life in the exact propor to an inferior advantage in childhood. tion in which he transgresses the You purchase your advantage at the laws of nature and the Divine com- price of infanticide ; the profit thus mand." There is to us something gained is death to the child." Polisublime in its simplicity, in the fole tical Economy, he urges, ought not to lowing answer to the question, if be suffered to trench on Vital Econotwelve-hours-a- day labour be as my. The voice of the profession would much as the human constitution can maintain that truth, and never assent sustain without injury ? " It depends to life being balanced against health. upon the kind and degree of exer That the life is more than the meat,
for the human being is the is a divine maxim, which we are creature of a day, and it is possible bound to obey. The vigour of the for the most athletic man, under the animal life depends upon the perfechighest conflicts of body or mind, tion of the blood, and the balance and especially of both, to exhaust in preserved between the pulmonary one hour the whole of his nervous and aortic circulation; but in the energy provided for that day, so as aortic circulation, there is also a bato be reduced, even in that short lance between the arterial and the space of time, to a state of extreme venous systems, and the heart is the torpor, confounded with apoplexy, regulating organ of the whole. If resembling, and sometimes termina- the arterial circulation be too much ting in death. The injury is in pro- exhausted,' an accumulation takes
place on the venous side the blood meals included. From ninetotwelve, is deteriorated, and organic diseases Mr Green thinks six hours in the are produced, which abridge life. twenty-four enough; and that from But there is another, and a higher twelve upwards, the hours should be effect, for man is to be considered as gradually increased to the maximum. something vastly better than an ani. All the eminent medical men, whose mal; and the effect of diminishing evidence is given in the report, are of the power of the heart and arteries, one opinion respecting intant labour. by over-labour in a confined atmo- Eight hours' work, eight hours’sleep, sphere, is to deteriorate the blood, and eight hours' recreation, is the and thus to excite, in the animal part allotment of the twenty-four, which of the mind, gloomy and discontented seems most agreeable to nature to trains of thought, which disturb and some of them, for adults. But to the destroy human happiness, and lead great majority of employers of all to habits of over-stimulation. The kinds of labour, such a humane divireflecting or spiritual mind gradually sion of the day must seem very prebecomes debased ; and unless edu- posterous; for as man was born to cation interpose to meet the difficul- trouble, as the sparks fly upwards, ties of the case, the being is neces so, according to their creed, was he sarily ruined, both for the present born to labour, as the sweat drops and for future life. Ventilation, ex downwards. Are not the poor the ercise, and diminished exertion in “working classes ?” Then let them the Factories, are therefore the most work-work-work. If they are to obvious means of doing so, joined to rest hours and hours on week-days, the change of ideas resulting from pray, what is the use of the Sabbath ? an education adapted to the spiritual Work is the Chief End and whole nature of man. Dr Farne therefore Duty of Man. views remission of the hours of la Nobody dreams, that in Britain bour imposed upon children and labour can now be apportioned to young persons in Factories, not only men, women, and children, accordas a benefit, but as a duty; and em- ing to the laws of nature. We are phatically adds, that, speaking not in a most unnatural state. But we. only as a physician, a Christian, and ought, nevertheless, to remember a parent, but also from the common that there are laws of nature; and sympathies of a man, the State is sometimes in extremity even to conbound to afford it.
sult them, that nature may not, seeThe sentiments and opinions of Mr ing we have flung off our allegiance, Surgeon Green, of St Thomas's Hos. abdicate the throne, and leave us to pital, are equally excellent. They do grope our groaning way through the honour to his head and heart. He de- empire of Chaos and old Night. nounces the system which demands It is a general rule without excepuniform, long-continued, unintermit- tion, that all writers are blockheads ted, and therefore wearisome, though who sign themselves Vindex. The perhaps “light” from children Vindex of the Halifax and Hudders(or adults), without air or exercise- field Express, is the First Blockhead and with meals hurried and often of his .year. There has been much scanty. He draws a frightful picture said, says he," about the length of of the maladies that must be engen- the hours of labour. I will, for the dered by such a kind of life-and information of the public, lay before fears, that this country will have you an account of the customs of our much to answer for in permitting manufacturing neighbours of both the growth of that system of em continents. In the States of New ploying children in Factories. They York, Ohio, Jersey, Pennsylvania, and should not be suffered to become generally through the United States “ victims of avarice.” We do not of America, the hours of labour in believe that there is a medical man mills are from sunrise to sunset. The of any character in Britain, who bell rings at three o'clock A. M., the would hesitate one moment to de- mill begins to run at four, and conclare his belief, that the average la tinues till eleven a. M.; they rest two bour, the year through, for a full- hours during the heat of the day, grown, strong, and healthy man, (which they do not in Halifax or ought not to exceed twelve hours, Huddersfield,) and run from one p.a.,
VOL. XXXIII, NO, CCVI,
to seven P.m.or thirteen hours per day. and an imputation on their cbaracIn the winter half-year, they com- ters to be idle. It is a reproach mence at half-past five a. M., and run among the respectable of the lower till twelve o'clock; dinner one hour, classes to live without visible occuand run from one P. M. to half-past pation, which is at once an imputaseven p.m.i.e.thirteen hours and a-half tion upon their honesty, and a slur per day.” Very well-they run too upon their character. When, howlong, and probably too fast-and what ever, I come to reduce these aspiradoes all this running prove as to the tions and benevolent wishes to pracright time and ratio of running ? tice, and when I come to consider But Vindex thinks he has gained a the practical consequences of such a great victory over something, and measure, even in its most modified thus brays the Ass of the Express. application, upon those whom it “ This is the routine in the land of proposes to benefit, I find such pbilliberty and equality, the chosen land anthropy as this quite unfit for daily of freedom and independence, where wear--a mere closet system of phipersonal and public liberty are en- losophy-adreamy abstraction-and joyed in a perhaps greater extent as mistaken and galling a kindness than in any other nation of the world.” as it would be to clothe the working Is he sarcastic on Jonathan ? No! he classes in purple velvet, or brocade, is as serious as a chamberpot-as Mr and regale them with the elegancies Twiss. In “ the chosen land of free- of high life, amidst the calls of want, dom and independence," men work and the cries of poverty.” Does a from sunrise to sunset, thirteen “man live without visible employ. hours all summer, and half an hour ment" who is seen working in a Faclonger all winter-and therefore it is tory ten hours a day? Would it be right. Does he not see, that by his “ a serious imputation on his chaown statement they are steam-driven racter” to be seen constantly so Blaves ?
occupied ? An “imputation on his In Germany, the Netherlands, and honesty ?" A Bill to secure ten hours' France, again, he says " they run labour,“ a dreamy abstraction!” “A from five a. M. till eight P. m., with mistaken and galling kindness," to one hour interval-fourteen hours equalize the labour in Factories per day. They receive their wages with all labour out of them! Check every fortnight, on Saturday after- shirt, canvass trowsers, and no stocknoon, when they stop at five P. M.; ings—for such will continue to be but on the alternate Saturdays they their dress-likened “ to purple velwork up the three hours, and actu- vet and brocade !" The man's name ally run till ten o'clock at night. must be Vindex. This, let it be noted, is seventeen What a set of lazy, idle, disrepuhours' labour for that day."
table, dishonest fellows are masons, Yes! let it be noted. We hope bricklayers, and carpenters! The
we suspect-that it is not true. wonder is, how any house is ever If it be, who set them running seven- seen rising from the foundation. teen hours every alternate Saturday? The average of actual agricultural and who desires not that they should work is not, through the year, nine stop ? They beat the “ routine in hours. In harvest time, it is, no the land of liberty and equality” all doubt, long and severe; and sorely to sticks.
wearied often are men, women, and “ A manufacturer," who last year children. “A manufacturer" is fapublished a letter to Sir John Cam cetious on the clod-hoppers. All arHobhouse, is a queer Friend of the gument, he says, founded on “counPoor. “ Necessity demands it of try air, a temperature of 60 degrees, them,” he says, “and necessity selsouth aspect, dry feet, brawny limbs, dom gives any other reasons for its and rosy cheeks, is, to say the least orders." “ The labouring classes," of it, ' a most lame and impotent he continues, “ know this truth in. conclusion.'” Agricultural labourstinctively. They are seriously im ers, such as drainers and ditchers, pressed with it from childhood; stand on very weak ground when they know it in manhood by expe- priding themselves on “ their dry rience; and they think it not a feet;"' but on very strong, when hardship to labour, but a hardship pointing to their brawny limbs. “The
human frame and constitution will here and there and especially become,” he says, "acclimated” to among the Factories. It would be any thing; and, no doubt, they will; well were all capitalists like Dr but though there may "be health in Kaye's friend, Mr Thomas Ashton the factory, as well as the field," it of Hyde, of whose establishment we has been proved that there is not so perceive Mr Green (surgeon) also much. It is cruel to tell little boys speaks in terms of the highest praise, and girls that they will be “accli- in his evidence before the Commitmated” to any thing; and then shut tee. But we respect Dr Kaye's chathem up for fourteen or fifteen hours racter, and we admire his talents, a-day in a sort of oven. Such treat and shall enrich our Article with an ment is more philosophical than extract from his Pamphlet. He thinks Christian. Lest" justice should that the evils affecting the workingdegenerate into cruelty," it has been classes in Manchester, so far from enacted, that no convict condemned being the necessary results of the to hard labour shall work above ten manufactory system, furnishevidence hours a-day. And we have heard of a disease which impairs its enerof benevolent individuals busying gies, if it does not threaten its vitalthemselves about the hulks, though ity. The increase of the manufaethere the actual labour is in summer turing establishments, and the conseconsiderably less than ten, and in quent colonization of the district, winter than eight hours; and healthy have been exceedingly more rapid hulking fellows they are in conse, than the growth of its civic establishquence; nor, in our opinion, would ments. And he then dwells forcibly it be amiss to add to their labour the on the immigration of Irish as one hours that, under Mr Sadler's chief source of the demoralization, Bill-or my Lord Ashley’s-will be and consequent physical depression taken from that of honest men, won of the people. It is one; and nomen, and children in the Factories. body has shewn that so well as Mr
We have read a Pamphlet by Dr Sadler. But when Dr Kaye says, James Phillip Kaye, on the Moral “ that, some years ago, the internal and Physical Condition of the Work. arrangements of mills (now so much ing Classes employed in the Cotton improved,) as regarded temperature, Manufacture in Manchester. It is ventilation, cleanliness, and the prorather too formally
written, and ra per separation of the sexes, were ther too dogmatic. The writer, more such as to be extremely objectionover, is a Political Economist, and able" -we stop.
That is indeed all for Free Trade. He is of opinion, blinking the Bill. Setting aside, how" that those political speculators ever, for the present, the differences (Mr Sadler
among the number) who of opinion as to the causes of the conpropose a serious reduction of the dition of the manufacturing populahours of labour, unpreceded by the tion of Manchester, we thank Dr relief of commercial burdens, and un- Kaye for the following powerful picaccompanied by the introduction of ture:a general system of education, ap “ Political economy, though its obpear to be deluded by a theoretical ject be to ascertain the means of inchimera.” We have perhaps written creasing the wealth of nations, canenough already to show, that it would not accomplish its design, without at be more correct to say, that they are the same time regarding their hap“alarmed by a practical chimera"-- piness, and, as its largest ingredient, namely, the Factory System. A ge- the cultivation of religion and moraneral system of education would ap- lity. With unfeigned regret, we are pear, at present, to be your only therefore constrained to add, that the true delusive “theoretical chimera.” standard of morality is exceedingly Is it not too absurd to propose to delay debased, and that religious obserthe correction or removal of a posi- vances are neglected amongst the tive and particular evil before your operative population of Manchester. eyes, till a blessing shall be realized, The bonds of domestic sympathy are now floating at a distance before your too generally relaxed; and as a conimagination? A general system of sequence, the filial and paternal dueducation indeed! Let us first have ties are uncultivated. The artisan some education on a small scale has not time to cherish these feel
ings, by the familiar and grateful the subjects of that ever flourishing arts which are their constant food, branch — domestic medicine; we and without which nourishment they should be compelled to admit that perish. An apathy benumbs his spi- not fewer, perhaps, than three-fourths rit. Too frequently the father, en- of the inhabitants of Manchester anjoying perfect health, and with ample nually are, or fancy they are, under opportunities of employment, is sup- the necessity of submitting to meported in idleness on the earnings of dical treatment.' his oppressed children; and on the « Ingenious deductions, by Mr other hand, when age and decrepi. Roberton, from facts contained in tude cripple the energies of the pa- the records of the Lying-in-Hospital rents, their adult children abandon of Manchester, prove, in a different them to the scanty maintenance de- manner, the extreme dependence of rived from parochial relief.
the poor on the charitable institu“ That religious observances are tions of the town. The average anexceedingly neglected, we have had nual number of births, (deducted constant opportunities of ascertain- from a comparison of the last four ing, in the performance of our duty years,) attended by the officers of as Physician to the Ardwick and An- the Lying-in Charity, is four thoucoats Dispensary, which frequente sand three hundred; and the numly conducted us to the houses of the ber of births to the population may poor on Sunday. With rare excep- be assumed as one in twenty-eight tions, the adults of the vast popula- inhabitants. This annual average of tion of 84,147, contained in Districts births, therefore, represents a popuNos. 1, 2, 3, 4, spend Sunday either lation of 124,400, and assuming that in supine sloth, in sensuality, or in of Manchester and the environs to listless inactivity. A certain portion be 230,000, more than one-half of its only of the labouring classes enjoy inhabitants are, therefore, either so even healthful recreation on that day, destitute or so degraded, as to reand a very small number frequent quire the assistance of public charity the places of worship.
in bringing their offspring into the “ Having enumerated so many world. causes of physical depression, per “ The children thus adopted by haps the most direct proof of the ex- the public, are often neglected by tent to which the effect coexists in their parents. The early age at natural alliance with poverty, may which girls are admitted into the facbe derived from the records of the tories, prevents their acquiring much medical charities of the town. Du- knowledge of domestic economy; ring the year preceding July, 1831- and, even supposing them to have 21,196 patients were treated at the had accidental opportunities of maRoyal Infirmary_472 at the House king this acquisition, the extent to of Recovery-3163 at the Ardwick which women are employed in the and Ancoats Dispensary, of which mills, does not, even after marriage, (subtracting one-sixth as belonging to permit the general application of its the township of Ardwick) 2636 were principles. The infant is the victim inhabitants of Manchester-perhaps of the system; it has not lived long, 2000 at the Workhouse Dispensary, ere it is abandoned to the care of a and 1500 at the Children's, making hireling or neighbour, whilst its moa total of 28,804, without including ther pursues her accustomed toil. the Lock Hospital and the Eye In- Sometimes a little girl has the charge stitution. If to this sum,' says Mr of the child, or even of two or three Roberton, engaged in making a si- collected from neighbouring houses. milar calculation,' we were further Thus abandoned to one whose symto add the incomparably greater pathies are not interested in its welamount of all ranks visited or advi- fare, or whose time is too often also sed as private patients by the whole occupied in household drudgery, the body (not a small one of profes. child is ill-fed, dirty, ill.clothed, exsional men; those prescribed for by posed to cold and neglect; and, in chemists and druggists, scarcely of consequence, more than one-half of inferior pretension; and by herb the offspring of the poor (as may be doctors and quacks; those who swal. proved by the bills of mortality of low patent medicines ; and, lastly, the town) die before they have com