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every farthing they possess to these will, it is admitted on and by all little labourers ?" They may com- hands, do as much, minus one tuelfthplain, then, of the Corn Laws; but part, in ten hours as in twelve; and is not employ them as an argument a twelfth-part of his weekly wages a against their showing gratitude to price that he would grudge to pay their benefactors. Grant they suffer for some domestic happiness every some loss. Is the sight of smiles evening, some rest and something spread over five hundred human better than rest every Sabbath? faces no recompense to a rich or But as he will suffer less under ten well-to-do man for the loss of a shile hours' work than under twelve or ling or two in the pound? To men more, so he will cost himself less in of commonplace-common-run hu- keeping himself alive. Doctor's fees, manity-we think it might; and one item of his expenses,will dwindle among the Mill.owners there are down to next to nothing. The child. many men whose characters are up ren will have time to go home to to that mark,- many far above it, meals. That is no small saving. And who will not oppose-but we trust Joseph Sadler, the Rev. Mr Bull, and support, Mr Sadler's Bill, and after- other witnesses, point out many sawards with a safe conscience, if such vings besides—which taken together be their way of thinking, they may might more than counterbalance the try to crack the heads of the Corn loss of a twelfth-part of wages. Laws with their billy-rollers.
But what if, in ten hours, opera« When the demand is given, prices tives in factories were to do as much and values vary inversely as the as they now do? Then would they be supply.” So it has been shortly and “healthy, wealthy, and wise;" and truly said by a sage. If under a Ten- they would owe it all to Mr Sadler. Hour Bill the supply be less, the But what if all these paragraphs value will be just so much greater; beginning with “but” be but a series and to the capitalist there may be of blunders ? It is not surely ablunder no loss at all. When he talks of not to assert that the wealth of a nation being able to afford abridgment of can never be increased by the sacri. labour, he would appear to be labour- fice of the strength and lives of ing under a confusion of ideas. But, the people employed in one great perhaps, so are we; therefore we branch of its manufactures. Paushall leave the axiom to take care of perism is not a source of national itself within inverted comas.
wealth. In factories you see few But they are afraid that the loss operatives above forty years old. will fall upon the poor. This is taking Have they gone to their graves, or up new ground-a change of posi- the workhouse? tion. They surely can consent-if Many to the workhouse-more to they choose-to an abridgment of the grave. the wages of the poor-in spite of Inthe Appendix to the Report, there the Corn Laws. But do wages fall is a Comparative Table of the durawith under-production, as well as tion of life. We have the number of with over-production? Then we persons buried, and at what age pity the poor wages.
buried, during fifteen years, (1815 But is not the demand that governs to 1830,) in certain counties and the employment of many of our Mills places; namely, in Rutland, Essex, and Factories governed by foreign London, Chester, Norwich, and Carcompetition ? No-it is not. The lisle ; the several parishes of Boltonmost formidable competition, as Mr le-Moors, Bury, Preston, Wigan, Sadler clearly shews in his speech, Bradford, (in Yorkshire,) Stockport is between rival British spinners-a and Macclesfield; the Town of Leeds, competition in cruelty and oppres- and the Townships of Holbeck and sion-of which these innocent little Beeston, in the Parish of Leeds ; labourers, whose cause he cham- shewing the number buried under five pions, are the victims.
years of age, from 5 to 10, from 10 But grant that the operatives un- to 15, from 15 to 20, from 20 to 30, der a Ten-Hour Bill will get less and so for each decennary period to wages, because they will then produce the end of life : with decimal results less. How much less will they pro. annexed, for the purpose of comduce? As a man works better when parison. It is a most instructive nest he is not tired than when he is, he of Tables, and here are results.
In every 10,000 of the Persons buried, there died
Under 20 Under 49 Lived to 40 Years old. Years old. and upwards.
In the Healthy County, . . . . .
3756 5031 4969 In the Marsby County, . . .
4279 5805 4105 In the Metropolis, . . . .
4580 6111 3889 In the City of Chester, ,
4538 6066 3935 In the City of Norwich, .
4962 6049 3951 In the City of Carlisle, (foriner state). .
5319 6325 3674 - In the City of Carlisle, (present state) .. 5668 6927 3071 In the Town of Bradford, (Worsted Spinning) . 5896 7061 2939
w Silk Spinning and ? In the Town of Macclesfield
6083 7462 2538 In the Town of Bury, (ditto) . . . 6017 7319 2681 In the Town of Stockport, (ditto) .
6005 7367 2633 In the Town of Bolton, (ditto) .
6113 7459 2541 Woollen, Flax, and ? In the Town of Leeds, }'
6213 7441 2559 os Leeds, Silk Spinning, &c. S Holbeck (Flax Spinning) . · · · 6133 7337 2663
So that about as many have died when in the intervals of those loud before their twentieth year, where the and general acclamations which rent Factory system exclusively prevails, the air, while their great and unrias before their fortieth year else- valled champion, Richard Dastler, where.
(whose name is now lisped by thouBut are the operatives themselves sands of these infants, and will be afraid of a fall in their wages under transmitted to posterity with undia Ten-Hour Bill? No. Men, women, minished gratitude and affection ;) and children, are unanimous for re- when this friend of the Factory childlease from slavery. Many believe ren was pleading their cause as he there will be no fall, many that there alone can plead it, the repeated will; but though as a class they are cheers of a number of shrill voices degraded, they are yet human; they were heard, which sounded like feel, though you treat them as such, echoes to our own; and on looking that they are neither machines nor around, we saw several groups of brutes.
little children, amidst the crowd, who Seeing and feeling the subject in raised their voices in the fervour of all its bearings, Mr Sadler, towards hope and exultation, while they heard the close of his speech, broke forth their sufferings commiserated, and, into the following fine strain of elo- as they believed, about to be redressquence :-" The industrious classes ed. Sir, I still hope, as I did then, are looking with intense interest to that their righteous cause will prethe proceedings of this night, and are vail, But I have seen enough to mingle deinanding protection for themselves apprehension with my hopes. I perand their children. Thousands of ceive the rich and the powerful once maternal bosoms are beating with more leaguing against them, and the deepest anxiety for the future wielding that wealth which these fate of their long oppressed and de- children, or such as they, have creagraded offspring. Nay, the children ted, against their cause. I have long themselves are made aware of the seen the mighty efforts that are made importance of your present decision, to keep them in bondage, and have and look towards this House for suc- been deeply affected at their conticour. I wish I could bring a group nued success; so that I can hardly of these little ones to that bar, -I am refrain from exclaiming with one of sure their silent appearance would old, 'I returned, and considered all plead more forcibly in their behalf the oppressions that are done under than the loudest eloquence. I shall the sun, and beheld the tears of such not soon forget their affecting pre- as were oppressed, and on the side sence on a recent occasion, when of the oppressors there was power, many thousands of the people of the but they had no comforter !!! north were assembled in their cause
TOM CRINGLE's log.
BRINGING UP LEE-WAY.
Sleep, gentle sleep-
King Henry IV,
Arter dinner we carried on very into the main channel-bottle of much as usual, although the events rum swung by the lead line into the of the previous day had their natural boat-all very clever. effect; there was little mirth, and no “Ran in, and anchored under loud laughter. Once more we all Spike Island. A line-of-battle ship, turned in, the calm still continuing, and three frigates, and a number of and next morning after breakfast, merchantmen at anchor-men of war friend Aaron took to the Log again. lovely craft-bands playing—a good
“Let me see,- Heligoland light deal of the pomp and circumstance north and by west-so many leagues. of war. In the evening, Mr TreeAll leather and prunella to me, nail, the second lieutenant, sent for Tom-'wind baffling-weather hazy me. -Lady Passengers on deck for the “Mr Cringle,' said he, 'you first time. What! the plump lit- have an uncle in Cork, I believe ? tle partridges formerly mentioned, " I said I had. Tom ?” I nodded.
“ I am going there on duty to“ Arrived in the Downs-ordered night; I daresay, if you asked the by signal from the guard-ship to Captain to let you accompany me, proceed to Portsmouth. Arrived at he would do so. This was too good Spithead-ordered to fit to receive an offer not to be taken advantage a general officer, and six pieces of of. I plucked up courage, made my field artillery, and a Spanish Eccle- bow, asked leave, and got it; and the siastic, the Canon of - ."
evening found my friend, the lieute“ Plenty of great guns, Tom, at nant, and myself, after a ride of three any rate--a regular park of ar- hours, during which I, for one, had tillery. Pray, wbat was the calibre my bottom sheathing grievously of the Spanish Priest ?-was he a rubbed, and a considerable botheralong gun, or a short gun, a brass cau- tion at crossing the Ferry at Passage, non, or a carronade ?"
safe in our Inn at Cork. I soon “ He was a very pleasant, stout found out that the object of my sulittle man,” said I.
perior officer was to gain informa“Ob-a bomb I suppose."
tion amongst the crimp shops, where “Received General **** and his ten men who had run from one of wife, and Aid.de-camp, and two the West Indiameu, waiting at Cove poodle-dogs, one white man-servant, for convoy, were stowed away, but one black ditto, and the Canon of I was not let farther into the secret ; - , and the six nine-pound field- 80 I set out to pay my visit, and pieces, and sailed for the Cove of after passing a pleasant evening Cork.
with my friends, Mr and Mrs Job “ It was blowing hard as we stood Cringle, the Lieutenant dropped in in for the Old Head of Kinsale upon us about nine o'clock. He pilot boat breasting the foaming was heartily welcomed, and under surge like a sea gull - Carrol Cove' the plea of our being obliged to rein her tiny mainsail-pilot jumped turn to the ship early next morning, VOL. XXXIII. NO, CCVI.
we soon took leave, and returned to with arrayed myself in the slops conthe Inn. As I was turning into the tained in the bundle; in a secondpublic room, the door was open. I hand pair of shag trowsers.”— could see it full of blowsy-faced “ Tom,” said Aaron, « that was very monsters, glimmering and jabber. abominable” - “Red flannel shirt, ing, through the mist of hot brandy, coarse blue cloth jacket, and no grog, and gin twist ; with poodle waistcoat. Benjamins, and great-coats, and “• Now,' said Mr Treenail, stick cloaks of all sorts and sizes, steam. a quid of tobacco into your cheek, ing on their pegs, with barcelonas and take the cockade out of your and comforters, and damp travelling hat; or stop, leave it, and ship this caps of seal skin, and blue cloth, stripped woollen night-cap so, and and tartan, arranged above the same. come along with me. Nevertheless, such a society in my “We left the house, and walked juvenile estimation, during my short half a mile down wbat we call a Key, escapade from the middy's berth, had but an Irishman a Kay, and with its charms, and I was rolling in with some shew of reason surely, when a tolerable swagger, when Mr Tree- we both spell it Quay." _* Bah!” nail pinched my arm.
quoth Bangą“trash.” “Mr Cringle, come here, into my « Presently we arrived before a room.'
kind of low grog-shop-a bright “ From the way in which he spoke, lamp was flaring in the breeze at the I imagined, in my innocence, that door, one of the panes of the glass of bis room was at my elbow; but no it being broken. such thing we had to ascend a long, “Before I entered, Mr Treenail took and not overclean staircase, to the me to one side, Tom, Tom Cringle, fourth floor, before we were shewn you must go into this crimp shop, into a miserable little double-bedded pass yourself off for an apprentice of room. So soon as we bad entered, the Guava, bound for Trinidad, and the Lieutenant shut the door.
pick up all the knowledge you can «• Tom,' said he, I have taken a regarding the whereabouts of the fancy to you, and therefore I applied men, for we are, as you know, cruelly for leave to bring you with me; but ill manned, and must replenish as we I must expose you to some danger, best may.' I entered the house, and, I will allow, not altogether in after having agreed to rejoin my sua very creditable way either. You perior officer, so soon as I considered must enact the spy for a short space. I had obtained my object. I rapped I did not like the notion certainly, at the inner door, in which there but I had little time for considera was a small unglazed aperture cut, tion.
about four inches square; and I now, «• Here,' he continued here is for the first time, perceived that a a bundle. He threw it on the strong glare of light was cast into floor. "You must rig in the clothes the lobby, where I stood, by a large it contains, and make your way into argand, with a brilliant reflector, that the celebrated crimp shop in the like a magazine lantern had been neighbourhood, and pick up all the morticed into the bulkhead, at a information you can regarding the height of about two feet above the haunts of the pressable men at Cove, door in which the spy-hole was cut. especially with regard to the ten sea. My first signal was not attended to; men, who have run from the West I rapped again, and looking round I Indiaman we left below. You know noticed Mr Treenail flitting backthe Admiral has forbidden pressing wards and forwards across the doorin Cork, so you must contrive to way, in the rain, with his pale face frighten the blue jackets down to and his sharp nose, with the sparkCove, by representing yourself as ling drop at the end on't, glancing in an apprentice of one of the mer- the light of the lamp. I heard a step chant vessels, who had run from within, and a very pretty face now his indentures, and that you had nar. appeared at the wicket. rowly escaped from a press-gang this *• Who are you saking here, an very night here.
please ye?' “I made no scruples, but forth-*"No one in particular, my dear,
but if you don't let me in, I shall be bad about the rhino, that we must lodged in jail before five minutes be prove you a bit; so, Kate, my dear' over.'
-to the pretty girl who had let me "I can't help that, young man,' in- score a pint of rum against said she; ‘but where are ye from, Why, what is your name? darling ?
«« What's that to you?' rejoined I, “ Hush!-I am run from the let's have the drink, and don't doubt Guava, now lying at the Cove. but the shiners shall be forthcoming.'
“Oh,' said my beauty, 'come in ;' «Hurrah!' shouted the party, most and she opened the door, but still of them now very tipsy. So the rum kept it on the chain in such a way, was produced forthwith, and as I that although by bobbing, I creeped lighted a pipe and filled a glass of and slid in beneath it, yet a common- swizzle, I struck in, “Messmates, I sized man could not possibly have hope, you have all shipped ? squeezed himself through. The in IoNo, we han't;' said some of stant I entered, the door was once them. more banged to, and the next mo- «Nor shall we be in any hurry, ment I was ushered into the kitchen, boy,' said others. a room about fourteen feet square, «. Do as you please, but I shall, with a well-sanded floor, a huge as soon as I can, I know; and I redresser on one side, and over against commend all of you making your. it a respectable shew of pewter dishes selves scarce to-night, and keeping in racks against the wall. There was a bright look-out.' a long stripe of a deal table in the 'Whý, boy, why ?! middle of the room-but no table. “. Simply because I have just cloth-at the bottom of which sat a escaped a press-gang, by bracing large, bloated, brandy, or rather sharp up at the corner of the street, whisky-faced savage, dressed in a and shoving into this dark alley here.' shabby great-coat of the hodden “ This called forth another volley grey worn by the Irish peasantry, of oaths and unsavoury exclamations, dirty swandown vest, and greasy and all was bustle and confusion, and corduroy breeches, worsted stock packing up of bundles, and settling ings, and well-patched shoes; he was of reckonings. smoking a long pipe. Around the “Where,' said one of the seamen, table sat about a dozen seamen, from where do you go to, my lad? whose wet jackets and trowsers the “Why, if I can't get shipped toheat of the blazing fire, that roared night, I shall trundle down to Cove up the chimney, sent up a smoky immediately, so as to cross at Passteam that cast a halo round the sage before daylight, and take my lamp, which stank abominably of chance of shipping with some of the coarse whale oil, and depending from outward-bound that are to sail, if the the roof, hung down within two feet wind holds, the day after to-morrow. of the table. They were, generally There is to be no pressing when speaking, hard weatherbeaten-look- blue Peter flies at the fore-and that ing men, and the greater proportion was hoisted this afternoon, I know, half, or more than half drunk. When and the foretopsail will be loose toI entered, I walked up to the land. morrow.' lord.
“ D-n my wig, but the small “Yo ho, my young un, whence chap is right,' roared one. and whither bound, my hearty ?
“I've a bloody great mind to go “• The first don't signify much to down with him, stuttered another, you,' said I, 'seeing I have where. after several unavailing attempts to withal in the locker to pay my shot; weigh from the bench, where he had and as to the second, of that here- brought himself to anchor. after; so, old boy, let's have some “Hurrah !' yeiied a third, as he grog, and then say if you can ship hugged me, and nearly suffocated me me with one of them colliers that are with his maudling caresses, 'I trunlying alongside the quay ?
dles wid you too, my darling, by the “My eye, what a lot of brass that piper.' small chap has !' grumbled mine host. *Have with you, boy-bave with • Wby, my lad, we shall see to-mor. you,' shouted half-a-dozen other row morning; but you gammons 80 voices, while each stuck his oaken