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2 Der Nuys, ben de einate scandal, rather than by its moral atroanar u N-te. Ver the city; and Cæsar suffered perhaps in

rockrided, as every case, not so much because be
D 6.102.1 Cascades upon had violated bis duties, as because
or* vere can rart. be had dishonoured his office.

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s ake coches an Icperator despots, under some indirect shape, $20 a abr Qize the whole eren where none was provided by

*De *T NcEnek the laws, that we must seek for the 1 & 2 & 3. dce, made it main peculiarity affecting the condi

is a fee we first orer- tion of the Roman Cæsar, which pa IL-APPENZ: und Ebe modes, culiarity it was, superadded to the T'I Nes were mantauas other three, that finally made those 02:52 , pared at the three operative in their fullest es16* PIBT sanjaris if tent, it is in the perfection of the Sinne. De as the En. stratocracy that we must look for ruan te me be seçues. the ker to the excesses of the auto

si Ls farve. Toere frere crai. Eren in the bloody despotisms I. 1 Tres forre in the of the Barbary states, there has al.

: K714 II a breach wars eristed in the religious preju & ST, and the 40- dices of the people, which could not

La mis ise oiber; be rio.ated with safety, one check *** Israel Bui, es more upon the caprices of the des712-04 si aromes i ike empor than was found at Rome, l'pon pu. To var imezar, po. ihe whole, tberefore, what affects us grad #seza. Desde bad as on the first reading as a prodigy or 1.13* et ise ser ordinary acomals in the frantic outrages of

A tereisce, coesider the ear's Cæsars-falls within the e la rebeca, the natural bounds of intelligible human Fry was costas liberated nature, when we state the case conmi a pre Verstons or out- siderately. Surrounded by a popu. Tap the pepulace were not lation urhich had not only gone satnie 2015. It was but rarely through a most ricious and corruptDie sa cur participated in the ing discipline, and had been utterly

noves in the crisen. And thus, ruined by the license of revolutionde efetuar without check, the arytimes, and the bloodiest proscripBitxes at the Cæsars went on tions, but had even been extensively

fear, presuming upon the changed in its very elements, and Feues or one part of his subjects from the descendants of Romulus and tảe inc: Serence of the other, had been transmuted into an Asiatic a be wa tempied onwards to mob;-starting from this point

, and arucities which armed against him considering as the second feature of the common feelings of human na- the case, that this transfigured people, ture, and all mankind, as it were, morally so degenerate, were carried

, rose in a body with one voice, and however, by the progress of civilisaapparently with one heart, united by tion to a certain intellectual altitude, mere force of indignant sympathy, which the popular religion bad not to put him down, and abatehim strength to ascendbut from inhe as a monster. But, until he brought rent disproportion remained at the matters to this extremity, Cæsar had base of the general civilisation, inca. no cause to fear. Vor was it at all pable of accompanying the other certain, in any one instance, where elements in their advance ;-thirdly,

that this polished condition of sotook him, that the apparent unani. ciety, which should naturally with mity of the actors went further than the evils of a luxurious repose have the practical conclusion of abating.counted upon its pacific benefits, had the imperial nuisance, or that their yet, by means of its circus and its indignation had settled upon the gladiatorial contests, applied a consame offences. In general the army stant irritation, and a system of pro

---nad the guilt by the public vocations to the appetites for blood,

such as in all other nations are con the suddenness of the summ nected with the rudest stages of so from the unseasonable ho ciety, and with the most barbarous scarcely doubting that by so modes of warfare, nor even in such cir- nymous delator they have L cumstances without many palliatives plicated as parties to a con wanting to the spectators of the Cir- they hurry to the palace--ar cus ;-combining these considera- ved in portentous silence by tions, we have already a key to the ers and pages in attendance-enormities and hideous excesses of ducted to a saloon, where (as the Roman Imperator. The hot blood where else) the silence of ni which excites, and the adventurous vails, united with the silence courage which accompanies, the ex. and whispering expectation. cesses of sanguinary warfare, presup. seated-all look at each other pose a condition of the moral nature nous anxiety. Which is a not to be compared for malignity and Which is the accused ? 0 baleful tendency to the cool and cow. shall their suspicion settleme ardly spirit of amateurship in which their pity ?--All are silentthe Roman (perhaps an effeminate speechless--and even the cu Asiatic) sat looking down upon the their thoughts is frost-bound bravest of men (Thracians, or other Suddenly the sound of a fid Europeans) mangling each other for viol is caught from a dista his recreation. When, lastly, from swells upon the ear-steps a such a population, and thus disci. -and in another moment in plined from his nursery days, we the elderly gentleman, gra suppose the case of one individual gloomy as his audience, bu selected, privileged, and raised to a ing about in a frenzy of exc conscious irresponsibility, except at For half an hour he conti the bar of one extrajudicial tribunal, perform all possible evolu not easily irritated, and notoriously caprioles, pirouettes, and o to be propitiated by other means travagant feats of activity, than those of upright or impartial panying himself on the fidd conduct, we lay together the ele. at length, not having once lo ments of a situation too trying for his guests, the elderly.ge poor human nature, and fitted only whirls out of the room in t to the faculties of an angel or a de transport of emotion with v mon; of an angel, if we suppose him entered it; the panic-struck to resist its full temptations; of a de are requested by a slave to mon, if we suppose bim to use its themselves as dismissed : total opportunities. Thus interpret- tire; resume their couche ed and solved, Caligula and Nero be- nocturnal pageant has“ dis come ordinary men.

and vanished; and on the fo But, finally, what if, after all, the morning, were it not for tł worst of the Cæsars, and these in curring testimonies, all w particular, were entitled to the be- disposed to take this interru nefit of a still shorter and more con their sleep for one of its mos clusive apology ? What if, in a true tic dreams. The elderly get medical sense, they were insane? It who figured in this delirious?" is certain that a vein of madness ran who was he? He was Tiberiu in the family; and anecdotes are re king of kings, and lord of t corded of the three worst, which go queous globe. Would a Bri far to establish it as a fact, and others demand better evidence than which would imply it as symptoms disturbed intellect in any for -preceding or accompanying. As cess de lunatico inquirend belonging to the former class, take Caligula, again, the evidence the following story: At midnight an toms is still plainer. He ! elderly gentleman suddenly sends own defect; and purpose round a message to a select party of through a course of hellebornoblemen, rouses them out of bed, lessness, one of the commor and summons them instantly to his cations of lunacy, haunted palace. Trembling for their lives from

excess rarely recorded.* T

this exemplary chastisement over

• No fiction of romance presents so awful a picture of the ideal tyrant Caligula by Suetonius. His palace-radiant with purple and gold, bu

or similar facts, might be brought brought back within the fold of huforward on behalf of Nero. And manity, as objects rather of pity than thus these unfortunate princes, who of abhorrence, would be reconciled have so long (and with so little in- to our indulgent feelings, and, at the vestigation of their cases) passed for same time, made intelligible to our monsters or for demoniac counter- understandings. feits of men, would at length be

every where lurking beneath flowers ;-bis smiles and echoing laughter-masking (yet hardly meant to mask) bis foul treachery of heart;-his hideous and tumultuous dreams

bis baffled sleep-and his sleepless nights-compose the picture of an Æschylus. What a master's sketch lies in these few lines :-" Incitabatur insomnio maxime; neque enim plus tribus horis nocturnis quiescebat; ac ne his placidâ quiete, at pavida miris rerum imaginibus: ut qui inter ceteras pelagi quondam speciem colloquentem secum videre visus sit. Ideoque magna parte noctis, vigiliæ cubandique tædio, nunc toro residens, nunc per longissimas porticus vagus, invocare identidem atque exspectare lucem consueverat;"—i.e. But, above all, he was tormented with nervous irritation, by sleeplessness; for he enjoyed not more than three hours of nocturnal repose; nor these even in pure untroubled rest, but agitated by phantasmata of por. tentous augury; as, for example, upon one occasion he fancied that he saw the sea, under some definite impersonation, conversing with himself. Hence it was, and from this incapacity of sleeping, and from weariness of lying awake, that he had fallen into habits of ranging all the night long through the palace, sometimes throwing himself on a couch, sometimes wandering along the vast corridors-watching for the earliest dawn, and anxiously invoking its approach.

TO THE MEMORY OF THE DEEPLY-LAMENTED ENSIGN GEORGE HOLFORD

WALKER, WHO WAS SHOT THROUGIL THE HEART IN AN AFFAIR WITH THE MALAYS, ON THE 3D OF MAY 1832, AND DIED INSTANTANEOUSLY, IN HIS 19TH YEAR.

Oh, fare-thee-welll our beautiful and brave!

Our lovely, gentle, generous, gallant boy!
Oh! what a sum of ardent hope and joy

Lies crush'd and wither'd in thy distant grave!

Thy cheek in its first down,—thy dark blue eye,

Bright flashing with an ardent spirit's fire,
Shone like the sunbeam of yon torrid sky,

Wbile fame precocious fed thy young desire.
Happy and hopeful wert thou! Whosoe'er

Look'd on thine open, manly forehead, smiled;
For there was written many a promise fair,

But, oh, how fate such promise has beguiled!

Yet there was mercy in thine early doom,

For thy career, bless'd youth, though brief, was bright;
And thou wert stricken pangless to the tomb,

In the first transport of thy conscious might.

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Why dwell we on the praise thou might'st have won,

Had thy young promise ripen'd! Had the man,
Maturing in the beam of Glory's sun,

Been spared to finish as the boy began!

Let us not think! Such thought is anguish now !

Oh, may His will be done who call'd thee hence!
And this sore chastening wisely did bestow
On hearts too proud, affections too intense!

MARGT. HODSON.

LITTLE LEONARD'S LAST

GOOD-NIGH'T,"

“Good-night! good-night! I go to sleep,'

Murmur'd the little child ;-
And oh! the ray of heaven that broke
On the sweet lips that faintly spoke

That soft "Good-night," and smiled.

That angel smile! that loving look

From the dim closing eyes ! The

peace of that pure brow! But there, Aye-on that brow, so young! so fair ! An awful shadow lies.

The gloom of evening-of the boughs

That o'er yon window wave-
Nay, nay-within these silent walls,
A deeper, darker, shadow falls,

The twilight of the Gravem
The twilight of the Grave--for still

Fast comes the fluttering breath-
One fading smile-one look of love-
A murmur--as from brooding dove-

Good-night.” And this is Death!

Oh! who hath called thee “ Terrible!"

Mild Angel ! most benign! Could mother's fondest lullaby Have laid to rest more blissfully

That sleeping babe, than thine! Yet this is Death-the doom for all

Of Adam's race decreed“But this poor lamb! this little one!What had the guiltless creature done ?"

Unhappy heart! take heed; Though He is merciful as just

Who hears that fond appealHe will not break the bruised reed, He will not search the wounds that bleed

He only wounds to heal.
“ Let little children come to me,”

He cried, and to his breast
Folded them tenderly-To-day
He calls thine unshorn lamb away

To that securest rest !

C.

The Cæsars.

[Jan. er similar facis, might be brought brought back within the fold of huforward on behalf of Nero. And manity, as objects rather of pity than thus these unfortunate princes, who of abhorrence, would be reconciled have so long (and with so little in- to our indulgent feelings, and at the restization of their cases) passed for same time, made intelligible to our monsters or for demoniac counter- understandings. feits of men, would at length be

every where larking beneath flowers ;-bis smiles and echoing laughter-masking (set bardiy meant to mask) his foul treachery of heart;-his hideous and tumultuous àreati --bis baffled sleep—and his sleepless niglits-compose the picture of an Esebylos What a master's sketch lies in these few lines :-" Incitabatur insomnio maxime; neque enim plus tribus horis nocturnis quiescebat ; ac ne his placidâ quiete, at pavida miris rerum imaginibus : ut qui inter ceteras pelagi quondam speciem colloquenter secum videre visus sit. Ideoque magna parte noctis, vigiliæ cubandique tædio, babe toro residens, nunc per longissimas porticus vagus, invocare identidem atque exspertare lucem consueverat;"-.e. But, above all, he was tormented with nervous irritation, by sleeplessness; for he enjoyed not more than three hours of nocturnal repose; nor these even in pure untroubled rest, but agitated by phantasmata of por tentous augury; as, for example, upon one occasion he fancied that he saw the sea under some definite impersonation, conversing with himself. Hence it was, and from this incapacity of sleeping, and from weariness of lying awake, that he had fal

. en into habits of ranging all the night long through the palace, sometimes throwing himself on a couch, sometimes wandering along the vast corridors-watching for the earliest dawn, and anxiously invoking its approach.

TO THE MEMORY OF THE DEEPLY-LAMENTED ENSIGN GEORGE HOLFORD

WALKER, WHO WAS SHOT THROUGH THE HEART IN AN AFFAIR WITH THE MALAYS, ON THE 3D OF MAY 1832, AND DIED INSTANTANEOUSLY, IN als 19TH YEAR.

Oh, fare-thee-well! our beautiful and brave!

Our lovely, gentle, generous, gallant boy! Oh! what a sum of ardent hope and joy

Lies crush'd and wither'd in thy distant grave! Thy cheek in its first down,--thy dark blue eye,

Bright flashing with an ardent spirit's fire, Shone like the sunbeam of yon torrid sky,

Wbile fame precocious fed thy young desire. Happy and hopeful wert thou! Whosoe'er

Look'd on thine open, manly forehead, smiled; For there was written many a promise fair,–

But, oh, how fate such promise has beguiled!

* These were the dying words of a little child, related to the author, utter
the moment of its departure.

Yet there was mercy in thine early doom,
For thy career, bless'd youth, though brief

, was bright; And thou wert stricken pangless to the tomb,

In the first transport of thy conscious might.
Why dwell we on the praise thou might'st have won,

Had thy young promise ripen'd! Had the man,
Maturing in the beam of Glory's sun,

Been spared to finish as the boy began !
Let us not think! Such thought is anguish now !

Oh, may His will be done who call': thee hence!
And this sore chastening wisely did bestow
On hearts too proud, affections too intense!

GT. HODSON.

ORIGINAL LETTER FROM SIR WALTER SCOTT.

MR BIRD'S PICTURE-CHEVY CHASE.

TO THE EDITOR OF BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.

I

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Dear Sir,- The following letters explain the purport for which they were written. In themselves they are interesting; and as one is from the pen of Sir Walter Scott, it would be perhaps a selfish injustice to withhold its publication. I would fain think they may be read not without interest, from another cause. They relate to a Picture, painted by poor Bird, R.A., who died when he had just attained that eminence in his profession from which he might have expected to reap a golden harvest; but “aliter visum est.” That picture was Chevy Chase; it is in the collection of the Marquis of Stafford, and I believe obtained the prize from the British Institution. It is engraved in mezzotinto by Mr Young. The original sketch in oils was in gra. titude presented by the painter to Sir Walter Scott, and is, I presume, now at Abbotsford; and there may it long remain, a memorial of the kindness of that great and excellent man, and of the genius and grateful feelings of the artist. Among the Lives of the Painters, by Allan Cunningham, (notwithstanding I am disposed to find many faults with it) a delightful work, may be found that of poor Bird. I am unwilling to call in question the judgment of so good and amusing a writer; but there are sundry matters in those Lives, upon which I have sometimes intended to offer a few words of remonstrance. His Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds is certainly written with a prejudice; too much hearsay evidence, and that too picked up from servants, is admitted, and inferences of character drawn therefrom. He does not appear to have justly appreciated the mind of that great man, Sir Joshua Reynolds. But the Life of Bird, on whose account these letters were written, gives no idea whatever of the man. I knew him well-perhaps no one better and from his commencing as an artist, to the day of his death, was in almost daily intercourse with him; and I must say the life of him written by Allan Cunningham, may be as well the life of any one as of my old friend Bird. It is in little, or nothing, correct. There were many friends of the painter who knew him well, and loved him for his many virtues and his genius, to whom it is surprising the author did not apply.' Should he meditate another edition, and wish to revise that portion of his valuable work, he may, without difficulty, obtain more correct, as well as more interesting information.

The writer of the Letter to Sir Walter Scott (No. I.) was a very near relative of mine, and that and the Reply (No. II.) came into my possession at his decease in 1812.-I need not say I shall carefully preserve the originals. I am, dear Sir, yours very truly,

J. E. Dec. 3, 1832.

No. I. Ln Court, Dec. 3, 1811. will wave the ceremony of a formal SIR, I am much at a loss how to introduction, and do me the favour apologize to you for intruding my to answer my enquiries on the subself, a perfect stranger, upon your ject. Mr Murray of Fleet Street, notice; but the truth is, I wish for who has favoured me with your adsome information respecting the cos dress, will, I have no doubt, make tume of your countrymen towards such a report of me, as may in some the latter end of the 14th century, I degree qualify the presumption of know that you are better able to give this abrupt application. It is but fair me this information than any other to acknowledge that my enquiries person, and I throw myself upon have no reference to any undertayour liberality, in the hope that you king of my own, but are solely intend.

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LETTER FROM SIR WALTER SCOTT.

RD'S PICTURE-CHEVY CHASE.

ITOR OF BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.

ing letters explain the purport for which they were
hey are interesting; and as one is from the pen of

be perhaps a selfish injustice to withhold its pub-
ink they may be read not without interest, from
ate to a Picture, painted by poor Bird, R.A.

, who
cained that eminence in his profession from which
co reap a golden harvest; but "aliter visum est."
Chase; it is in the collection of the Marquis of Staf-
ned the prize from the British Institution. It is en-
Mr Young. The original sketch in oils was in gra-
ainter to Sir Walter Scott, and is, I presume, now
may it long remain, a memorial of the kindness of
man, and of the genius and grateful feelings of the
s of the Painters, by Allan Cunningham, (notwith-
to find many faults with it) a delightful work

, may
rd. I am unwilling to call in question the judg-
using a writer ; but there are sundry matters in
I have sometimes intended to offer a few words of
of Sir Joshua Reynolds is certainly written with
earsay evidence, and that too picked up from ser-
ferences of character drawn therefrom. He does
appreciated the mind of that great man, Sir Joshua
of Bird, on whose account these letters were writ-
er of the man. I knew him well--perhaps no one

mencing as an artist, to the day of his death, was
se with him; and I must say the life of him writ-
m, may be as well the life of any one as of my old
le, or nothing, correct. There were many friends
him well, and loved him for his many virtues and
surprising the author did not apply. Should lie
and wish to revise that portion of his valuable
ifficulty, obtain more correct, as well as more in-
ter to Sir Walter Scott (No. I.) was a very near
at and the Reply (No. ÌI.) came into my pos-
1812.-I need not say I shall carefully preserve
I am, dear Sir, yours very truly,

J. E.

ed for the benefit of a very ingenious in what did it consist ? W friend, who has formed the design offensive weapons the same of a picture, taken from the follow. what did they differ? Shou ing stanza of the old ballad of Chevy followers of the body of I Chase,

have their helmets on their

or in their hands; and was the " Next day did many widows come,"&c.

peculiar mode of carrying Though this ballad is not strictly his arms on such an occasion ? V torical, yet time has given it a sanc- plaid in use at this period; an tion almost equal to such authority; how was it worn ? Was the and as we are to look to the battle of distinction or difference in Otterbourne for many of its events, amongst persons of the highe: it assumes a somewhat higher rank dle, or lower ranks, except than a completely fictitious subject fineness or quality- I mean s would be permitted to claim. In the were professedly not military action passed on the Borders between pose Lady Percy should be in the retainers of the great houses of ced lamenting over the body Douglas and Percy, in some degree husband, as she would form the manners and dress of the two the principal group, how mig countries are to be preserved; not be properly drest as to colou only the military, but the common fashion of her clothes ? Was and ordinary habiliments of the any prevailing colour in the d higher, middle, and lower classes, of middle and lower classes ? of such as might be likely to visit the bonnet, or what else, worn the field the day after the battle, in head at this period, and of wha search of their friends and relatives. and colour ? I take it for g I recollect, in the first sketch of this that the inhabitants of the low object, the friends of Douglas are try of Scotland differed but li bearing his body from the field in a their dress from the Frenc kind of solemn procession, the whole English, with whom they had in shadow. The perspective of this stant intercourse. The armour retiring train produces a melancholy military retainers might be s yet sublime effect. The form of the likewise, but that the great di body is scarcely perceptible; the tion was the badge or crest bearers, and they who precede the great leaders which was worn corpse, grow indistinct from the in- common soldiers, either paint creasing distance; and the few who embossed upon their armour ! follow appear to have their heads and behind, such as I have obs and bodies covered with something on the plate of the siege of Boul like mourning cloaks. This last divi- temp. Hen. VIII., and publishe sion of the attendants of the decea- the Society of Antiquaries. sed hero, I have taken the liberty to seems confirmed by an histcriticise as bearing too near a resem- event at a subsequent period blance to a funeral provided by an the battle of Barnett, in 147 undertaker, and may probably in. similarity of a sun and a star o troduce ludicrous ideas, where all liveries of Edward and War should be serious and solemn. I produced a mistake fatal to the rather think this group should prin- castrians. I wish my friend h cipally consist of military persons ken the battle of Otterbourne f. not completely armed de pied au cap, subject, in which Douglas was but rather negligently, as their con- and Hotspur taken prisoner ; dition might require under the ex- would, I think, have given gi isting circumstances, but still in such variety and interest to the pic manner as to distinguish them as but I do not interpose my fa retainers or friends of the house of judgment to obliterate the im Douglas. Having stated thus much of sions which genius may have fo the subject, the following questions in the mind of the painter, will naturally arise, to enable the which thorough knowledge of h painter to execute his task with fide- may enable him to execute be lity and propriety. Was there any my feeble conception, I love th difference in the defensive armour ter arts; and when I am writi of the contending parties; and if so, the first Poet of the age, I sca

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No. I. 3, 1811.

will wave the ceremony of a formal oss how to introduction, and do me the favour uding my. to answer my enquiries on the subpon your ject. Mr Murray of Fleet Street, wish for who has favoured me with your ad. ng the cog- dress, will

, I have no doubt, make towards such a report of me, as may in some century. I degree qualify the presumption of ole to give this abrupt application. It is but fair any other to acknowledge that my enquiries self upon have no reference to any underta

nt you king of my own, but are solely intend.

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