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want of an audience, he started rebellion with the best colour. The up, almost instinctively, exclaiming, Americans still panegyrise this man. « The Riot Act, the Riot Act! for His known skill makes the standing what? does not my honourable friend figure of those swelling and scbool. see that he has dispersed the mob boy productions, the fourth of July already ?”

speeches, the annual elaborate aborHis exertions on the American tion of Republican eloquence. But question naturally brought him into whatever they may do with his name, intercourse with the principal per- they should abjure bis spirit. To sons connected with the subject. He Franklin and to his doctrine of mocorresponded with General Lee, a ney-getting, his substitution of the man of some acquirements, but of mere business of amassing for the remarkable eccentricity, if not nearly 'generous and natural uses of wealth, insane. Lee afterwards took service his turning the American into a mere in the American army, where he calculator of profit and loss, and soon quarrelled with his superiors America into a huge counting house, as much as at home; and found as is due a vast portion of every evil little to reconcile his weak and gid- belonging to the character of her dy understanding and wortbless people, and every convulsion that so heart, in republicanism as in mo- inevitably threatens her government. narchy. Some intercourse with The sooner they lay bis maxims and Franklin was the natural result of his memory in the grave together, his position in the House. But the better for the national chance of Franklin at that time was not the re- honour. The spirit of a pedlar ought volter that be afterwards became. not to preside over the councils of a He called upon Burke the day be great people. The Americans may fore he took his final leave of Lon- erect his statue in their Temple of don, in 1775, and had a long inter- Mammon, if they will; but they must view with him. On this occasion close the temple, and embrace a Franklin expressed great regret for loftier worship, before they can be the calamities wbich he viewed as worthy of the renown of their ancesthe consequence of the ministerial tors, or be fitting trustees of the virdeterminations; professing, that no- tues to their posterity. thing could give him more pain than We once more look to Burke for the separation of the colonies from wisdom. At the moment when these the mother-country; that America pages are passing through the press, bad enjoyed many happy days un- the affairs of Ireland are engrossing der her rule, and that he never ex- the public attention. Among others pected to see such again! How much of those violent palliatives, which of this was sincere, the character have in them all the nature of poi. of the speaker justifies suspicion. sons, is an absentee-tax. The propoCold, worldiy, and jealous, Franklin sition is not new, for the spirit is not hated England for her prosperity. new that makes it. It is the characAnd this feeling had broken out teristic of Ireland, that every sucon the most accidental occasions. ceeding age of her bistory is a counterOne day visiting the source of the part of the preceding. Other nations Thames, he exclaimed, “ And is it advance, make progress, and, leaving this narrow stream that is to have their follies and their prejudices bedominion over a country that con- hind them, push on in the great getains the Hudson and the Ohio ?” On neral highway of European knowleaving the Privy-Council, where he ledge and prosperity. But to Ire. had been examined and taken to task land this progress is forbidden by an by Wedderburne the Attorney-Gene influence, that the wisest and boldest ral, he murmured in the bitterness of her minds has never been able to of personal revenge, “ For this I orerthrow. A fierce superstition bas will make your King a little king." bound the chain upon her, and she This was not the language of a peace. now can but range the length of its maker. His language to Burke was links. Every salient step, every nanaturally the tale of a client to his tural impulse of health and vigour, counsel, anxious to leave a favour but acts as a new memento of the able impression behind him, giving fetter that checks it instantly, and the wrong the air of right, and facing the first consciousness of freedom is

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made but to impress a keener consci- of this country; in the end, at the
ousness of the bond. Ireland, whether union of the whole empire. I do
weary or fresh for labour, whether not mean to express any thing invi-
exhausted by her efforts for or against dious concerning the superintending
legitimate government, still struggles authority of Great Britain. But, it
within the same limit, still finds her it be true, that the several bodies
foot rounding the same narrow track which make up this complicated
of thorns and blood. The evil of the mass, are to be preserved as one
land is Popery, which has been the empire, an authority sufficient to
evil of every land where it first in preserve this unity, and by its equal
vaded law, freedom, and religion. weight and pressure to consolidate
The Parliament of England can do the various parts, must reside some-
nothing in the distemper. The root where, and that somewhere can be
of the public hazard is not to be only in England.
reached by the feeble handling of A free communication by discretion-
men accustomed only to the slight ary residence is necessary to all the
derangements of the national health other purposes of communication.
on this side of the Channel. Ireland

If men may be dis-
must be unhappy, convulsed, and abled from following their suits here,
criminal, until, by either the energy they may be thus taxed into a denial
of man, or the mercy of God, Popery of justice. A tax of two shillings
is extinguished in the land. Till may not do it; but the principle
that time comes, national peace is implies it. They who restrain may
utterly hopeless. The labours of prohibit. They who may impose
English Senates will be thrown two shillings in the pound, may im-
away. Insubordination will be the pose ten. And those who condition
established lord of Ireland, until the tax to six months'annual absence,
England herself may begin to feel may carry that condition to six
the result, in the transmission of tu- weeks, or to six days, and thereby
mults to her own shores. The pesti- totally defeat the means which have
lence will come on the tainted gale. been provided for extensive and
The example of a successful defiance impartial justice. *
of authority within sight of her walls, What is taxing a resort to, and resi.
will not be always lost on her do- dence in, any place, but declaring
mestic traitors. The watchwords of that your connexion with that place
Popish Rebellion will find their echo is a grievance? Is not such an Irish tax
among that crowd of bitter and livid a virtual declaration that England is a
sectarianism, which at this hour foreign country; and a renunciation
hates the crown as much as it does ofthe principle of common naturali.
the mitre; and under cover of the cation, which runs through the whole
smoke that comes rolling from the empire ? *
conflagration of the Church in Ire. easily conceive, that a citizen of
land, a furious and final assault may Dublin, who looks no further than
be made upon the throne.

his counter, may think that Ireland Burke's conceptions of the utter will be repaid for such a loss by any impolicy of an absentee tax, which small diminution of taxes, or any inhad been proposed by Mr Flood, then crease in the circulation of money, at the head of Opposition in Ireland, that may be laid out in the purchase and was acquiesced in by the Minis- of claret or groceries in his corporatry of 1773, were given in a letter to tion. But I cannot think that any Sir Charles Bingham. From this we educated man, any man who looks select a few sentences of the argu- with an enlightened eye on the intenient:~"I look upon this projected rests of Ireland, can believe that it tax in a very evil light. I think it is is not highly for the advantage of not advisable;-I am sure it is not Ireland, that this Parliament, which, necessary. And, as it is not a mere whether right or wrong, will make matter of finance, but involves a some laws to bind Ireland, should political question of much import- have some persons in it, who, by ance, I consider the principle and connexion, by property, or by early precedent as far worse than the prepossessions, are attached to the thing itself.

In welfare of the country. the first place, it strikes at the power There is another matter in the tax


* I can

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that contradicts a very great prin- ny opposite batteries of notice and ciple necessary for preserving the regulation? If he comply, he is more union of the various parts of the likely to be a citizen of the Atlantic State ; because it does, in effect, Ocean and the Irish Sea, than of discountenance intermarriage and either of the countries.” mutual inheritance ; - things that He then closely follows the argubind countries more closely togeth- ment into the case of minors sent to er than any laws or constitutions Eoglish schools or colleges; of law whatsoever. Is it right, that a wo students sent to the English Inns of man who marries into Ireland, and Court; of people forced by infirmity perhaps well purchases her jointure to change their residence; of persons or her dower there, should not, after of embarrassed fortunes, who retired her husband's death, bave it in her in order to retrench, and asks, Are choice to return to her country and such fit objects of a tax? “You beher friends without being taxed for gin to burthen those people preit? Or, if an Irish heiress should cisely at the time when their circummarry into an English family, and stances of health and fortune render that great property in both countries them objects of relief and commiseshould thereby come to be united in ration." the common issue ; shall the de- To those powerful reasons might scendant of that marriage abandon be added the obvious ones. That an his natural connexions, his family absentee tax would be a virtual prointerests, his public and private du. hibition of all English money in the ties, and be compelled to take up purchase of lands in Ireland; for, his residence in Ireland ? Is there who would buy where he was to pay any sense or justice in it, unless you an additional tax for his purchase ? affirm that there should be no such Thus the value of every acre in Ireintermarriage, and no such natural land would be instantly sunk. A still inheritance? Is there a shadow of more striking reason against an abreason, that, because a Lord Buck sentee tax would be the almost total ingbam, a Duke of Devonshire, a impossibility of raising it, in any inSir George Saville, possess property stance where the landed owner was in Ireland, which bas descended to disinclined to assist the collection. then without any act of theirs, they Was the tax to be contingent on a should abandon their duty in Parlia. six months absence from the country? ment, and spend their winters in Is there to be a register of the goings Dublin? or, having spent the session in and out of every man? Or is an in Westminster, must they abandon army of spies to be employed to trace their seats, and all their family inte. gentlemen to their dwellings? Or is rests, in Yorkshire and Derbyshire, every owner of property (for the law and pass the rest of the year in Wick must comprehend every man capalow, Cork, or Tyrone ? * * * ble of absenting himself, for whatever But a man may have property in cause,) to be compelled to make a more parts of the Empire. He may return of his presence every six bave property in Jamaica, as well as months to Government? Or is resiin England and Ireland. I know some dence to imply the abiding of the who have property in all of them, whole family in the country, or of a Suppose this poor distracted citizen part, or of the head of the family of the whole Empire, providing (if alone? In the former instances, who the nature of the laws will admit of is to ascertain whether the requisite it,) a flying camp, and dividing his number of the family constantly reyear, as well as le can, between Eng. side ? Or if the residence of the land and Ireland, and at the charge head of the house be satisfactory, of two town houses, and two country how is the country to be a gainer by houses in both kingdoms. In this the residence of a solitary and doubtsituation he receives an account tbat less a highly discontented resident, a law is transmitted from Jamaica who sends off his rental to support to tax absentees from that province, the expenditure or amusements of which is impoverished by the Euro- his family in Bath or London ? Or, pean residence of the possessors of does not the whole conception imply their lands. How is be to escape a scandalous, vexatious, and expenthis ricochet of cross-firing of so ma. sive espionage ? Or if not tbe land.

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holder but his rents are to be the nounced in all quarters, that "he who
object, what is to intercept the trans- bad not been present on that night,
mission of money to any part of the had not witnessed the greatest tri-
earth?. This part of the conception umph of eloquence within memory.”.
would imply an impossibility. A few Governor Johnstone solemnly aver-
men of large fortunes, and constantly red, that "it was fortunate for the
residing in England, a Marquis of Noble Lords on the Treasury Bench,
Lansdowne,or a Duke of Devonshire, North and Germain, that there were
may be mulcted for the crimes of no strangers present, (the gallery
their ancestors in paying their money having been cleared,) as their indig-
for Irish estates, and not being able nation would have roused the peo-
to be in Ireland and England at the ple in the streets to tear them in
same time. But the great multitude pieces on their way home.”
against whom the act was especially But an event altogether uncon-
levelled, would especially elude it. nected with the labours of the British
The crowd, whom in bitterness much Parliament, suddenly brought the
more than impolicy the levellers contests of party to a close. America
would wish to fine for enjoying them- formed an alliance with France. The
selves for a year or two in any other war suddenly became hazardous on
portion of the earth than Ireland, and the only side which ever threatens
preferring Brighton and Cheltenham the British Empire with danger.
to a visit from Captain Rock, or an From this period success evidently
assassination at their own doors, became too dear for the price that it
would unquestionably evade the sta- might be politic in England to pay.
tute, and leave nothing for its advo. Opposition was probably not less
cates but fruitless declamation and startled by this event than Ministers.
expense thrown away. In 1773, If party ever feels, it felt then, and
though the measure had already re- regretted the work of its own hands.
ceived the sanction of Ministers, the The declaration of Colonial indepen-
embarrassments of its practical ope- dence was received by the antago-
ration, and the probably interested nists of Administration with unequi-
and factious motives of its proposers, vocal surprise, perhaps with bitter
were so strongly suggested, that the regret. “We must take it,” was their
project was suppressed.

language; " but it is not as a matter We now draw to the close of one of choice, but of bard and overof the epochs of this great man's powering necessity.” Burke declared, public career. He was still under that “it made him sick at heart, that the obligations of a party. The Ame- it struck him to the soul, that he felt rican question was fastened on him the claim to be essentially injurious by the hands of others, and he drag to Great Britain, and one of which ged it on with a vigour that redeem- she could never get rid. No, never, ed his pledge of fidelity. He perse- never, never! It was not to be vered to the last moment, while thought that he wished for the inde. there was a hope of reconciling the 'pendence of America. Far from it. countries, and supported his re He felt it a circumstance exceedingpeated proposals with an enthusiasm ly detrimental to the fame, and exof eloquence which held the House ceedingly detrimental to the intein perpetual astonishment. A speech rests of his country.” Lord Chatham in which he denounced the employ- was equally full of eloquent remorse: ment of the Indian savages, as an ag- He exclaimed, that" he could never gravation of the horrors of war, is bring himself to admit the indepen. said to have produced effects un dence of the Colonies; that the band equalled by any effort of modern which signed the concession might times. Of this speech there is no as well rend the jewels from the record, further than its impres- British Crown at once; that the sun sion on the House. On its close, of England would go down, never to Colonel Barrè started up, and de- rise again.” Such is the sincerity of clared, that if it were but published, party, and such sometimes its puhe would have it nailed up on every nishment Those great men bad church-door in the kingdom, by the laboured for years to pull down the side of the proclamation for the Ge- supremacy which they loved, to raise neral Fast. 'Sir George Saville pro up a revolt to the rank of a triumpb,

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the last

and give the loose and desultory ef- of his head or his heart; of his alle
forts of popular ambition the form giance to a political superior, not of
and consistency of Empire. But his genius, acting on his ripened
while they contemplated nothing be- knowledge of the interests of the
yond the overthrow of the Minister, Empire.
they found that their weapons had It is remarkable that as he gra.
passed through bis shield, and struck dually extricated himself from the
into the bosom of their country. Yet bonds of party, be became not mere-
the whole question was destined to ly a freer, but a more enlightened
expose the short-sightedness, not statesman. While he continued in
less than the passions of party. the ranks of the Rockingham party,
The blows struck at the grandeur nothing but the extraordinary merits
of England were quickly bealed. of his public speaking could rescue
The separation of the Colonies was him from the general cloud which
found to be the separation of a gathered on the fame of Opposition.
branch from a monarch of the forest, Further, in the second stage of his
which soon more than recovered the political career, he steered side by
loss in its statelier strength and side with Fox; his rank as a patriot
loftier luxuriance. In a few years was still partially obscured, and his
the growth of the Colonies would public services were narrowed,
have been a fatal appendage to Eng. wasted, and humiliated by the con-
land; the mere patronage of their junction. But his time was to come.
offices must have made the Minister For sincerity there is always a tri.
superior to the Constitution. The umph at last. It was when he hoist-
two countries might have still clung ed his flag alone, when he steered
together, but it would be no longer aloof from party, when abandoning
an union of strength, but a common the creeks and shallows of personal
consent in corruption. But the ar- policy, he boldly followed the im.
rear of evil must be paid at last, and pulse of his own great mind, and
the connexion would be severed, made the cause of England his gui-
and the crime punished by some ding star, that his true character
fatal violence, some fearful explo became visible, and he achieved the
sion, which might have left of both whole splendour of that fame, which,
nothing but ruins.

from his tomb, still lightens on his
But those were the errors of party, country.
not of Burke; of his noviciate, not



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