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we venture to prophecy, the evil will
administered as in Scotland, by pub-
the Crown; and till the Government
are authorized, upon a report from ; the Judges, that the conviction of h offenders has become impossible, y, from the effects of intimidation, to ch suspend jury trial for a time in the ed turbulent districts, and try the of
. fenders, as in courts martial, by the en Judges alone. Many estimable men
will hesitate as to this: let them re18 collect what is the other alternative, ch namely, impunity to assassins, inole cendiaries, and robbers, and cease
less anarchy to the country.
security to that part of the country. the simple expedient of marc The magistrates were of opinion them to Cork, Waterford, or Du that the insurrection act should there to be embarked for Eng be renewed, and that Government and sold there, is one of the u should be invested with additional countable parts of the conduct o powers to put down this system of present Administration, which pr intimidation and outrage.”
that they are ignorant of the Provision also is indispensably re- principles of the government of r quired for the protection of the wit- kind. The state of things in Ire nesses, who bear testimony in unpo- for the last year, is neither more pular causes. At present they are sent less than a direct premium on re back after the trial to their homes lion, an encouragement to the to be assassinated, or roasted alive sation of payment of taxes, rent by the insurgent peasantry; and yet burdens of any description, an the English are astonished that invitation to the people to avail th justice cannot be obtained in Ire- selves of the machinery now pu land! In all such cases, where the motion against the clergy for t witness desires it, and he appears deliverance from rent, taxes, to have given a true testimony, he burdens of every description. should be furnished with the means 3. Having vindicated the autho of emigration, with his wife and fa- of the law, measures should nex mily, and marched to the place of taken to prevent the clergy f embarkation under a military guard. coming in contact with the cul Nothing short of this will procure tors, by commuting the tithes, evidence against the worst criminals, laying them as a direct burden or overcome the rooted determina- the landlords. Let us not be tion of the Irish peasantry to mur- taken: we have not the least der all those who have given evi- that this will improve the condi dence, as they conceive, against the of the farmers, or satisfy the des people; that is, who have sworn the of the abolitionists—we know truth against cut-throats and incen- what they wish; the resumptior diaries.
the tithes to the Catholic clergy 2. The government is now com the estates to the Catholic landlo mitted in a struggle with the Catho- and of the government to Cath lic priesthood as to the payment of leaders, is what they desire, and tithes; the authority of the law must never cease to strive for. But tho be vindicated, or the semblance of this measure would do as little order, which now exists in Ireland, all probability, as Catholic Ema will be annihilated. Let what mea- pation to tranquillize Ireland, ye sures they choose follow for the would remove the irritation wh commutation of tithes: the first thing now exists between the clergy : to do is, to vindicate the authority their parishioners, and thus withdı of the law against an insurgent peo- the Established Church from a p ple. For this purpose, authority tical contest, of which it is now should be obtained from the legisla- victim. ture, to levy from those who can pay 4. The next great object of Ir and wont pay, the full value of the legislation, should be the establi tithe in kind, with expenses, and ment of a judicious and enlighter to march the cattle distrained off to system of Poor's Laws, for the the nearest sea-port, to be sold in lief of the sick, the aged, and th Bristol or Liverpool. A few exam- who, though willing, can find no e ples of the vigorous application of ployment. It is needless to arg this law, would operate like a charm this question—the public mind in dissolving the combination against made up upon it. The English a tithes. The present system of ex- Scotch will not much longer subi posing the cattle for sale, in a coun to have their poor's rates doub try where no person ventures to buy annually by the inundation of Ir them, and then marching them back beggars; or their scanty channels to the owners, is a mere mockery, employment choked by multitud and tends to nothing, but to bring of Irish labourers. The time is con government and the law into con when, in the general distress of 1 tempt. Why they never fell upon empire, consequent on the sho
On this subject it is sufficient to in- quote the testimony of a gentleman sh of acknowledged talent, intimately he acquainted with Ireland, and cer. he tainly any thing rather than favour
able to the Conservative cause. Sir
as member for Queen's County, he
could not help adverting to the state
ceived information that a confederacy
the laws which were passed for the
that houses were frequently attack
ed by armed parties in the open day, s, and that murders were sometimes at committed during such attacks. He
was likewise informed that the reigu of terror made it impossible to obtain a conviction against these marauders when brought to trial, and that thus peaceable persons, who
hon, secretary for Ireland to this
toe peace and
disapproved of these violent pro | ceedings, were obliged, by a regard
to their own safety, to give them an fimplied but involuntary sanction. He called the attention of the right
trusted that something
given to credit and industry by the The apprehension so commonly Reform Bill, each portion must be expressed, that if we furnish the led to a maintenance of their own Irish with the means of emigration, poor. We are persuaded that the they will only people the faster at İrish themselves must be aware, that home, and speedily fill up the vahowever burdensome such a mea- cuum produced by our exertions, is sure may be, it is unavoidable; and altogether chimerical. Even if it that the relief afforded to this coun- were true that this would follow, it try by the absorption of its labour- would be no reason whatever for not ing poor, and their removal from a giving this direction to the stream, life of dissolute idleness, will be a if it cannot be checked. At present greater public and private benefit, the Irish do not remain at home; than the imposition of poor's rates they emigrate into England and will be a burden.
Scotland, because the steam-boats The hackneyed argument, that by bring them over the Channel for a so doing you will add fuel to the sixpence, and they there find emflame, and increase the already re- ployment in health, and a legal setdundant numbers of the Irish poor, tlement in sickness and age. Supis generally known to be, what it posing, therefore, that we could not really is, a complete delusion. A stop the increase of the Irish poor, judicious system of poor's rates in we do ourselves, as well as them, an reality, instead of being an encou- immense service, by turning them ragement to undue increase, is the into the regions of Transatlantic most effectual means for diminish- plenty, instead of the densely peoing it; because it is a check to the pled shores of Britain. But, in truth, propagation of those pauper and de- a judicious system of emigration grading habits, which, more than any largely carried into execution, would other circumstance, lead to the mul- have just an opposite effect. By tiplication of the poor. Without improving the condition of those poor's rates, Ireland has for a cen- who remain at home, and enlarging tury been overwhelmed with a re- the sphere of their employment, it dundant poor: with them, England would contribute to diffuse better for two has retained hers within the habits, encourage artificial wants, bounds of general comfort and pros and gradually bring the increase of perity. This example is decisive: mankind into some degree of harfurther argument is like attempting mony with the augmentation of the to prove that two and two make four. wages of labour.
5. The greatest possible facility 6. The fisheries, and neglected should be given by Government to harbours, and waste lands of Ireland, the emigration of the Irish poor. furnish ample room for the comThe number who emigrated in 1831 mencement of government works on to Canada was 18,000. No reason a great scale, to spread wealth, and can be assigned why it should not industry, and orderly habits through be 180,000. The expense of trans. its labouring poor. The mines of porting settlers to the shores of Ca. untouched wealth which there exist nada, is about L.3 a-head: to furnish are incalculable; they might almost the means of emigration to this large pave the Emerald Isle with gold. In body, therefore, would only cost other countries, such undertakings L.540,000; and what an immense re may be safely left to the exertions of lief would it prove to every part of private industry. In Ireland the case the empire! The expense of such a is otherwise. Unless they are begun proceeding would, no doubt, be con- and forced on by the capital and the siderable; but what is that to the vigour of Government, they never will incalculable relief it would afford be attempted. Ireland is in that stage to a nation now labouring in every of civilisation when such undertaquarter from thé immigration of Irish kings must originate with Governpoor? We have spent much more ment, or not be carried on at all. Inthan that sum already in fitting out dividual capital will never migrate to a fleet to partition the dominions of a country, where life and property is our ancient ally, and give back Ant 80 precarious as it is in that distractwerp the stronghold of revolution ed island. If we would give the ary France, to the power which people in the south and west a taste openly aims at our subjugation, for the enjoyments of wealth or the
The apprehension so commonly expressed, that if we furnish the Irish with the means of emigration, they will only people the faster at home, and speedily fill up the va cuum produced by our exertions, is altogether chimerical. Even if it
were true that this would follow, it - would be no reason whatever for not e giving this direction to the stream,
if it cannot be checked. At present
the Irish do not remain at home;
Scotland, because the steam-boats
we do ourselves, as well as them, an
à judicious system of emigration ny largely carried into execution, would ul. have just an opposite effect. By
who remain at home, and enlarging re- the sphere of their employment
acquisitions of industry, we must, in These are hard words ; let the read
When they first came into powe Having done thus much for the in November 1830, they declare welfare and happiness of Ireland their resolution, in the stronge having strained every nerve for the terms, to put a period to the anarch real benefit and prosperity of its of Ireland. For three months, Du numerous inhabitants, Government lin was the scene of the most veh would be entitled to come forward ment contest between Mr O'Conne and deliver them from the worst and the Irish Secretary; and at las curse which desolates their land, he was caught by the vigour an that of their own priests and dema- ability of the Attorney General, an gogues. The seditious harangues, actually PLEADED GUILTY to a cr the treasonable meetings, the incen- minal indictment preferred agains diary proclamations, which have so him. Their vigour on this occasion long kept up the flame of discontent was attended with the best effects in that unhappy country, to promote and had a prodigious effect both i the ambition of a few restless dema- Ireland and England. O'Connel gogues, must be put down. The seemed to be gone; the anarchy o people must be delivered from the Ireland to be pierced to the heart is tyranny of their demagogues in spite the person of the great Agitator of themselves. England, with its and tranquillity about to revisit it centuries of freedom; Scotland, with shores, from the experienced hopeits cautious character, could not lessness of agitating with impunity withstand such incendiary applica- and success,
In England, all good tion. How then can it be expected men beheld with satisfaction this that Ireland is to be tranquil under incipient act of vigour, and anticitheir influence, destitute as she is of pated the happiest result from this the free habits of the one, or the signal advantage gained over the cautious temperament of the other. worst enemy his country had ever Naturally brave, impassioned and known. ardent, the Irish have never felt in But immediately after this decithe slightest degree the counteract- sive success, commenced the ruinous ing influence of the causes which system of weakness, vacillation, and moderate popular excesses in this subservience to the mob, which has country, and so long prevented liber- ever since been pursued. The budu ty from degenerating into licentious- get was brought in ; Ministers were ness. Yet it is into their inflamma- beaten, laughed at, and evidently ble bosom that Government has so falling; and to prop up their wtuera long allowed the fury of political ing power, they resolved to throw and religious rancour to be poured themselves, without reserve, into the without alloy. And still the English arms of the revolutionary party in express surprise at the ceaseless dis- the whole empire. This instantly quietude and suffering of Ireland ! revived their all but ruined fortunes;
The consideration of what a wise the danger was transferred from and beneficent government might themselves to the nation; instead of have done, and should have done, for the Whig Administration going down Ireland, forms the best introduction the gulf of perdition, Great Britain to the examination of what the entered the jaws; and they had the Whigs have actually effected. satisfaction of prolonging a feverish
ln entering on this subject, we existence for a few years, by a mea. know not in what terms to express sure which they now know, and do our astonishment at the mixture of not scruple to avow, will prove the vacillation, recklessness, and igno, destruction of the empire. rance, which the conduct of admini Towards the success of this allistration towards Ireland has afforded ance with the Revolutionists, it was for the last two years. Indeed, we indispensable that the great Agitator doubt whether there is on record in should be gained over to their side ; European history, such an instance and the democrats of Ireland per: of weakness of judgment and vio- mitted to agitate and conyular the lence of party ambition, as their con- country under the colours duct from first to last has exhibited. nistration. With this
VOL. XXXIII. NO. CCIII.
ut improving the condition of those
nd would contribute to diffuse better he habits, encourage artificial wants, 19- and gradually bring the increase of mankind into some degree of har
. ng mony with the augmentation of the
wages of labour.
6. The fisheries, and neglected to harbours, and waste lands of Ireland,
furnish ample room for the com131 mencement of government works on
a great scale, to spread wealth, and 10t industry, and orderly habits through
its labouring poor. The mines of a. untouched wealth which there exist sh
are incalculable; they might almost ge pave the Emerald Isle with gold. In ist other countries, such undertakings e- may be safely left to the exertions of of private industry. In Ireland the case
is otherwise. Unless they are begun and forced on by the capital and the
vigour of Government,they never will d be attempted. Ireland is in that stage
of civilisation when such underia. h kings must originate with Govern.
ment, or not be carried on at all. In
dividual capital will never migrate to of a country, where life and property is
80 precarious as it is in that distracted island. If we would give the the south and west a taste !
of wealth or the
never brought up to receive sentence. unexpected and unhoped for exMonth after month, the whole win- tinction of tithes, the combination ter term of the Dublin courts expi- against their payment was rapidly red, without his prosecution being organized. The Catholic bishops moved in, although it might have and priests could not be persuaded been finished in ten minutes; and at that they were not forwarding the last it was allowed to come to a na- views of Administration, and of their tural termination by the dissolution favourite pupil and dignified ally, of Parliament in April 1831.
Mr O'Connell, by anticipating a little Not content with this immense the work of “Extinction,” and refuboon to the great Agitator, Ministers, sing de facto to pay those burdens in the transports of their first love which were so soon de jure to be for the Revolutionists, went a step terminated. Thence arose the imfarther. They promoted him above mense and unparalleled combination all his brethren, placed him at the against tithes in Ireland, originating head of the Irish bar, and, if report in the diocese of Dr Doyle. Orgabe true, were only prevented by the nized by the Catholic leaders in firmness of the Irish Secretary, too Dublin, it soon spread universally able a man not to be a Conservative over the south and west; and in a in heart, whatever he is in party, short time two-thirds of the estafrom making him Attorney-General! blished clergy were in a state of This unprecedented and disgraceful starvation, and the greater part of step was equivalent to a general the country in a virtual insurrection proclamation of anarchy through the against the authority of the law. The country. The passions of its ardent consequences are well known. A people were let loose without re- bill was brought into Parliament to straint. Sheltered under the wings provide for the necessities of the of administration, secure from all Irish Church out of the Consolidadanger at the hands of Government, ted Fund; the clergy of Ireland the Catholics, democrats, and agita- thrown upon the industry of Engtors of that distracted country uni- land, and the Attorney-General, charted together; and in the midst of vio- ged with the hopeless task, by the lence, intimidation, and bloodshed, aid of the military, of recovering the a large majority of movement-men dues of the church out of several was returned to Parliament.
millions of an insurgent peasantry. Nor was this all. With the view Meanwhile the perilous state of apparently of still farther rousing the the country roused the spirit, and passions of the Catholics, Mr Stanley called forth the patriotism of the declared in his place in the House Protestants of the North, Seeing of Commons, that “the extinction of themselves abandoned by the Gotithes” was intended by Govern- vernment, and on the verge of dement; and the Catholic leaders, by struction; anticipating the horrors this time become a powerful body in of the Tyrone Rebellion on a still the House, instantly bailed the joy- greater scale, this intrepid band ous intelligence, and said, without stood forth alone, but undismayed, contradiction from the Treasury in the midst of the general paralysis Benches, that they considered tithes and defection of the empire. While as now at an end on the other side England was quailing under the vioof St George's Channel. This un- lence of the Revolutionists, and beexpected intelligence spread like holding in consternation the fires at wildfire through Ireland, faster than Bristol; while the noble example of the fiery cross, it sped from chapel the Conservative Meeting at Edin. to chapel, from priest to priest; burgh failed to stimulate the Scotch and the people, totally incapable of to the discharge of patriotic duty; understanding what was intended, the Irish Protestants boldly stood but relying on the words of Admini- forth, and though menaced by danstration in the House of Commons, gers infinitely greater than any other concluded that tithes were finally part of the British dominions, held abolished; and that all payments to a language, and exhibited a deterthe clergy were thenceforward to mination, which, if generally imitacease for ever.
ted through the empire, would have In the tumults consequent on this consigned the Reform Bill, with its
md. No. I.
terminated. Thence arose the ima
ent consequences are well known. A
all Irish Church out of the Consolida-
millions of an insurgent peasantry
by struction; anticipating the horrore
a language, and exhibited a deter-
, with its
Parent Administration, to an exe- because the people persist in anne
the infatuations of which party m Meanwhile the ministerial project were ever guilty, this is perhaps t for tithes came forth. It was no greatest. For Ireland, great part longer“ an extinction” of tithes, but whose people are still almost in only a " commutation,” which by savage state, and all of whom a laying them on the landlord directly, actuated by the strongest politic still preserved them, though not in passions, they proposed the san so palpable a manner, as a burden on electoral institutions as England f the soil
. The wisdom of the change the neighbouring island. Into from the intention originally announ- inflammable, ardent, and pennile ced, is obvious; and we rejoice at population they poured the sam being able to render our humble fatal gift of political power whi meed of praise to the Government was hardly deemed safe amidst t for this return to Conservative prin- old established freedom, sober 1 ciples, even at the eleventh hour; bits, and extended property of En but what shall we say to the rash- land. One political constitution w ness which dictated the previous carved out at a single heat for Er promise of " extinction,” and set the land, Scotland, and Ireland ; in oth Catholic population every where on words, one measure taken for a m fire, at the prospect of a boon which of forty, a youth of eighteen, and Government never intended they boy of twelve; for in these prop should receive? Thence has arisen tions, or nearly so, is the capacity the universal, the unanimous detes- the different portions of the emp tation in which the Whigs are held to bear political excitation, or di in Ireland. The nation, for the last exercise the political rights of ele six months, has been every where ing citizens. The simple enunc convulsed by contests for the pay- tion of this fact is sufficient to co ment of tithes. Every other subject, vict the Ministry, not only of t how pressing soever, has been lost most culpable rashness, but to in the overwhelming interest of that ignorance of the first principles one topic. The peasantry originally representative governments. It roused by the promises of Govern- utterly impossible that the same ment for the "extinction" of tithes, litical institutions can be adapted organized and headed by the darling the same time to two nations, one favourite of Ministers, the great Agi- which is in the infancy, and the oti tator, find themselves assailed by the in the old age of its political edu military, for doing what these recent tion. If the L.10 franchise and 1 allies, these highly rewarded, and abolition of the close boroughs dearly-beloved supporters of Go- adapted for England, it cannot vernment, urged them to do. Blood suited for Ireland. has flowed profusely in many places;
What would we say to a legisla irritation been widely spread in all, who should propose the same pol