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able actually advances advantage amount bank notes bankers benefit bills bullion called capital carried cause cheapness cheques circulation circumstances cloth coin commodities consequence considered consumers continue cost of production currency dealers debt demand depend desire effect employed enable England equal equivalent exactly exchange exist expense exports extent fact fall foreign France gain Germany give given gold greater hands imports improvement increase issue labour land least less limited linen loans lower manner means measure metals millions natural necessary obtain operations paid payments period permanent person portion possession precious metals present produce profit proportion purchase quantity raise rate of interest receive respect rise sell shillings silver speculation sufficient supply supposed things tion trade transactions usual wages wanted whole yards
Page 334 - ... a well-paid and affluent body of labourers; no enormous fortunes, except what were earned and accumulated during a single lifetime; but a much larger body of persons than at present, not only exempt from the coarser toils, but with sufficient leisure, both physical and mental, from mechanical details, to cultivate freely the graces of life, and afford examples of them to the classes less favourably circumstanced for their growth.
Page 189 - Gold and silver having been chosen for the general medium of circulation, they are, by the competition of commerce, distributed in such proportions amongst the different countries of the world, as to accommodate themselves to the natural traffic which would take place if no such metals existed, and the trade between countries were purely a trade of barter.
Page 335 - There is room iu the world, no doubt, and even in old countries, for a great increase of population, supposing the arts of life to go on improving, and capital to increase. But even if innocuous, I confess I see very little reason for desiring it.
Page 408 - They grow richer, as it were in their sleep, without working, risking, or economizing. What claim have they, on the general principle of social justice, to this accession of riches...
Page 567 - Laisserfaire, in short, should be the general practice : every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Page 391 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have derived from the employment of their capitals. An injudicious tax offers a great temptation to smuggling. Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation,...
Page 391 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state. A tax may either take out or keep out of the pockets of the people a great deal more than it brings into the public treasury...
Page 390 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Page 390 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person.