Peripheral Nerve Disorders: Chapter 19. Compression and entrapment neuropathies
Peripheral nerve entrapments are frequent. They usually appear in anatomical tunnels such as the carpal tunnel. Nerve compressions may be due to external pressure such as the fibular nerve at the fibular head. Malignant or benign tumors may also damage the nerve. For each nerve from the upper and lower limbs, detailed clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic aspects are described. In the upper limbs, carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow are the most frequent manifestations; the radial nerve is less frequently involved. Other nerves may occasionally be damaged and these are described also. In the lower limbs, the fibular nerve is most frequently involved, usually at the fibular head by external compression. Other nerves may also be involved and are therefore described. The clinical and electrophysiological examination are very important for the diagnosis, but imaging is also of great use. Treatments available for each nerve disease are discussed.
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abductor abnormal action potential axon loss biceps brevis carpal tunnel syndrome cause Clin clinical conduction block conduction velocity cubital tunnel cutaneous nerve decompression deep fibular nerve diagnosis digit Disorders distal elbow electrodiagnostic Electrophysiological study entrapment neuropathy evoked potential extensor carpi femoral nerve femoral neuropathy fibular head fibular neuropathy fibular palsy flexor carpi ulnaris flexor pollicis longus forearm frequent ganglion cyst gluteal nerve Hand Surg idiopathic innervated intraneural latency lateral plantar ligament medial plantar median nerve meralgia paresthetica Muscle Nerve needle electrodes Nerve Anatomy nerve conduction study nerve entrapment nerve injury nerve palsy Neurol Neurosurg obturator Orthop pain paralysis paresthesias patients perineurioma plantar nerve plexus pronator syndrome pronator teres proximal radial nerve rare recording reported sciatic nerve sciatic neuropathy sensory branch Seror stimulation superficial fibular nerve supinator muscle suprascapular nerve surgery surgical symptoms technique tendon thigh tibial nerve trauma treatment tumors ulnar nerve ulnar neuropathy usually wrist