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few of the additions given in the third ; and a third American edition has been printed from the fifth Eng. lish edition. The Italian is from the third, the Dutch and three Russian editions from the second English edition, and the Swedish from the fifth English edition.
Fifth Sixth Edition. Edition.
Chief Additions and Currections.
On the convergence of specific forms.
On the modification of the eye. 233 Transitions through the acceleration or retardation
of the period of reproduction. The account of the electric organ of fishes added to. Analogical resemblance between the eyes of Cepha
lopods and Vertebrates. Claparède on the analogical resemblance of the hair
claspers of the Acaridæ.
Helmholtz on the imperfection of the human eye.
in a much modified state, taken from chap. iv. of
their foster-brothers confirmed.
On fertile hybrid moths.
been acquired through natural selection condensed and modified.
Fifth Sixth Edition. Edition.
Chief Additions and Currecti ins.
Page vol, ji.
On the causes of sterility of hybrids, added to and
corrected. 81 Pyrgoma found in the chalk. 107 | Extinct forms serving to connect existing groups.
On earth adhering to the feet of migratory birds. 172 On the wide geographical range of a species of
Galaxias, a fresh-water fish. 218 | Discussion on analogical resemblances, enlarged and
modified. Homological structure of the feet of certain mar
supial animals. 236 On serial homologies, corrected. 237 Mr. E. Ray Lankester on morphology. 240 On the asexual reproduction of Chironomus. 262 On the origin of rudimentary parts, corrected. 262 Recapitulation on the sterility of hybrids, corrected. 275 Recapitulation on the absence of fossils beneath the
Cambrian system, corrected. | Natural selection not the exclusive agency in the · modification of species, as always maintained in
this work. 297 | The belief in the separate creation of species generally
held by naturalists, until a recent period.
AN HISTORICAL SKETCH
OF THE PROGRESS OF OPINION ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES,
PREVIOUSLY TO THE PUBLICATION OF THE FIRST EDITION
OF THIS WORK.
I WILL here give a brief sketch of the progress of opinion on the Origin of Species. Until recently the great majority of naturalists believed that species were immutable productions, and had been separately created. This view has been ably maintained by many authors. Some few naturalists, on the other hand, have believed that species undergo modification, and that the existing forms of life are the descendants by true generation of pre-existing forms. Passing over allusions to the subject in the classical writers,* the first author who in
* Aristotle, in his 'Physicæ Auscultationes' (lib. 2, cap. 8, s. 2), after remarking that rain does not fall in order to make the corn grow, any more than it falls to spoil the farmer's corn when threshed out of doors, applies the same argument to organisation; and adds (as translated by Mr. Clair Grece, who first pointed out the passage to me), “ So what hinders the different parts [of the body from having this merely accidental relation in nature ? as the teeth, for example, grow by necessity, the front ones sharp, adapted for dividing, and the grinders flat, and serviceable for masticating the food; since they were not made for the sake of this, but it was the result of accident. And in like manner as to the other parts in which there appears to exist an adaptation to an end. Wheresoever, therefore, all things together (that is all the parts of one whole) happened like as if they were made for the sake of something, these were preserved, having been appropriately constituted
modern times has treated it in a scientific spirit was Buffon. But as his opinions fluctuated greatly at different periods, and as he does not enter on the causes or means of the transformation of species, I need not here enter on details.
Lamarck was the first man whose conclusions on the subject excited much attention. This justly-celebrated naturalist first published his views in 1801; he much enlarged them in 1809 in his 'Philosophie Zoologique,' and subsequently, in 1815, in the Introduction to his *Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertébres.' In these works he upholds the doctrine that all species, including man, are descended from other species. He first did the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability of all change in the organic, as well as in the inorganic world, being the result of law, and not of miraculous interposition. Lamarck seems to have been chiefly led to his conclusion on the gradual change of species, by the difficulty of distinguishing species and varieties, by the almost perfect gradation of forms in certain groups, and by the analogy of domestic productions. With respect to the means of modification, he attributed something to the direct action of the physical conditions of life, something to the crossing of already existing forms, and much to use and disuse, that is, to the effects of habit. To this latter agency he seems to attribute all the beautiful adaptations in nature ;-such as the long neck of the giraffe for browsing on the
by an internal spontaneity; and whatsoever things were not thus constituted, perished, and still perish." We here see the principle of natural selection shadowed forth, but how little Aristotle fully comprehended the principle, is shown by his remarks on the formation of the teeth."