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378

388

Sparrman's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope,

321, 413

Dr. Pew's Medical Sketches. Part I.

329

Relhan's Flora Cantabrigienfis,

331

Stone's Essay on Agriculture,

333

Fléchere's La Grace & la Nature, Poëme,

334

Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with S. Johnson,

LL. D.'

337

Scott's (John) Critical Essays on some of the Poems of several

English Poets,

345

Drinkwater's History of the late Siege of Gibraltar,

350

Sulivan's Analysis of the Political History of India, 2d Edit. 361

Tour through Parts of England, Scotland, and Wales, 2d Edit: 368

The New Annual Register, for 1784,

372

Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, No. XXI.-XXV. 374

Dissertations on the internal Evidences of Christianity,

Address to the Stockholders,

British Rights asserted,

389

Tenth Chapter of the Acts of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, ib.

Gibbons's Reply to Sir Lucius O'Brien, Bart.

ibid.

A Retrospective View of the increafing Number of the stand.

ing Army of Great Britain,

ibid.

Jenkinson's (Right Hon. Charles) Collection of all the Treaties

of Peace, &c. between Great Britain and other Powers, 390

Report of the Cricklade Case,

ibid.

Hanway's Neglect of the effectual Separation of Prisoners, &c.

the Cause of the frequent Thefts, &c.

ibid.

Brown's Restitution of all Things,

ibid.

Scott's (Tho.) Discourse upon Repentance,

391

Plantagenet, á Poem,

392

Whitmore's Royal Tears,

ibid.

The Royal Dream,

ibid.

The Power of Oratory, an Ode,

ibid.

The Æropiad,

ibid.

Holcroft's Choleric Fathers, a Comic Opera,

393

Mrs. Inchbald's Appeașance is against them,

ibid.

Dent's Lawyer's Panic,

ibid.

Adventures of George Maitland, efq.

.394

Constance, a Novel,

ibid.

Francis the Philanthropist,

395

Warbeck, a pathetic Tale,

ibid.

The Quaker, a Novel,

ibid.

Walwyn's Love in a Cottage,

ibid.

Mrs. Cartwright's Duped Guardian,

396

Dr. Johnson's Life of Dr. Watts,

ibid.

Śketch of the Life of Pope Clement XIV,

Memoirs of George Anne B. amy,

ibid.

Heroic Epistle to Major Scott,

The Degeneracy of the Times,

ibid.

Reflections an the Study of Nature,

ibid.

Remarks on the extraordinary Conduct of the Knight of the

Ten Stars,

398

Wedgwood's Letter to a Proprietor of the Navigation from the

Trent to the Mersey,

ibid.

6

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Mac Intosh's Collection of Gaelic Proverbs,

398

Du Mitand's New French Spelling-book,

399

Miscellaneous Thoughts,

ibid.

Letters between an illustrious Personage and a Lady of Honour, ib,

London unmasked; or, the New Town Spy,

ibid.

Lawrie's History of the Wars in Scotland,

400

Omai's Letter to the Earl of * * *

ibid.

Annotations on the Trial of Mrs. H. Errington, for Adultery, ib.

Oven's Translation of the Satires of Juvenal,

401

Heron's Letters of Literature,

405

Thoughts on the Properties and Formation of Air,

424

Medical Transactions, Vol. III.

Answer to Ramsay's Essays on the Treatient and Conversion

of African Slaves,

436

Cursory Remarks on Ramfay's Essays, &c.

437

Ramsay's Reply to the personal Invectives and Objections in the

above Two Answers,

439

Ramsay's Inquiry into the Effects of putting a Stop to the Afri-

can Slave Trade,

449

Dr. Chauncy's Five Dissertations on the Scripture Account of

the Fall,

444

Redpath’s Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy,

453

Probationary Odes for the Laureatship,

456

Criticisms on the Rolliad, Part I.

458

Observations on Antimonial Preparations,

464

Dr. Wallis's Translation of Sauvages's Nofologia Methodica

Oculorum,

465

Dr. Falconer's Edition of Dobson's Medical Commentary on

fixed Air,

Dr. Corp's Effay on the Jaundice,

467

Dr. Pearson's Directions for impregnating the Buxton Waters

with Gasses,

468

Croffe's Power of Friendship,

ibid,

Black's Vale of Innocence,

ibid,

Translation of Fletcher's Ode on the Peace of 1783, 469

The Etymologift, a Comedy of Three Acts,

470.

The Woman of Quality,

ibid.

The Lady's Tale,

ibid,

Cumberland's Character of the late Lord Visc. Sackville, . ibid.

Remarks on Bofwell's Journal on a Tour to the Hebrides, 473

Elements of English Grammar,

474

Mac Packe's Oxidic, or Nutshells,

ibid,

Guide through London, Westminster, Southwark, &c. 476

Hutton's Journey from Birmingham to London,

477

Proposals for establishing, at Sea, a Marine School,

Mavor's Universal Stenography,

ibid.

A General Dictionary of the English Language,

ibid,

Baron Munchausen's Narrative of his Travels and Campaigns in

Ruffia,

479

Case of Major John Savage,

ibid.

New Annals of Gallantry,

ibid.

Correspondence,

479, 480

THE

CRITICAL REVIEW.

For

J U L Y,

1785

T

Philosophical Rhapsodies. Fragments of Akbur of Berlis. Cona

taining Reflections on the Laws, Manners, Customer and Relis gions, of certain Afiatic, Afric, and European Nationsar Cole letted and now first published. By Richard Jofeph Salivan, Esq. In three Volumes. 8vo. 155. in Boards.' Becket.

HE following fragments were written by a native of

Affyria, who, in very early youth, was removed to the continent of Europe, and thence to England. During his refidence in England with a friend of his father's, he became in structed in its language, and in the principles of its religion. He then travelled; and in various countries threw together the reflections which appear in the following sheett.'.**

This is the account of the editor, and we'ought not to dift trust it; but whether Akbur really existed, or fome European author has indulged his fancy, and wandered in idea'under this guise, is of little consequence: the work itself is out object, and merits our recommendation: The author is 'a candid and intelligent traveller, a ' friend of his fellow-creatures, and a zealous advocate for the offices of humanity.' 'He travels, not to describe buildings, prospects, or the the various ornaments of differing fancy, but to examine the manners and customs, to delineate the human heart, and to feel it under different disguises, but still poffefsing the same generous propensities, the same virtues, and the same weaknesses. "His mind is eni lightened, and his sentiments liberal : indeed his liberality sometimes degenerates, a little into fcepticism; but we find nothing to reprehend, for we discover it only by the terrors which he seems to feel when on holy ground, and the restraint frequently visible when his enquiries have brought him to the verge of the sanctuary. His language is clear, simple, and unornamented'; and, in general, we think thefe Philosophical Rhapsodies, unconnected in form, rather than in fubitance, furnith a pleasing and rational entertainment. Voi, LX. July, 1785.

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This mental travelling, this, 'review of the minds and manners, is highly useful. It divests us of that unsocial pride, which raifes our own imaginary rank; for virtues and vices are nearly, the same in all countries; benevolence is always amiable, and a narrow selfishness defpicable, from the hovels of the Hottentot to the caverns of Lapland." It expands the mind, since it nows that happiness and misery are more equal. ly diffused than we thould suspect, from a first and tranfient view; and it teaches us to respect the of others, when they are found not to be more gross and numerous than our own.

The first question, which necessarily occurs to the mental traveller; is the origin of the different nations, and the varieties of the human, race. These questions are involved with each other; for, if the whole world did not proceed from one pair, no origin is necessary, or at leasl none can be determined. This is a subject which has not yet been decided, and the road to investigation is shut up, till some liberal theologian shall clearly show, that the Mosaic account of the creation is not to be understood in 'a literal or an universal sense. The first men for piety and learning, whom we have conversed with, have agreed that it is not so; and indeed, the account of the early ages seems to have been chiefly designed to preserve the Jewish genealogies. It is difficult to find one precepts, either of morality or religion, except the punishment inficted on the murderer, necessary to the conduct of our lives, not to add, that the whole is related in the uncertain mz de of tradition. We chiefly mean to refer to the ages, before the flood; and Mould not have hazarded this opinion, if we had not known that it was supported by the best authorities. Our author dwells chiefly on the different races of men, and on those tribes, in appearance, most remote from them, viz. the white men on the ifthmus of Darien, and the Albinoes of Africa. But, in fa&, there are no two species of the same genus, in the whole of animated nature, more

diftinct than the wooly-headed African, and the copper-coloured American. To talk of the effects of climate is abfurd : it niay infuence the height, the strength, and from thence the manners; but it would never enlarge the lip, Aatten the nose, or bend the knees. Besides, we know of no effect of climate beyond what may be produced by the degree and duration of heat and cold, by the effects of moisture more or less combined with them. Yet in America there are parts as swampy, as the banks of the Gambia, and deserts as dry and torrid as those of Ethiopia. Akbur does not decide; bui he acts a little un.

fairly;

range of

fairly; he leads his reader to determine, without seeming to biass him.

Those who have examined the different races of mankind, the great families which have contributed to people the earth, must have been struck with the extensive settlements of the Tartars. Perhaps they are the most numerous family that we are yet acquainted with; for it is not easy to limit their appearance. They are said to be the descendents of Japhet; but that is little to the present purpose. Akbur, with justice, exainines them at the beginning of his travels, and sets out from the North. He is soon attracted by the Grand Lama, and the Dala Lama, and gives an entertaining account of that religion; but this was in general well known. The vait hordes, with which Scythia has peopled Europe and Afia excites the following just and natural reflections.

• From the prodigious number of people which the regions of Scythia have sent forth, one would imagine that polygamy was beneficial to a communiry; and that no connection of the sexes could be more favourable to population. The fact, however, has been doubted, and apparently, with good reason ; for al. though a plurality of wives has been much more universally allowed than the simple state of monogamy, as will more fully appear hereafter, there yet seem to be natural as well as political confiderations which speak forcibly against it. An equal proportion of the sexes is generally allowed to be the confequence of a man's being confined to a single wife ; whereas, a great majority on the female fide is observable in those countries where his appetites are unrestrained. Of this, both India and China, together with the nations of which we are now treating, afford fufficient proof. Among these people, the women far outnumber the men ; nor is the reason alligned, a bad one. It is observed by naturalists, that the Offspring of every animal partakes in general of the sex of that parent which has the itrongest and most vigorous constitution, and that the women in India and China' have less exhausted constitutions than the men, must readily be admitted. A variety of attraction must enervate even the most robuft man. The seraglio, 'therefore, cannot but be hurtful to the male propagation. In fupport of this opinion, we find, that in Europe, where polygamy is exploded, the proportion of males and females is nearly equal. I do not exactly recollect the calculation ; but I believe it is as 106 to 108. Europe, then, can boast of being in the truest and most eligible fate of nature; for woman being formed for man, and nature not allowing of those adventitious claims of riches and distinction which first introduced a plurality of wives, the division, by her rules, should be as equal as possible ; each fhould possess his mate, the poor as well as the wealthy. More. over the monopoly of beauty is a monopoly of the most injuri. B 2

ONS

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