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volence of the legislature hath made it unnecessary for the poor to provide againit future distress.
From the manufacturers of woollen cloth in the west riding of Yorkshire, we learn, that, when corn is cheap, they frequently find a difficulty in executing their orders from abroad; for the spinners, who make it a rule to earn no more money than is sufficient to supply their necessities, will labour four, five, or fix days in the week, according to the price of provisions.
The manufacturers at Norwich, Leeds, Hallifax, Sheffield, and Manchester, tell us, that their best hands constantly make Monday a holiday, and by those of Birmingham, I am assured, that the generality of their people seldom settle to work until Wednesday morning. Here then is a loss to the nation and to the workmen themselves, of one-third of what ought to be the entire produce of their labour. This loss to the nation amounts to a very large fum. But the loss to each individual workman is proportionably much greater ; for, to the loss of two days wages in every week, we must add the money spent in liquor during these two idle days, which may be fairly estimated at the earnings of one day, at the very leaft: so that there remains, for the support of himself and family, exactly one half of what he would earn if he could be satisfied with one day in seven for relaxation and amuse. ment. But this habitual diffipation is productive of a ftill greater injury to the community ; it impairs his strength, diminishes his years of utility, and brings him prematurely on the parish, without a single farthing in store for the fapport of his wife and children.
• Let us now suppose that every labouring manufacturer, in full employment, were compelled by a general law to leave, in the hands of his employer, the wages of one day in every week, to be appropriated to the maintenance of disabled or superannuated workmen and their families. Let these fums be paid weekly to a receiver-general of every parish. Would there be any thing inequitable or unjust in such a law? Would it not, on the contrary, relieve many of the inhabitants of manufacturing towns from a very heavy and a very inequitable tax? Would it not, by easing these towns of enormous poor. rates, enable them to lower the prices of their goods ? and Would it not finally prolong the lives of many useful individuals, and render them much more valuable members of fociety?'
The author of this small volume may be compared to an industrious bee, that collects the sweets of various flowers to Vol. LX. Aug. 1785.
deposit deposit them in its own little granary. Whether, though an avowed enemy to Machiavelian principles, the uniform and diftinct appropriation of his sympathetic affections and antipathies ought to excite any suspicion of his fincerity, we shall not determine : but it is observable that while he devotes all his honey to the present, he invariably aims his sting at the jaft adminiftration.
The Life of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. By
William Gilpin, M. A. 8vo. 35. 6d. in Boards. Blamire. THE character of archbishop Cranmer has been equally the
subject of exaggerated praise, and undelerved censure. At the time in which he lived, party spirit was furious and inexorable. The Papifts looked upon the Protestants with a . malevolent afpect ; and the Protestants, on the other hand, dreaded and detested the Papifts. Cranmer, as archbishop of Canterbury, occupied a station, which exposed him to every storm ; and, in that situation, it was not in the power of human foresight or prudence to avoid the odium of contending zealots. His rigour and his lenity were to the one party or to the other equally obnoxious. And if he temporized on fome occasions, as he certainly did, he was accused of a criminal flexibility. He had undoubtedly his frailties; but they were 'frequently caused, and more frequently aggravated, by the malignity of his opponents. If we view him with that candour, which is due to human nature, we shall not easily find a more respectable character. His virtues so far outweigh his fallings that, on the whole, we may elteem him one of the firit persons of the age in which he lived.
The excellent author of thefe memoirs seems to have disa criminated the lights and shades of his character with great accuracy, and judgment. He very properly censures his indelicacies and improprieties of conduct, and particularly his intolerant principles.
His reflections on the story of Joan Bocher and George Paris, are liberal and manly, becoming the character of an historian in this more civilized and enlightened age.
Joan Bocher and George Paris were accused, though at different times, one for denying che humanity of Christ ; the other for denying his divinity. They were both tried, and condemned to the stake: and the archbishop not only consented to these acts of biood, but even perfuaded the aversion of the young king into a compliance. "Your majesty must diftinguith (said he, informing his royal pupil's conscience) between common opinions, and such as are the efential articles of
Gilpin's Life of Archbishop Crammer.
131 faith. These latter we must on no account suffer to be
• It is true, these doctrines, especially the latter, in the opinion of the generality of Chriftians, are subversive of the fundamentals of Christianity. To deny the divinity of Christ seems to oppose the general idea, which the scriptures hold out of our redemption. On the other hand, many particular passages, which describe the humanity of Christ, seem to favour the doctrine : and some there are, who hold it even in this enlightened age. At worst, therefore, we, muít consider it as an erroneous opinion. To call it heresy, when attended with a good life, is certainly a great breach of Christian charity. Is it not then astonishing, that a man of the archbishop's candour could not give it a little more indulgence ? If any opinions can demand the secular arin, it must be such only as lead to actions, which injure the peace of society. We are surprised also at seeing the archbishop fo far depreciate his own cause, as to suppose that one man incurred guilt by acting on the same principles which entitled another to applause:: and that he who in the opinion of one church, was the greatest of schismatics himself, should not even in common justice indulge, in all the more speculative points of religion, toleration to others. Nothing even plausible can be fuggefted in defence of the archbishop on this occafion ; except only that the spirit of popery was not yet wholly repressed.
There are, however, among Protestant writers at this day, fome who have undertaken his vindication." But I spare their | indiscretion. Let the horrid act be universally disclaimed. To palliate, is to participate. With indignation let it be recorded, as what above all other things has disgraced that religious liberty, which our ancestors in most other respects fo nobly purchased. · The execution of this celebrated reformer filled up the measure of the enormities practised during the reign of queen Masy. His biographer gives this account of his behaviour at the stake.
• Having concluded his prayer, he rose from his knees; and taking a paper from his bosom, continued his speech to this effect.
“ It is now, my brethren, no time to dissemble. I stand upon verge of life—a vast eternity is before me. What my fears are, or what my hopes, it matters not here to unfold. For one action of my life at least I am accountable to the world-my late shameful subscription to opinions, which are wholly opposite to my real sentiments. Before this congrega
'ion I folemnly declare, that the fear of death alone induced me to this ignominious action that it hath cost me many bit-ter tears that in my heart I totally reject the pope, and doctrines of the church of Rome-and that".
. As he was continuing his speech, the whole assembly was. in an uproar. Lord Williams gave the first impulfe to the tu-' mult; crying aloud, “ Stop the audacious heretic.” On: which several priests and friars, rufhing from different parts of the church, with great eagerness feized him; pulled him from his feat; dragged him into the street ; and with much indecent precipitation, hurried him to the stake, which was already prepared. Executioners were on the spot, who securing him with a chain, piled-the faggots in order round him.
• As he food thu's, with all the horrid apparatus of death about him, midst taunts, revilings, and execrations, he alone maintained a dispassionate behaviour . Having now discharged his conscience, his mind grew lighter ;: and he seemed to feel,: even in these cireumstances, an inward fatisfactions to which: he had long been a ftranger :- his countenance was not fixed as before, in abject sorrow, on the ground; he looked round him with eyes full of sweetness and benignity, as if at peace with : all the world.
A torch being put to the pile, he was presently involved in a burst of smoke, and crackling fame : but on the side next the wind, he was distinctly seen, before the fire reached him, to thrust his right hand into it, and to hold it there with astonishing firmnefs; crying out, “ this hand-hath offended !. this hand hath offended!”_When we see haman nature ftruggling so nobly with such uncommon fufferings, it is a pleasing reflection thats through the assistance of God, there is a firmness in the mind of man, which will support him under trials, in appearance beyond his strength..
• His sufferings were foon over. The fire rising intensely around him, and a thick smoke involving him, it was fupposed he was presently dead.
• The story of his heart's remaining unconfumed in the midft of the fire, feems to be an instance of that crcdulous. zeal, which we have often feen lighted at the flames of dying martyrs.'
The word seems, in the last fentence, is too great a conces. fion to vulgar fuperftition.
The author informs us, that the works of Mr. Strype, anhistorian of great integrity, have been his principal guide. As there are some points which are taken from other writers, we must confess we fhould have been better pleased, if he had constantly referred us to original authorities. This appears to
be absolutely necessary in all historical and biographical narTatives, and is generally expected by every learned and inquifitive reader.
The Mystery bid from. Ages and Generations, made manifeft by the
Gospel-Revelation : or, the Salvation of all Men the grand Thing aimed at in the Scheme of God, as opened in the NewTeftament Writings, and entrusted with Jesus Christ to bring
into Effeat. 8vo. 55. ix Boards. Dilly. AS
S the Creator of all things is infinitely benevolent, it is
not easy to conceive, that he should bring mankind into -exifence, unless he intended to make them finally happy. And : if this was his intention, it cannot be supposed, as he is infi
nitely wise and powerful, that he thouid be unable to project, or carry into execution, a scheme, which would be effectual
to secure, fooner or later, its full accomplishment. From such principles as these it seems natural to infer, that all men * will be finally happy. This is the great point, which the author of the treatise now before us labours to establish, on the authority of Scripture. He fupposes, however, that this benevolent purpose may not be speedily fulfilled; that there may be other Atates of being besides the next, before the scheme of God will be perfected, and mankind universally cured of their moral disorders, and, in this way, qualified for his favour, and admitted into eternal happinefs.
The several texts, which are supposed to contain this important doctrine, our author brings into view under the following propofitions :
• Prop. I. From the time that sin entered into the world by the first man Adam, Jesus Christ is the person through whom, and upon whose account, happiness is attainable by any of the human race.
• II. The obedience of Christ, and eminently his obedience sto death, when he had assumed our fieth, in the fulness of time, is the ground or reason upon which it hath pleased God to make happiness attainable by any of the race of Adam.
III. Chrift died, not for a select number of men only, but for mankind universally, and without exception or limitation.
• IV. It is the purpose of God, according to his good pleafure, that mankind universally, in consequence of the death of his fon Jesus Christ, fhall certainly and finally be saved.
a. V. As a mean in order to men's being made meet for falvation, God, by Jefus Chrift, will, sooner or later, in this ftate or another, reduce them all under a willing and obedient Søbjection to his moral government.
" VI. The