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Ρ Ο Ι Ι Τ Ι C A L. Summary Explanation of the Principle of Mr. Pitt's intended Bill for amending the Representation of the People in Parliament. By the Rev. Christopher Wyvill. 8vo. Stockdale.
The reform of parliament, in former periods, has been often the engine of oppofition; and when the principal object has been obtained, this subordinate one has been eluded in various ways. In modern times, the manæuvres of lord North and Mr. Fox, on this subject, are within every one's remembrance : Mr. Pitt's plan is still more recent. We ought not to suspect his fincerity ; but, when the nation is opprefied with numerous taxes, it surely was no additional recommendation of the plan twice negatived within a few years, that it was to be effected at the expence of a million of money; and that this sum was to be expended in what many thought a visionary innovation. Indeed the present state of the dispute is so questionable, that we hall not enlarge on it. Our author explains, but neglects to defend it. Perhaps he thinks this has been already done with suc: cess: we think otherwise, and the event is not to be decided by single combat. Thoughts on Taxation, and a New System of Funding. Small 8vo.
6d. Kearsley. This author modestly suggests his thoughts on the means of supplying government with pecuniary refources in any future exigency. He proposes that people should be obliged to contribute towards the public fervice, in proportion to what they enjoy of the national stock. With regard to real property, he observes, that in confequence of the eftablished mode of affefling land, every land-holder esteems his estate more or less valuable according to the rate he pays per pound, and therefore they who are under-rated, would have cause to complain of an equal tax under four fhillings. But supposing government required a tax above four shillings, the author thinks that it might with great propriety be equally assessed ; and he proposes that this should be levied upon the receipt for the tenant's net rent. He would likewise tax money on mortgage, but would have the horrower relieved, so that having paid the tax for the land, he should have a right to demand a return of so much in the pound from the mortgagee. A tax of this kind, at the rate of fix pence in the pound, he is of opinion, might produce great advantages even to the landed property, A Poliiical Enquiry into the Consequences of inclofing Waste Lands,
and the Causes of the high Price of Butchers Meat. 8vo. 25. 6d. 1. Davis.
This Enquiry was first suggested by Mr. Lamport's Re. marks on Agriculture,' which we reviewed in the 57th volume, page 436. A great portion of that little work was employed
in recommending inclosures, and this task he seemed to have executed with success. His facts were in general well eltablished; for many of them had frequently occurred to us. That which seemed most decisive, and we knew it to be true, was that a well grown animal, which had been well fed in its youth, and exposed to few hard lips, was fattened sooner and at a less expence than a deformed ill-thaped one, fed on a common. Our present author allows the fact ; but observes that, in many places, the catile fed on moors are little exposed to hard tips, and gencrally folded in the winter. Indeed he alJows that Mr. Lamport's Observations are more just in a limited, than in a general view; that they seem to have been fuggefted by experience, acquired in no very extensive field.
The reasoning contained in the · Remarks’ is examined with great strictness; and some loose assertions and fallacious argu. ments are juftly reprehended. The author opposes inclosures by very different means, by arguments, by computation, and experiment. He endeavours to fhow, that the high price of butcher's meat is owing to the expences in breeding cattle; and theie are ultin ately to be referred to the contraction of commons, and the diminution of common-right. Indeed many of these arguments occurred to us in reading Mr. Lamport's work; but some positive assertions, which we could not contra, dict, and plausible arguments, which our own experience had not opposed, led us unwilling captives to his opinion.
In other refpects, there is much tautology in this pamphlet, and a little unfairness in some of the representations; but the principal arguments are enforced with ability, and conducted with candour.
We shall select a short specimen, and recommend the whole to the representatives and guardians of the landed property of the kingdom.
• But methinks I hear gentlemen say, you may make as many calculations and estimates as you please, but they can never convince us, that if by cultivation we make the ground that produced grafs of only three inches length before it was cultivated, to produce grass of fix or pine inches in length, of equal thickness and good quality, that such cultivation is a detriment to the nation, for certainly the more the ground is made to produce of any valuable commodity, the more benefit to the nation. I answer; this, being a general principle, so obvious and certain a truth, has greatly milled gentlemen, who talk or think on the subject, because they apply this general principle to all cases without exception; and I beg leave further to ob. ferve, that though it is devoutly to be withed, that all the com. mons in England would produce twice the herbage they now do; yet even gold, as I have before observed, may be bought too dear. And therefore I cannot think it adviseable for the fake of obtaining this good, to bring on an evil, which I apprehend more than adequate to the advantage gained. And if,
as I apprehend, I have already demonstrated, that the enclosa ing and improving all the walte lands, will tend to double the price of butchers meat; it will be an evil for which the en. creased produce of the ground cannot compensate. /
• But the reader may say, it is an inexplicable paradox to asfert, that the more provender is produced for rearing and fattening of cattle, the dearer they will be.-Yet, respecting the present argument, I will maintain it to be a paradox far from being inexplicable. I have already observed, it is not the plenty or fcarcity which makes an article dear for any long continuance of time, because the price depends on the necessary charges and expences in the production of it. - If a beggar comes to me for relief from hunger, and I give him half of a quartern loaf for nothing, no person will pretend to assert, that if he had bought a whole loaf at the baker's, and given seven-pence half-penny for it, that because he would, in that case, have had a greater plenty, that therefore it was cheaper to him than my half loaf
And this is very nearly the case with regard to the cattle now fed on commons; the little they get is not paid for, and therefore the owners can afford to fell them cheaper than if they paid for their food either by the way of rent of land, or by any other means.
If what I have here stated be true, what becomes of Mr. Lamport's plan of cheapness of provisions by cultivating waste land?
DI VI Ν Ι Τ Υ. Commentaries and Elays, published by the Society for promoting the
Knowlege of the Scriptures. No. II. To be continued occasionally. Svo. 15. Johnson.
The first article in this Number consists of Critical Notes on the first Nineteen Verses of the First Chapter of Genesis.
Some of the explications of the text are new; particularly the interpretation of the word 718, which is usually translated light, in the third verse. This light or flame, our author deduces from numberless volcanos, which he supposes to have been generated by the great mass of phlogistic or inflammable matter, then existing in the earth ; but now dispersed in the bodies of animals and vegetables, and in the atmosphere. • God divided the light from the darkness :' that is, according to this writer, the volcanic eruptions broke out at different fucceffive periods, betwixt which darkness prevailed.
Art. II. is a Paraphrase and Notes on Rom. v. 8–19. It has been imagined by many eminent divines, that mortality became the lot of all mankind, in consequence, not of perfonal, but of Adam's transgreflion. This opinion, our author thinks, appears to be a relic of the doctrine of original fin. The part of Scripture which is thought to be its principal fupport, is Rom. v. 12-19. He therefore examines this passage, iogether with what precedes and follows it. His general idea
on this subject may be collected from the following note : • Christ Jesus was the first person, whose perfect obedience was rewarded with revival from the dead, and exaltation ; the Almighty at the same time declared, that all men should be revived and made happy hereafter, upon condition of their following his steps. Independently of these terms, no one was ever benefited by our Lord, or saved by his righteoufness alone. On the other hand, Adam, being the first transgressor, was punished with mortality, a doom denounced againit all of his pofterity, who were so weak as to follow his example, and become disobedient like him. Had they preserved their innocence, they would not have been obnoxious to mortality, though descended from him.'
Art. III. On the Apostolical Benediction. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, according to the inter. pretation maintained in this tract, is the same thing as to say, may God give you all the blessings of the gospel. By the Holy Spirit, of which the apostle wishes the Corinthians to be par. takers, he means those extraordinary divine gifts and powers, which were at that period ordinarily dispensed to believers.• If this interpretation be rightly founded, it follows, fays the author, that the latter part of it cannot now be used at the conclufion of public worship, in the sense in which it was ut. tered by the apostle, as withing all present may be made partakers of miraculous gifts ard powers. But no such exceptions can be made to that valedictory form commonly used by the same apoftle, namely, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with us all.'
Rom. xvi. 24• In some concluding observations, the author afligns his reasons for omitting, in his preceding collection of texts relating to the Holy Spirit, the famous paffage of 1 John, v. 7.-Among the criticisms of other writers, he mentions with particular applause some remarks on this subject, in a late excellent edition of the New Testament, by Dr. Griesback, professor of divinity at Jena, in Saxony, in two volumes, 1777.
From these few specimens we may venture to predict that, if this publication is continued, it will form a yaluable collection of comments and observations on the Scriptures. Concio ad Clerum Provincia Cantuarienfis in Æde Paulina xiv.
Kal. Junias MDCCLXXXIV. Habita a Gulielmo Barford, S.T.P. 4to.
T. Payne and Son. The learned author explains and illustrates this admonition of the apostles, Col. iv. 5. • Walk in wisdom towards them that are without, redeeming the time;' and he very charitably and judiciously inculcates a spirit of benevolence and modera. tion towards those who are not included within the pale of the church, or, which is supposed to be the same thing, within the pale of orthodoxy : Maxima, ut Deo noftrisque conscientiis, itą iis, qui os b&w funt, debetur reverentia.'
A Sermon preached before the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, or
Monday, January 31, 1785. By Christopher Lord Bishop of Bristol, 4to. 15. Rivington.
His lordship takes his text from Daniel iv, 17.. ' The Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.' His obiervations on a fuperintending providence, and the anarchy and confusion attending the grand rebellion, are animated and judicious, and expressed with uncommon energy, perfpicuity, and elegance. A Letter from the Author of an Elucidation of the Unity of God,
to bis Grace Jobu Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 8vo. Baldwin.
This writer earnestly pleads for a reformation in our forms of public worship, agreeable to the doctrine of those who style themselves Unitarians. His mode of address to the arch. bithop.is calm, modeit, and respectful. Reft for the Wearz. A Sermon preached on the Death of William Binns, Esq. By tie Rev. Erasmus Middleton. 8vo. bd. Hogg.
A funeral fermon on these words of Job, “There the wicked cease from troubling; and there the weary he at reft. The fame author is the compiler of the Biographia Evangelica, in four volumes, očiavo. A New Year's Counsel; or, the Fashion of the World palleth away,
Being the Subliance of a Sermon preached January 2, 1785. By the Rev. John Cottingham. 8vo. 6d. Cass.
A plain, practical sermon on these words of St. Paul: 'The fashion of this world pafseth away.'
i Cor. vii.
31. M E D I CAL. Obfervations on the Properties and Effects of Coffee. By Benjamin
Moseley, M. D. 8vo. Is. 60. Stockdale, When we were young in the study of medicine, we read with much astonishment, in Alpinus, the virtues of Bon. It did wonders; no diftafe could withstand its force, or venture to attack the person properly prepared with this miraculous amulet. At last, with some labour, we found that it was only another name for coffee ; but, though Alpinus was fanguine in his expectations, he scarcely yields to Dr. Moseley, in his exaggerated recommendations. In fact, coffee is sometimes useful, but frequently hurtful, and to many constitutions highly pernicious. The acid talle on mixing it with wine is very peculiar; and, when compared with the general affinity between aftringency and acidity, might almost lead us to conclude that one principle did not essentially differ from the other. Coffee is not a corrector of opium, or of its pernicious qualities; it only counteracts its soporific powers.
We mention this, to guard against the errors, which the indiscriminate observations