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before his arrival, left the meat on their plates untouched. In a fhort time they became more fociable, and conversation ran On familiarly.
The oldest language spoken in Sicily, of which any remains are left, was the Phænician, which exists on numberle's coins of all metals, and in some inscriptions. Greek, our author observes, was introduced by two sets of colonies; in one tije Doric diale&t prevailed; the other spoke the Attic. Several learned antiquaries have asserted, that the former only was in use through all the settlements ; but the contrary, we are informed, is clearly demonstrated by the prince of Torremusa, from authentic documents.
The city of Girgenti stands upon one of the highest hills on the coast, where anciently stood the citadel of Cocalus; the houses cover its summit and sides completely, and seem like terraces, with the cathedral and castle above all. The road thither is good, though hilly, and the vale delightfully planted with olive-trees, in corn-tields. Among the distant groves towards the east, the ruins of Agrigentum rise above the
The traveller informs us, that it was difficult to be more judicious and fortunate than the Agrigentines, in the choice of a ftuation for a large city. They were here provided with every requisite for defence, pleasure, and comfort of life, A natural wall, formed by abrupt rocks, presented a strong barrier against assailants; pleafant hills sheltered them on three sides without impeding the circulation of air; before them a broad plain, watered by the Acragas, gave admittance to the sea breeze, and to a noble prospect of that element; the port or emporiem lay in view at the mouth of the river, and probably the road across the fiat was lined with gay, and populous suburbs.
The gratification which the traveller here enjoyed, in ex. amining the vestiges of old magnificence, was increased by the sweet temperature of the atmosphere. He began his circuit at the north-east angle, with some foundations of large regular stones, upon which a church has been erected. fears hewn in the solid rock, for the convenience of the votaries that visited this temple in ancient times. It was then dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine, the peculiar patronesses of Sicily.
Towards the south-east corner the ground, rising gradually, terminates in a bold eminence, which is crowned with majestic columns, the ruins of a temple said to have been consecrated to Juno. It was raised upon a lofty base of regular stone. work, in the heart of which was contrived a gallery, either apartments or store houses. On the west front, a grand flighe
A road ap
of steps leads up to the pronaos or vestibule.
The fronts confifted of fix Auted Doric columns, the flanks of eleven plain ones; of these, few are now standing, many having been thrown down by earthquakes in the memory of man; and what remains is in a tottering condition.
Moving from this temple, along the brow of the hill towards the west, the traveller reached the building commonly called the Temple of Concord.
• The reason given, fays our author, for supposing it was facred to Concord is, that Fazzello, and subsequent writers, have aseribed to this building the infcription now fixed in a wall at Girgenti. It runs thus: “ Concordia Agrigentinorum facrum Respublica Lilybitanorum dedicantibus M. Atterio Candido Procos. et L. Cornelio Marcello D. Pr. Pr." and, as D'Orville very juftly concludes from many unanswerable arguments, is fuppofititious. Upon this flight foundation, and an expression in Strabo, who says, that all the public edifices of Agrigentum had been burnt or destroyed before the time of Augustus, Fazzello has formed his opinion that this temple was built after that period, and at the joint expence of the two cities mentioned in the inscription. If it was, it must be deemed impoffible to ascertain the age of a building by the style of its architecture; for the ruins of Agrigentum seein to belong to an earlier period.'
This Doric Temple has all its columns, entablature, pedi. ments, and walls entire ; only part of the roof is wanting. It owes its preservation to the piety of some Christians, who have covered half the nave, and converted it into a church. Six columns in front, and eleven on the sides, exclusive of the angular ones, form the colonade. The cella has a door at each end, between two columns and two pilasters, and in each fide-wall fix small doors, with a stair-cate that led up to the rooms in the roof. This majestic edifice stands in the most striking point of view, on the brink of a precipice; which formed the defence of the city along the whole southern exposure.
The traveller and his company proceeded thence in the same direction, between rows of sepulchres cut in the rock. Some parts are hewn into the shape of cofins, others drilled full of small square holes, employed in a different mode of interment, and serving as receptacles of urns. One ponderous piece of the rock, by the failure of its foundation, or the ihock of an earthquake, has been loosened from the quarry, and rolled down the declivity, where it now lies supine with the cavities turned upwards.
The next station of the travellers was at a single column that marks the confused heap of moss-grown ruins belonging
to the Temple of Hercules. It ftood on a projecting rocke above a chasm in the ridge, which was cut through for a pasfage to the emporium. They followed this road over some hills to the building usually called the Tomb of Thero. It is furrounded by aged olive-trees, which cast a wild irregular shade over the ruin,
This edifice inclines to the pyramidical tape, and confifts, at present, of a triple plinth, and a base supporting a square pedestal. Upon this foundation is raised a fecond order, having a window in each front, and two Ionic pilasters at each angle. They are crowned with an entablature of the Doric order, of which the triglyphs and metopes remain, but the cornice is fallen. The inside of this building is divided into a vault, a ground room, and one in the Ionic story, communi. cating with each other by means of a small internal fiair-cafe.
On the plain below are some fragments of the Temple of Esculapius. Part of two columns and two pilasters, with an intermediate wall, support the end of a farm-house, and were, our author imagines, the front of the cella.
Returning from the plain to Agrigentum by the same road, and pursuing the track of the walls towards the weit, the traveller arrived at a spot whlch is covered with the colossal remains of the Temple of Jupiter the Olympian, minutely defcribed by Diodorus Siculus. It is now barely possible, with the help of much conjecture, to discover the traces of its plan and dimensions.
The next ruin belongs to the temple of Castor and Pollux ; but it is so covered with vegetation that only a few fragments of columns appear
between the vines. This was the point of the hill where the wall stopt on the brink of a large filh-pond, spoken of by Diodorus. It was cut in the solid rock thirty feet deep, and water was conveyed to it from the hills. In it was bred a great quantity of fish, for the use of public entertainments. Swans and various other kinds of wild-fowl swam along its surface, for the amusement of the citizens; and the great depth of water prevented an enemy from surprising the town on that fide, It is now dry, and used as a garden.
As nothing affords the mind greater pleasure than contemplating scenes which excite the remembrance of ancient grandeur, we have, for the satisfaction of our readers, been more particular than usual, in tracing the progress of this agreeable and well-informed traveller, whose descriptions are every where distinct, and his observations invariably founded in juftness of sentiment. In a subsequent Number we shall finish our account of the work.
A Letter to Theophilus Lindsey, A, M. occasioned by his late Pub
lication of An Historical View of the State of the Unitarian
Doctrine and Worship. 8vo. 25. 6d. Payne and Son.
was able to read the New Testament, with any degree of rational attention, he has been led to consider the mystery of the Trinity in Unity as an object of faith too vast for human comprehension, and therefore beit viewed in awful silence and adoration. About the same tiine, he says, “he formed an opinion, which he has never seen the least reason to alter, that the doctrine of Christ's humanity, as professed and preached by Mr. Lindsey, is subversive of every principle of Christianity.' But, though he utterly disapproves of Mr. Lindsey's tenets, he does not attempt to refute them by an appeal to the sacred writers. After what has been written on the subject, he does not apprehend that any thing he can add would have the least effect; he therefore studiouily avoids all appearance of controversy; and confines his observations to those parts of Mr. Lindsey's writings, in which that author has mentioned some very learned, pious, and respectable men, as patronizers of his opinion.
' I find, says he, very few, if any, those only excepted who reject the gospel revelation, that would not have thought it an injury to their characters to be ranked with your disciples. Surely the word unitarian, in this sense, could never have been used with less propriety, than when applied to such believers in the Christian system as Mr. Whifton, Dr. Clarke, fir Isaac Newton, bithop Hoadly, and even Socinus himself, who, ftrange as it may seem, was not, in your sense of the word, a Socinian; for all these, according to your own account, considered Christ as an object of worship ; and if they had been called upon to sign an article, declaring that he was only an inspired man, would have burnt rather than have complied.'
Mr. Lindsey, it is well known, has made great use of Dr. Clarke's manuscript Liturgy, in the British Museum. On this subject, the author makes the following animadversions, among many others to the fame effect.
• It is pretty clear, from Dr. Clarke's. writings, that he was too able, too discerning, and I hope too conscientious a man, to settle in his mind an opinion, that Christ was a pro. per object of worship; and then, from that opinion, to draw The consequence, which, according to your account, must be contended for, that the Liturgy of the Church of England 4
ought to be divested of all passages, in which prayer is ad. drefled to Chrift. I must, therefore, fuppose, I think I might say, conclude, that Dr. Clarke's manuscript Liturgy was merely experimental, and, as such, by him abandoned, though not destroyed : or that it did contain some passages in which prayer was addressed to Christ.'
In speaking of Mr. Whifton, as well as Dr. Clarke, he says : . could you, who believe that Christ had no existence be. fore he was born at Bethlehem, and Mr. Whilton,' who with Dr. Clarke, believed that he existed with the Father from the beginning, read the same service together? If you could, there is certainly fome mystery in the art of Liturgy-making, totally beyond my comprehenfion. Nor can I see why, if the fame words can be made to fit two such opposite opinions, and fatisfy those who in some way worhip Christ, and those who worship him not at all, there needed all that labour which it coft you, to alter and amend Dr. Clarke's Liturgy.'
After many other observations on this subject, the author proceeds to the principal design of his address, the vindication of his friend, the late Abraham Tucker, Esq. author of the Light of Nature pursued, againit that injurious reflection, which he conceives Mr. Lindsey has thrown on his character, when he styles biman unitarian Christian.' " When I saw Mr. Tucker in the list of
your enlightened Unitarians,' I solemnly declare, says he, I could not have been more amaz
cazed, if I had seen his venerable name enrolled among the disciples of Mahomet.'
In consequence of this impuiation on the religious sentiments of that writer, our author proves, by various passages in his works, • that he was not a believer in one syllable of Mr. Lindsey's chapter on the proper humanity of Christ, but an enlightened Athanafian.'
At the conclusion of his Letter he suggests what influence he thinks Mr. Lindsey's Historical View of the State of the Unitarian Do&rine and Worthip, may have on the peace and happiness of mankind, in their individual, social, civil, and religious capacities.
This writer appears to be a serious, orthodox believer, who views the Mystery of the Trinity in awful filence, resigns his judgement to the incomprehensibility of the subject, and peaceably acquiefces in a doctrine, fanctified by the wisdom of ages, and established by the laws of the land.