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Archäologia: or Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Antiquity. Pub
lished by the Society of Antiquaries of London. Vol. VII. 460.
ii. is. in Boards. White. THI HE institution of the Antiquarian Society has proved
the means not only of diffufing an acquaintance with antiquities, but of stimulating ingenuity to various conjectures and obfervations. The Archäologia, therefore, at the fame time that they afford a work of enteftainment, are happily calculated for extending our knowlege relative to the state of remote ages.
The first article in this volume contains Observations on an Inscription on an ancient Pillar in the Poffessiòn of the Society of Antiquaries.- In 1726, this pillar was brought from Alexandria, where it was found buried in the sands, and supposed to have served as a tomb-ftone. It is of granite, in the form of an inverted cone, three feet four inches high, and from eight inches and a half to fix inches and a half diameter. The inscription is in Oriental characters, compounded of the Cufic, and of that which was invented by Ebn Moclah, about the year of the Hegira 320. The following is the translation of it according to Mr. Bohur.
1. The Bisinela with a flat roof, this temple 2. Erected according to an old form, happening so be burnt down and laid sleeping in its ruins, was
3. In the time of the Caliph Hakem re-erected according to that (form) which Mahomet
4. Casim, in his directions touching this kind of building, had given and set thereof an
5. Example, and now lastly being purged from impurities and consecrated was re-built by order
6. Of Al Mustapha, over Egypt by the grace of God lord of the faithful in the year 506 in the month Cahile.'
This obscure inscription Mr. Bohun endeavours to illustrate from history, and refers it to an event in the dynasty of the Fatemite caliphs.
Article II. is an Illustration of some Druidical Remains in the Peak of Derbyshire. By the Rev. Mr. Pegge.-These remains are chiefly two ftones which were taken out of the ground about the year 1760, at Durwood, near Hartle-moor, where they lay by the fide of a large urn, half full of burnt bones. They are supposed to have been used for grinding corn before mills were invented; and this opinion Mr. Pegge endeavours to confirm by the authority of some authors, who have observed that the fame expedient was commonly practised in other nations. Vol. LX, Sept. 1785.
Art. III. Hiftorical Notes concerning the Power of the Chancellor's Court at Cambridge. By the Rev. Robert Ri. chardson, D. D. late Rector of St. Anne's, Soho.
Art. IV. Observations on the Practice of Archery in Eng: land. By the Hon. Daines Barrington.--In the numerous disquifitions made by Mr. Barrington relative to British antiquities, he discovers so much laudable industry, and such an extent of information, as must render his observations peculiarly interesting to all the lovers of antiquarian researches. fhall therefore, for the gratification of our readers, submit to them a part of his remarks on the prefent subject.
• As some of our moit signal victories, in former centuries, were chiefly attributed to the English archers, it may not be uninteresting to the Society if I lay before them what I have been able to glean with regard to the more Aourishing state of our bowmen, till their present almost annihilation.
• This fraternity is to this day called the Artillery company, which is a French term fignifying archery, as the king's bowyer is in that language styled artillier du røy, and we feem to have learnt this method of annoying the enemy from that nation, at least with a cross-bow.
• We therefore find that William the Conqaeror had a confiderable number of bowmen in his army at the battle of Haftings, when no mention is made of such troops on the side of Harold. I have, upon this occasion, made use of the term bow-man, though I rather conceive that these Norman archers thot with the arbalest (or cross-bow) in which formerly the arsow was placed in a groove, being termed in French a quadrel, and in English a bolt.
Though I have taken some pains to find out when the shooting with the long-bow first began with us, at which exercise we afterwards became fo expert, I profess that I cannot meet with any positive proofs, and must therefore ftate such grounds for conjecture as have occurred.
• Our chroniclers do not mention the use of archery a3 exis pressly applied to the cross, or long bow, vill the death of Rin chard' the First, who was killed by an arrow, at the siege ef Limoges, in Guienne, which Hemmingford mentions to have issued from a cross-bows Joinville, likewise, (in his life of St. Lewis) always speaks of the Chriftian baliltarii.
• After this death of Richard the First, 1999, I have not happened to stumble upon any passages alluding to archery for nearly ene hundred and fifty years, when an order was itsued by Edward the Third, in the fifteenth year of his reign, to the iherives of most of the English counties, for providing five hundred white bous, and five hundred bundles of arrows, fox the then intended war againit France,
• Similar orders use repeated in the following years, with this difference only was the iheriff of Gloucestershire is directed to 4
furnih five hundred painted bows, as well as the same number of white.
• The famous battle of Cressy was fought four years after. wards in which our chroniclers state that we had two thousand archers, who were opposed to about the same number of the French, together with a circumstance, which seems to prove, that by this time we used the long-bow, whilit the French archers shot with the arbaleit.
• Previous to this engagement fell a very heavy rain, which is said to have much damaged the bo:vs of the French, or perhaps rather the itrings of them. Now our long. bow (when unftrung! may be most conveniently covered, so as to prevent the jain's injuring it, nor is there scarcely any audition to the weight from such a case ; whereas the arbaleit is of a most in: convenient form to be theltered from the weather.
As therefore in the year 1342, orders issued to the sherives of each county to provide five hundred bows, with a proper proportion of arrows, I cannot but infer that these were long bows, and not the arbaleit.
• We are still in the dark, indeed, when the former weapon was first introduced by our ancestors, but I will venture to thoot my bolt in this obscurity, whether it may be well directed or not, as possibly it may produce a better conjecture from others.
• Edward the First is known to have served in the holy wars, where he must have seen the effect of archery from a long-bow to be much superior to that of the arbalett, in the use of which, the Italian states, and particularly the Genoefe, had always been distinguished.
• This circumstance would appear to me very decisive, that we owe the introduction of the long-bow to this king, was it not to be observed, that the bows of the Asiatics (though differing totally from the arbaleh) were yet rather unlike to our long-bows in point of form.
This obje&ion, therefore, must be admitted; but still polsibly, as the Asiatic bows were more powerful than the arbaleit, some of our English crusaders might have substituted our longbows in the room of the Asiatic ones, in the same manner that improvements are frequently made in our present artillery. We might, confequently, before the battle of Cressy, have had such a sufficient number of troops trained to the long-bow, as to be decisive in our favour, as they were afterwards at Poictiers and Agincourt.'
Art. V. Illustration of an unpublished Seal of Richard Duke of Gloucelter. By the Rev. Dr. Mills, Dean of Exeter.
Art. VI. Conjectures concerning fome undescribed Roman roads, and other Antiquities in the County of Durhain, By John Cade, Esq. of Durham. This ingenious gentleman maintains, with great plausibility, that the traces of an ancient road in the county of Durham are the remains of Ryck.
nild Street, mentioned by old historians, but which has long been lost in the uncertainty of topographical description.
Art. VII. A Letter from the Rev. Dr. Sharp, Archdeacon of Northumberland, tending to confirm Mr. Cade's opinion.
Art. VIII. Mr. Bray on the Leicester Roman Military Stone. - Though Leicester is generally suppofed to be the Ratæ Coritanorum of the Romans, it has been doubted by fome antiquaries; but, by a stone lately discovered near that town, and described by Mr. Bray, the common opinion is confirmed.
Art. IX. Observations on the present Aldbrough Church at Holderness, proving that it was not a Saxon building, aš Mr. Somerset contends. By the Rev. Mr. Pegge. -We thall lay these observations before our readers.
• The infcription Mr. Somerset has produced is not of great antiquity, as he states, for Ulf, who firft put it op, flourished but in the reign of king Edward the Confessor. However, it is a Saxon inscription, and fufficiently both ancient and cua rious to merit the attention of our Society. But the inference drawn from this conceflion, viz. that Aldbrough church, as now existing, is a fabric erected in the Saxon times, or before the Norman conquest, appears to me to be liable to two very specious, not to say formidable objections.
• First, there was no church at Aldbroogh when Domes. day survey was made, the record being entirely flent as to that particular; and yet, I presume, all the churches then in being are there very punctually recited. It may be said, perhaps, in reply to this, that the church at Kirkdale, where a Saxon inscription also occurs, is not mentioned in Domesday Book. I answer, that the fabric at Kirkdale cannot be expected to appear there, as it was not properly a church, i.e. a rectory endowed with tythes, but only a chapel of ease.
• The second objection is, that this structure does not present us with any resemblance of Saxon architecture, but on the contrary, every thing there favours of a poft-normannic æra. Mr. Brooke himself confesses, “ it now has a more modern appearance ;" but this he endeavours to account for “ from the fuccesfion of repairs it has undergone, and the addition of windows very different from the original lights." A suggestion which may be admitted in regard to this or that part of a church; but surely, fir, can by no means fuffice for a whole and entire building. The arches within, which can never be thought to have been altered or repaired, those of the windows, and that of the door-way into the chancel, are all elliptic, a mode of building never seen, I believe, in any Saxon erection whatsoever. There is, it seems, fome hewn ftone-work in the lower part of the south wall of the chancel, “ fuch, says Mr. Brooke, as was generally used in our most ancient cathedral 4
churches." A circumstance which, in my opinion, militate very strongly in favour of the recent erection of this church, our cathedrals of this style of building being all posterior to the Conquest. It is observed, again, that there is some zigzag work in the door of the chancel, and upon this some brass is laid, Mr. Brooke remarking, in regard to this particular, " that this was a style peculiar to the Saxon architecture.” This now appears to be plausible ; but it should be remembered on the other hand, that though our Saxon ancestors often applied this species of ornament, as here ftated and alledged, yet we find the lucceeding architects did not fo totally forsake it, but that they sometimes retained it; witness the zigzac mouldings, noticed by Mr. Denne, as occurring in post-normannic structures,
• But now you will alk, how then do you reconcile this Saxon infcription, so pofitive and express, with the supposed recency, or poit-nosmannic erection of this church? This, fir, I acknowledge, is a difficulty not easily to be removed ; and I, for my part, can only do it by a fuppofition, which you will think but barely polsible; to wit, that Ulf built a church, which in a few years, and by some means now unknown, was destroyed and lay in ruins, A. 1080, when Domesday Book was made: that when the present fabric was erected, the old stone with its infcription, which had happily been preserved, was put up in the new structure, and in the place it now occupies : and lastly, that in all probability, Odo earl of Champaigne, Albemarle and Holderness, or his son Stephen, was the person who founded the present church; if at lait it was built so early.'
Art, X. Particulars relative to a Human Skeleton, and the Garments that were found thereon, when dug out of a Bog at the Foot of Drumkeragh, a Mountain in the County of Down, and barony of Kinalearty, on Lord Moira's Eftate, in the Autumn of 1780. By the Countess of Moira.—The parti. culars concerning this skeleton, fo far as they could be collected from the imperfect evidence procured by lady Moira, are related with great precision, and accompanied with such observations on antiquities as do the highest honour to her ladyfhip's literary accomplishments. Amidst our sincere regret at the failure of all the endeavours which were exerted by this illustrious lady for obtaining more explicit information, we have the satisfaction to find that the perseveres in the hope of yet surmounting the obitacles which have hitherto frustrated her enquiry. When a lady of such eminence contributes her efforts towards the cultivation of antiquarian researches, her example cannot fail of producing the most advantageous effects.
Art. XI. A further Account of Difcoveries in the Turf Bogs of Ireland. By Richard Lovell Edgeworth.-This ar. ticle mentions a coat found ten years ago fifteen feet under