« PreviousContinue »
On the 8th of that month, in the afternoon, the weather being showery, cloudy, but not windy, and of a moderate temperature for the feason, the eldest, an intelligent young lady (miss Archer, since married to Roger Comberbach, Esq.) from whom I had this information, and three of her brothers, went out, for the first time after their arrival, to view the town. Ascend. ing the walls at the northgate, they turned weltward, and foon met a child of about a year old, in the small-pox. The purcules were pretty numerous on the face ; fome appeared fresh and full of matter, others were scabbed. A nuríe had the child on her left arm, passed on the north side, between them and the city wall, so that its face was toward the young lady and brothers. The clothes of neither nurse nor child seemed dirty. The breadth of the path is a yard and a quarter, between the wall of a building on the south side two yards and a half high, and the city wall, on the north side, whose top is one yard and a quarter higher than the path, and fix yards above the ground. The young lady's face was nearly on a level with the child's ; her brothers were rather lower. She is certain that he passed within half a yard of the child, and doubts whether the was not within half that distance of it. Her brothers, the believes, were all'as. near it. The narrowness of the path between the two walls renders this opinion very probable. They all walked exactly, or nearly, in the same line with the child, both before and after paffing it. Both parties walked uniform'y forward in opposite directions, at a moderate rate, except one of the brothers, who expressed a curiosity to look at the small
-pox patient, stopped a little moment when opposite to it, and about a minute wben some yards paft each other. The young lady is certain that he did not touch, but thinks that he approached nearer the child than herself or any of the rest. This brother was the only one of the party who was infected. He was seized with the eruptive fever on the 15th of November, that is, on the tenth day after the interview ; yet all the other three were susceptible of the distemper, being infected by him, They were attacked on the ist, zd, and 3d of December ; that is, on the 24th, 25th, and 26th day after meeting the child; a longer period than has ever been supposed to precede the fever. Another brother was seized November 25th, and another sister, December 2d, who had not been on the walls. Though the three who met the small-pox patient, paffed so near it, yet it is highly probable that none of them, and to a much greater degree, several thousands to one, that all were not exposed to the infection. Few medical conclusions can be drawn with such a degree of probability.'
We need not copy the methods which were taken to prevent the contagion, or the transactions of the Society. Those who with to follow their example will undoubtedly refer to the work itself. We can only add our entire approbation of the
plan, and a wish to foc it more generally adopted, and more liberally supported.
In the Appendix is a curious letter from Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, of Rhode-Island, describing the means by which they have prevented the finall-pox from ever becoming epidemic in the island. --Though the object is meritorious, the method is certainly objectionable : it has had, however, fo much success, as to deserve attention in its more important outlines.
Traxfactions of the Society, instituted at London, for Encourage
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Vol. III. 8vo.
4s, in Boards. Cadell. THE HE progress of the Society's labours is an additional
proof of the strength of their judgment, and the propriety of their views. The premiums are directed to important objects, and the several designs are pursued with steadiness and perseverance.
The first subject, as usual, is that of agriculture ; and we, with pleasure, perceive the progress of plantations ; but we with that the useful oak was more often chosen to enrich the forest with its foliage, and the nation in future with its tim, ber: its extenfive employment requires immense supplies. We have a Mort account of dibbling' or dropping wheat; a mode of sowing practised in Norfolk. But, as a premium has been offered, in order to obtain a more exact account of its utility, when compared with broad-caft and drilling, we shall not en large on it. The Howard or clustered potatoe is the next object; but the experiments are probably not so favourable as we may expect to find them in better soils; yet they are fufficiently so, to induce us to continue the cultivation. On this subject we are promised fome farther satisfaction.
In the class of polite arts are inserted very particular de. seriptions of the pictures, painted by Mr. Barry, for the great room of the Society. These are now very generally known.
In the year 1760, premiums were offered for cloth made from the stalks of hops; but no proper claims have been made, As this defect was supposed to be owing to the want of some farther information, a short account is now published of what has been already done in this way. For the same reason we shall transcribe it. The observations chiefly to be attended to in this experiment are,
First, That the said specimens (viz. those left with the register of the Society) are sufficient to evince that hop-binds will afford a material for making cloth.
These we can.
Secondly, That the species of cloth intended to be made from the material produced, would very well answer the purpose of fine facking, and coarse bagging for hops.
Thirdly, that, the sole cause of my not producing a stronger material, and a sufficient quantity to have entitled me to the premium proposed, was, that the material was too long immersed under water, and its texture was thereby deftroyed.
Fourthly, That such binds as I took occasionally from the large quantity I had put to foak, at the end of about six weeks or two months, afforded filaments sufficiently fine and strong, for any purpose,
Fifthly, That the time necessary to reduce the inner substance of the hop-binds to a fitness for use, by maceration, will absolutely decay the outer coat, as appears from those which have continued under water above a year.'
In mechanics, the floating-light, for the preservation of sailors falling overboard in the night, at sea; the gun-har-' poon (formerly mentioned, of whose utility we have additional evidence); a new and very convenient crane, by Mr, Braithwait; a new invented secret escutcheon, and some im. provements on common locks, are described. not examine without the affiftance of the plates; but they ap. pear generally useful. We shall transcribe, however, an account of the properties of the escutcheon.
· The marquis of Worcester, in his Century of Inventions, N° 72, after having spoken of three kinds of locks invented by him, says an escutcheon to be placed before any of these locks with these properties.
“ The owner, though a woman, may, with her delicate hand, yary the ways of coming to open the lock, ten millions of times beyond the knowledge of the smith that made it, or of me who invented it."
Many attempts have been made to form a machine equal in its properties to the description here given, and from thence it is probable, arose the kind of padlock which have been long made in this country in great numbers, which having several Jetters on different rings, can only be opened when a certain set of those letters are arranged in one order, but this was in no degree equal to the end proposed, for besides the workman who made it being at all times informed of the position the letters must be in, and consequently enabled to open it; the letters and rings admitting of no variation of place, at the will of the owner, reserving at the same time a power of opening the locks, whenever the proper arrangement became
known, the secret was divulged, and all security at an end; but by the improvement made by Mr. Marshall, the letters or figures allowing an almost infinite variety of changes, the owner may, in one minute, alter the secret in such a man. ner that even the maker would be as unlikely to open it, as he would be of gaining the highest prize in a lottery, by the chance of a single ticket; thus this kind of escutcheon is in. finitely more secure than any hitherto in use, especially as the alteration of the letters may be made every day for years, without recurring to their first state, and as the owner may, at one time, chuse to trust a friend or a domestic with the secret, so that they might have recourse to his valuables, &c. he may also, at another time, wish to exclude them from that privi. lege, which this contrivance renders very easy to be done. As this improvement relates only to the escutcheon, it is obvious that every attempt to pick the lock it covers, or to open it by means of falfe keys, is prevented; a circumstance of no small importance, when locks of a curious construction, and with a number of fine wards are made use of.?
Next follows an abstract of the proceedings of the Society, from which we can extract nothing particularly interesting, and the usual lists of the members, &c. The volume is con. cluded by a list of the premiums offered in the present year.
Among the premiums, we perceive an encouragement for the propagation of the red willow, sometimes called the upland willow. It is certainly, in many respects, an useful plant; but it also tends to chear the sandy wastes, as it flourithes in dry sandy grounds, and its cultivation will contribute to cover them with mould, so as to make them fit for better purposes.
We cannot enlarge on the different fubjects, for which the Society have offered premiums; bat would only hint that, with respect to rhubarb, their good intentions may be frustrated, if they do not limit the age at which the root of the plant hould be taken up. We tospect that, at three or four years, it may be apparently good, yet not nearly equal in its properties to the Rufian rhubarb; and it is most probable, that the Society confine their remarks to the obvious properties only. It certainly is not at its greatest perfection, under eight years, and probably not under twelve. We particularly mention this circunstance, because we perceive an eagerness to use it much earlier; and the character of the remedy will of côurse suffer by this precipitate conduct.
We shall only add, that the Society confines its views of improvement of waste lands to those which have been hitherto useless,' and we shall conclude with wishing them all the success which their benevolent desigas deserve.
The Adventures of Six Princesses of Babylon. 410. 35. Buckland. TH *HE age of allegory is now palt, for it approaches too
nearly to positive precept ; and we wilh to be allured into virtue, and cheated into health. The luxuriance of Hawkesworth, and the energy of Johnson, for some time supported it; but their labours, in this mode of instruction, are, we believe, less popular than any other parts of their lucubrations. These objections are not intended to depreciate the pleasing performance before us, but to animate the exertions of the author in a more successful line. There is much fancy in the descriptions, and much wholesome instruction from the events : the wonders of fairy land, calculated to engage the imagination, are employed to fix the lessons more firmly on the heart. If there be a fault in the moral, it is, that the he..soines are too often relieved from the distress, induced by their own misconduct, by supernatural assistance, without any efforts of their own. The great lesson to be inculcated on young minds, on the contrary, is, that though they have suffered from distress, yet that they do not deserve assistance, till they have amended the fault and rectified their conduct.
A king and queen, driven from their dominions, are obliged to seek shelter in a lonely defert; but the queen, sitting one day on the sea shore, sees a benevolent fairy, who tells her that he will be restored to her throne by the virtues of her daughters. These young ladies are, however, to be educated by the fairy, who adorns their minds with every valuable quality ; and, after a proper education, the addresles them in the following words.
• You have now lived, my dear children, several years in this solitude, insensible of the great designs for which you were brought hither. But, before I proceed farther on this subject, it is necessary to inform you, that the fate of your parents is so strongly connected and bound up in yours, that is in your power, by your fortitude and virtue, 10 restore them again to empire and dominion, or, by your mutability and vice, bring them with shame and misery to the grave. ---Know then, that there are fix wonders lie hid in nature, ordained as a trial of your constancy; they are attended with innumerable perilsa but when once-possessed, and kept among you, will render you more powerful than the most absolute monarch.
· The first, (faid the, addressing the eldest princess) is the Distaff of Industry; an inestimable treasure ! for, by applsing one end of it to your right hand, you are infantly put in