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mulates in this enterprising age, we are promised, what must have long since become necessary, an Appendix. Mr. Latham's former conduct convinces us, that the additions which have claimed his attention, will deserve our's ; for he is as much supe. rior to the professed book-maker as his work exceeds the crude compilations which we have sometimes received under the title of Natural Histories. In our fifty-fourth and fifty-seventh volumes, we gave some account of his plan, and specimens of his execution. The volume before us contains the grallæ, and the anseres of Linnæus, described with the same care, and etched with the same precision. Mr. Latham speaks with diffidence of the execution of the etchings, which are his own ; but, as they are exact representations, and the attitudes not deficient either in accuracy or spirit, they contain all that we ought to desire. If he had done more, in our opinion his success would have been less complete. The colouring is also juít; but it is not always carefully laid on ; for when etchings of this kind are properly coloured, they are the truest representacions of nature. This is the whole secret of the effect of those beautiful views of Switzerland and the Glaciers, now publifhing with so much deserved applause on the continent.

This volume contains the order • ftruthius,' composed of the dodo, didus Linnæi, from the gallinæ ; the ostrich and the caffowary, (ftruthio, camelus, and casuarius, of Linnæus.) The grallæ and anseres of Linnæus are comprehended under the class of water-birds, and divided into, first, those with cloven feet; secondly, pinnated feet; and thirdly, web feet.

There is no department in natural history, where we find more changes from the established system of Linnæus than in birds. They arise partly from the many new discoveries, and partly from the attention of natural historians being more fixed on other systems besides that of the Swede : on the cona trary, the united diligence of botanists has been almost exclusively employed in perfecting the sexual arrangement. This uncertainty, perhaps caprice, has occafioned great varieties . and, while they are more important in the orders of the grallæ and anseres, they are also more numerous on account of the many additions to the species, from the observations of later voyagers. This last volume, as well as the Arctic Zoology, is a very satisfactory account of the kinds of birds which occurred to captain Cook and his companions : perhaps it is more satisfactory than the work just mentioned, because it is confined by no imaginary limits, and comprehends every degree of latitude in each hemisphere. VOL. LX. 08. 1785.



The umbre, the pratincole, and the sheath-bill, are nevt genera.

The first is found on the coast of Africa, and was unknown to Linnæus ; but is scarcely diftinguishable for any remarkable properties. The pratincoie is taken from the pafseres. It is the hirundo pratincola of Linnæus, and partakes of the nature of the aquatic walking fowl. In general we think it better not to deltroy genera, the most natural associ. ation for any mode of classification ; but this instance is so striking, where the species differs essentially in manners from its companions, that we dare not accuse our respectable author of temerity. The account of the sheath-bill we shall felect, from its novelty ; the umbre has been already described by Buffon and Brown ; but this bird has not yet shared the attention of any ornithologist.

• White Sheath-bill. • Bill strong, thick, a little convex; the top of the upper mandible covered with a corneous Theath.

• Nostrils small, just appearing beyond the sheath, • Tongue round above, flat beneath, and pointed at the endo • At the bend of the wing a blunt knob.

• Legs stout, gallinaceous, bare a little way above the knee ; toes edged with a thick membrane, the middle one connected to the outer as far as the first joint; claws channelled beneath.'

• Size of a large pigeon : length from fifteen to eighteen inches. Bill black at the base; over the nostrils a horny appendage, which covers them, except just on the fore part; and descends so low on each side, as to hang over part of the under mandible; this is movable, and may be raised upwards, or depressed so as to lay flat on the bill : round the base, between that and the eyes, and round them, the parts are bare, and covered only with warty excrescences, of a white, or pale orange-colour; over the eye a brown or blackish one, larger than the rest : irides dull lead-colour; the plumage is all over as white as snow: at the bend of the wing is a blunt blackish knob: the legs are bare a little way above the knees, and are two inches long, stout, and of a reddish colour: claws black. In young birds the tubercles round the eyes are very small, or wholly wanting.

• These inhabit New Zealand, and several other parts explored by our late circumnavigators; and are apt to vary in regard to the colour of their extremities, as well as fize, in the different places in which they have been seen. In those from Kerguelen's land some had brown legs, with the toes black ; and others the legs white, or a pale blue. In one met with at Staaten Land, the legs were black; and the bill, in some specimens, of a pale brown.

These birds haunt the sea-shores in flocks, and feed on shellfith and carrion. In respect to their being used for food, our


yoyaĝers differ greatly; some of them put it in competition with the duck; while others tell us that it is worse than carrion ; for it had such a horrid offensive smell, that they could not venture to taste the feth, and that at a time when they were not easily disgusted: we may therefore venture to conclude, that those who praised it as a delicacy, were at least very hungry.'

Many of the Linnæan genera are divided, so as to form others; and our author's genera are, on that account, fomewhat multiplied. To this we do not object : the same may probably be done with advantage in other departments of natural history. The Scolopax, Lin. is divided between the curlew and snipe: the g. gallinulé, of our author, compreḥends the rallus grex, Lin. and the other species are taken from the fulica. The remaining species of the fulica are comprehended under Mr. Latham's genus of coot. The phalarope is comprised in the order of birds with pinnated feet; and the species are taken from the tringa, Lin. The colymbus, Lin, makes the grebe, the guillemot, and the diver. The penguin of Mr. Latham is almost a new genus, in consequence of the additions to this part of zoology. It borrows only the phaeton demersus, and the diomedea demersa from the old systems; and is a natural and proper association. In the genus of petrel, late observations have discovered an anomaly, which injures part of the definition of Linnæus. • Mares cylindro supra basin roftri decumbente, truncato.' Some species of the procellaria have, however, been examined, which have the nostrils distinct; and this difference forms a convenient method of arranging the species.

We have thus mentioned a few of the principal variations from the more common systems. They will evince the judge ment and attention of the author, and teach our readers how much they may expect from the work itself. It would be end. less to mention all the new species, and useless to remark every minuter deviation. The wild and tame fwan are, in our author's opinion, distinct fpecies. This distinction partly arises from the distribution of the afpera arteria, which, in the wild kind, seems to penetrate the breast bone, This conformation is observed in many birds; and is particularly mentioned by our author, in different species, whose cry is loud and fhrill, One species of this kind has attracted the attention of monf. Daubenton, who expressly fays, in his differtation on that subject, in the last volume of the French Memoirs, that in the wild swan, the trachea passes along the sternum, enters a cavity placed in the spine of that bone, and rises again to pass, at last, into the cheft.' (Hist. de l'Academiè Royale des Sciences, pour l'annee, 1781, p. 12). The re



moire by monf. Daubenton contains many curious observations, and we would refer our author to it. The final cause of this Itructure is not certain ; for it is found in some species, whose note is low and foft.

The last volume of Mr. Latham contains more general en. tertainment than the former ones; and we wished to extract some parts of this kind ; but our article is already sufficiently extended, and we are willing to preserve the distinction between the goofander and the dun-diver, which have been hitherto confounded.

* An opinion has prevailed among later authors, that the goofander and dun-diver were male and female only, and not distinct fpecies; but perhaps this conjecture may not be so firmly established as not to admit of the intrusion of a different sentiment: and the following facts lead us again to separate them into different species.

. In the first place, the dun-diver is ever less than the goof. ander; and individuals of that bird differ greatly in size among themselves: and, if we admit the lalt.described as a variety only, in an extreme degree, we may also add, that the creft is considerably longer and fuller in the one esteemed as the female, than in that thought to be the male; a circumstance ob. served in no other bird that is furnished with a crest at all; for in such the females, in many cases, have not even the rudi. ment of one. Again, some of the dun-divers have been proved to have a labyrinth, as well as the goosander: by this is meant an enlargement of the bottom of the wind-pipe, just before the entrance into the lungs : and as it is only found in the males of the duck kind, we have a right to conclude the same in respect to the birds in question, especially as they are the nearest link to the duck genus. But a far more interesting cir. cumstance than any of the above-noted is, that some of the larger dun-divers have really proved, on diffection, to be males. This discovery I owe to the attention of Dr. Heyfham, who informs me that he has more than once found it to be so. The latt he met with of that sex, was at. Carlisle, in the month of December. He likewise observes, that the dun-diver is infinitely more common in Cumberland than the goofander, at lealt ten or fifteen of the first to one of the last, which indeed is so scarce there, that he never had an opportunity of dissecting more than one, which, however, turned out to be a male. Having said thus much, there is no way to reconcile the prefent opinion of authors, but by suppoling the poflibility of the young birds of both sexes retaining the female plumage for a certain number of years, before they attain that of the male, as is the case in some birds : but in allowing this circumstance, we must suppose them likewise capable of propagating their species; which, if true, is not very usual in animals before they arrive at maturity.'


We need scarcely repeat our opinion of this valuable work. These last volumes, instead of disgracing the author of the former ones, add another leaf to his wreath; and the little which is wanting, will probably be supplied in the Appendix. We shall then boast of an ornithology in English, complete in its several parts, and equally accurate in its arrangement and distinctions.

Remarks on the Disease lately described by Dr. Hendy, under the

Appellation of the Glandular Disease of Barbadoes. By John

Rollo. Small 8vo. 25. Dilly. IT. T is an humorous mistake, probably of the printer, when

this disease is said to be ' of a sceptic * tendency.' Indeed when doctors differ, the patients are generally in doubt, and unable to decide. In the remarks before us, Mr. Rollo examines Dr. Hendy's hiftory at fome length, and endeavours to show, that the fever precedes rather than follows the glandular affection. For this purpose, he adduces the testimony of Dr. Hillary, and the particular cases described by Dr. Hendy. In our review of that work †, we were of opinion, that the fever was really secondary; and, after a very careful examination of these Remarks, we still think so, because it is distinguished by no peculiar type ; it sometimes is not terminated by sweating, and, as the disease proceeds, it is less distinguishable, respecting the time of its attack, from the exacerbation of the local disease. In every explanation of the symptoms, the pain in the inguinal gland is subsequent to fome, other effect on the lymphatics of the limb, and that is prior to the swelling; whatever, therefore, may be the primary cause, we should not, at the first occurrence, expect any local appearance before the general disease. Mr. Rollo seems much embarrassed to support his own opinion of the nature of the disease, on the one side, and to avoid the deposition of morbid matter on the other. He seems to think, that the lymphatic glands suffer as a part cf the whole syitem, from the same cause which produces fever; therefore the local affection, ac: cording to his own opinion, is coeval in existence with the fever, though posterior in appearance.

On the whole, we think our author too severe on Dr. Hillary and Dr. Hendy, to whom he is obliged for a very large {hare of the bulk of his pamphlet. We shall select what is more peculiarly his own, remarking only that we do not recollect any authority for this effect of salt marshes. * Page 86. + Critical Review, vol. lvii. p. 478.


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