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"Along the windward sea-coast of Barbadoes, from Oifting to Bridgetown, the ground is in many places low and marshy, The marshes are occasionally covered with the spray of the sea in stormy weather. In moderate and dry weather they drain, but I believe never become thoroughly dry. Many of the inhabitants of the island repair to these marshes to sport with the lives of different species of birds, that annually visit, and are found to hover chiefly over these places, and it is astonishing to sce with what industry, and perseverance, this game is pursued. Parties are formed, tents are erected near the marsh, and the bowl circulates with potent ponch, until the signal is given for the appearance of birds; then every one gets Nowly out of the tent in a bended posture, or creeps along the ground to watch an opportunity to fire. After which, they retire-to the tent until another fignal is made, and thus they spend a whole day inebriated, or much fatigued, and often wetted, they retire in the evening to their respective homes, and they return early next morning to the sport.
« May not the effluvium of these marshes, as impregnated with sea-falt, produce a febrile disease, remarkably different from that produced by the effluvium of marshes not imprego nated with it? and may not this effluvium act in producing our disease in people pre-disposed ? This will be rendered somewhat probable by observing, that among those people who are ford of fowl-gaming, or those who accompany them for social purposes, or for service, this disease will be found very generally to happen. Also, to my knowlege, the gentleman in Dr. Hendy's N° 19, lived in a situation near the river, and a marshy ground to windward of Bridgetown. This' river is chiefly formed by the sea ; every tide raises it; but its edges in different places are swampy and limy. I have been senfible of a disagreeable smell from this river, when I have had the pleasure of being in the gentleman's house. Two of this gentleman's family have unfortunately had the complaint; and, befides these, the mulatto woman of the 14th case was a servant in the family.'
In a town, on the southern coast of this island, we have been informed, that there is a peculiar kind of irregular intermittent, called from the name of the place the Seaton-fick; (the fick: ness, we suppose, peculiar to Seaton), and that this town is in the neighbourhood of salt marshes. Though we have heard this account from good authority, our situation is too remote to enable us to ascertain it by a particular enquiry. We mention it, chiefly to enable our author to add an additional fupport to, if the fact should appear capable of supporting, his dylem. To others it may be a subject worth examination.
A View of the Arts and Sciences, from the earliest Times to the
Age of Alexander the Great. By the Rev. James Bannister.
8vo. Mr, Bannifter is, we find, the translator of the Select
Tragedies of Euripides,' which we reviewed in our fiftieth volume, page 161 : and he refers to the introduction to that translation, for his · View' of Poetry. The arts and sciences here considered are, Architecture, Astronomy, Language, Heathen Mythology, Moral Philosophy, and Natural Philosophy. Indeed to review these subjects, during the period to which our author has confined his researches, with precision, would require an ample volume. It will appear probable, therefore, from the size of that before us, that he has skimmed over the surface, rather than plunged into the deep; and, contented with the little generally known, has not been eager to pursue his researches. The suspicion will be confirmed by an examination ; for, though at times, particularly on the subject of hieroglyphics, and the Eleusinian mysteries, he starts
with brave disorder' from the beaten tract, we soon perceive whom he follows, and perceive that he follows with unequal steps. Dr. Warburton's opinion on these subjects has been often examined; and we are not now either to blame or praise, what the world has already decided on. To the celebrated Cudworth too he is deeply indebted. In other respects, Mr. Bannister may appear to have avoided error, because he thinks with the majority ; but the learning of our younger days is encumbered with more fable than we have hitherto suspected ; and it is now time to examine, instead of repeating without attention, or relating the ten-times told story without variety. Our author is classically right, and very often, we fear, essentially wrong: he creeps in one even tenor; and, though we cannot frequently blame, we are inclined to sleep. The following is a copy, but it is quaint and affected; and the author's judgment, if exerted, should have led him to have despised it.
· The Ionic pillar (invented by the Ionians of Asia-Minor some time afterwards) represents a virgin in the bloom of youth -its proportions are more delicate, its capital is more ornamented than the Doric, and its height is equal to eight diameters. The characteristics of this order are, chastity, neatness, and elegance, and from the inventors it received its name.'
Again, when Mr. Bannister talks of geometry and arithmetic contributing to the 'comfort and ornament of life,' he speaks from books, without examination of the real influence of
these fcier.ces on the practical arts which contribute to either, As to 'ornaments,' we know not whether he means to allude to the regularity with which the rays are refracted and reflected in the diamond; but we fufpect that the lapidary seldom itudies this science, or the lady who adorns herself with jewels, knows a prism from a parallelopiped.
We shall select one quotation, because it seems to contain some original opinions ; perhaps it may appear more clear to the reader than, we confess, it does to us.
• They are likewise (viz. the Greeks,) juftly chargeable with making the peace and happiness of society the ultimate end of all their philosophy; and we see them often facrifice morality to politics, truth to utility. That truth is insepara. bly connected with real utility, and morality with sound politics, cannot be denied; but to a being of such limited facul. ties as man, whose knowledge, even in what relates to his own happiness, is imperfect and superficial, cases must frequently occur, in which his duty and apparent interest must be at variançe, if from an enlarged way of thinking, and a native. elevation of mind, he is led to sacrifice private considerations to the good of the society to which he belongs.--Yet when the mistaken interest of his country calls upon him to violate any of the moral duties, I see no principle to restrain him, as his views are bounded by what he supposes to be the general good. This will account for the lawless ambition, the injur tice, and even the cruelty of some of the greatest names in antiquity, who have been at the same time deservedly admired for ther humility, moderation, justice, and benevolence, They were sensible whilst acting like private men and citizens, that a frict regard to morals was absolutely necessary for the exist. ence and well-being of society : but when dazzled by the fplendour of conqueft, or bewildered in the dark and intricate mazes of policy, as they loft fight of the utility of virtue, so they too often disregarded her dictates. It is remarkable that the ancient philosophers, even whilft they taught the most sublime truths, so far from exprefling any aversion to the supersition and idolatry of the national religion, encouraged, both by precept and example, an external conformity to its molt : abfurd ceremonies.'
We ought not to deny the author his proper praise. His observations are frequently jui, and a with to make us wifer and happier is often confpicuous : in morality and religion, we perceive no failing. His language is generally exact and perspicuous: it is always neat, and sometimes elegant.
4 Treatise on the Mineral Waters of Balaruc, in the South of
France. By M. Pouzeire, M. D. With an English Transla
tion. By B. Pugh, M. D, 8vo. 35. Goldimith. WE
E were somewhat surprised at the ' Approbation' an
nexed to this treatise, especially as it is not uncommon for the examiner to pay a slight compliment even to indifferent performances. Monsieur Lamure, on the contrary, tells us, that he has found nothing in it' but what led to the end which the author proposed to himjelf ;' and, as we are not in his confidence in what he proposed, we must truly add, thatwe can find nothing at all in it. As a chemical work, it is extremely trilling, and, as a medical one, very erroneous. It might be expected that a physician, within twenty miles of the fountain, would have ascertained the contents of the water by analysis; or that a · Doctor of Phyfic of the Faculty of Montpelier' would, at leait, have been informed what other chemists had done. On the contrary, he profelles to enquire into the contents of the water by its effects ; but. we at last find, that its properties are decided by an analysis of the author's own imagination. Dr. Pouzaire has not mentioned the opinion of Du Clos, but seems to have followed him in thinking the faline contents of the water to be sea falt. He seems not to have examined the analysis of Messrs. Regis and Dedier, or that of Monsieur Viefiens, who havo, at least, shown that we ought not to suppose the question clear and decided; for there are many reasons to think that the neutral is of a very different kind. These examinations he seems to overlook ; but evaporates the water, and tells us that it contains earth and salts; that the earth is selenite, and the falt marine; without any experiment on the nature of the refiduum. Powder of galls, he observes, makes no change in it, and, contrary to Mesrs. Regis and Dedier, he asserts, that its fulphureous smell is fenfible only after it has been confined ; but very wisely adds, that it may contain iron and fulphur, though there is no indication of their existence, except in the sediment, which seems sulphurcous. After this judicious conclusion, he determines that, as they contain mineral tonics, diuretics, aperitives, and diaphoretics, they ought to partake of all their virtues anited. This is a miracle exceeding Lord Peter's, fince almost every medical excellence is contained in selenite, and a neutral resembling fea falt; for there is not the lightest evidence of any other impregnation, we mean from the account of our author. Perhaps the reader is already satisfied with the learned labours of Dr. Pouzaire, and is not very willing to pursue him in the rell of his fancies.
The diseases to be cured by sea salt and selenite are all palfies, except those which come on gradually, diseases of the stomach, bowels, and urinary organs, and obilructions in the chylopoetic viscera; rheumatic pains, catarrhal fluctions,' and, external complaints. We are surprised that we do not meet with that disease, which would be most probably relieved by falt water, and for which many French ors recommend that of Ba laruc, viz. fcrophula.
We cannot speak very highly of the translation ; there are, parricularly in the chemical part, many errors. Dr. Pouzaire tells us, that the Balaruc waters were first uled by Monf. de Chaume, pour une affection grave & considerable, qu'il avoit a une cuifle, que l'auteur citè ne specifie pas,' &c. the translator, that " they were first used for a pain which the author does not specify.' Perhaps it was not very easy to specify a pain, though it would have been easy to be more particular about a disease. A chemist also, conversant with the French language, would kave translated eaux thermales by the words warm waters,' instead of thermale waters.'
After the evaporation, an oily liquor, called 'eau mere,' remained; this our translator has called 'sea water,' instead of mother water. Did he never read in Zuingerus, and in Hoffman, of matrix nitrata ? or, in the English chemists, of mother lye, mother of nitre, &c. ? This term is applied to a lixivium, from which no falt can be procured by crystalli. zation. Again, the author says, “Si nous employons vis a vis de la même eau minerale la voie de melanges ou reactifs, &c, This the translator renders, . On the contrary, if we employ the said mineral water hy way of mixture or reactive.? This might lead one to suspect that he would examine any other mixture by means of these waters, and use them as a test in the experiment. The meaning fimply is, if we would examine this water by means of mixtures or reagents.! But we shall not enlarge on this disagreeable part of our duty, though the faults are numerous.
When Dr. Pugh speaks from his own knowlege, he is more satisfactory; and we ihall extract a rational account of the virtues of the waters, and a descriprion of Balaruc. The internal effects are certainly to be confined to their cathartic power, and, externally, they are only equal to warm water of the same density.
• These waters are conveyed in large quantities to the cities of Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Lyons, and other great cities in Europe : they are the finest purge in nature, and retain their purgative quality a long time; I think they may be drank in England with advantage, in jaundices ; concretions in the