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gall-bladder, and its ducts; gravel in the kidneys and ureters, with the affiftance of tepid bathings; depraved ftomachs from hard drinking, and in many other cases : in spring-time and autumn, where purging may be thought necessary, they have no equal. I think it is well worth trying the experiment whether the warm mineral waters of this country (at Bath, in Somersetshire) applied externally in the same manner as at Balaruc, viz. bathing, douching, &c. and drinking the waters of Balaruc, at the same time and in the same manner they are drank at Balaruc, would not produce similar effects, especially in all paralytic cafes.

• The village of Balaruc is situated upon a peninsula, in the great lake of sea water called Tau, which is said to be thirty miles long by about ten over, is supplied by the Mediterranean fea; and near the upper end of this lake stands the city of Beziers, where the famous royal canal of Laxguedoc begins; this village is a pleasant residence in the fpring and autumn seasons, as the walks and rides about it are most delightful, and the little hill by the side of it, called Pioch” d'Aix, which is covered over with lavender, thyme, and other aromatie herbs, shrubs, and flowers, commands a prospect of the whole lake, with the adjoining cities, towns, and villages, which afford the most pleasing prospect imagipable; the lake abounds with excellent fish, as turbots, soals, the red mullet, &c. &c. and the country with excellent mutton, veal, fowls, and delicious fruits, grapes in particular, the finest and greatest variety in all France. Only three miles across the corner of the lake is the beautiful town and port of Cette, where much trade is carried on, parti. cularly in wines and brandies, which are said to be the best in France, and where a moft worthy English gentleman, a Mr. Burnet, has resided many years as a merchant and banker, by which he has acquired a handsome fortune, in whom the English are sure to find a friend and polite acquaintance.'

The heat of the Balaruc waters, which are here measured: only by Reaumur's thermometer, are from 1169 to 122° of Farenheit.

A Manual of Materia Medica. By James Aikin, M. D. 12mo.

25. 6d. Jewed. Johnson, HEN we lately wished for a Compendium of the Ms.

teria Medica, it was in order to include the very numerous facts, which were so widely diffused, not without some little discrimination of the value of each.

In the nanual before us, we are at some loss to know by what plan the

author

author was guided : if he designed his work to keep' the most important effects of the most important articles in the Materia Medica in the memory' of the practitioner, he has been too redundant; and this charge will even apply to his own limitation of the articles received into practice. The arnica, the anchufa, the bezoar, the buxus sempervirens, the cursuta, the skink, imperatoria, hypocistidis succus, the qualsia, sad. Indic. Lopez, with a great variety of others, cannot be said to form any part of the practitioner's stock, because they are very seldom to be procured. If he wished to include those which have been ever mentioned, the defects are too numerous to be noticed. The arsenic, aparine, ol. jecoris afelli, avenæ farina, the betónici rad, borage, barbery, the ol, caijeput, capillus Veneris, and many others, for we have omitted the trifling and the superstitious ones, are in vain fought for in this work, which contains remedies less used and less efficacious.

If we look to the execution, in those articles which Dr. Aikin has noticed, we shall find it equally exceptionable. He has indeed inserted the Linnæan names, and the sensible properties. These are highly useful; but on the principal subject, the medical virtues, he is very deficient. Almoft every remedy is a tonic or a stimulant; but the manner, or the degree in which it is fo, is not mentioned ; and the

practitioner, who wishes to be reminded of the virtues of the several remedies, will not, from the author's Manual, be enabled to distinguish between bark, cafcarilla, fpear-mint, yarrow, myrrh, the hypericum, the juice of the hypocyftis, the camel's hay, and many others. This undistinguishing mode of enumerating virtues is more likely to mislead than to inform. If we wih to cure an intermittent, we may, without other information, use the fpear-mint, or myrrh, initead of the bark; if we are applied to for a dropfy, the Manual will refer us to the parsley, as well as to the squill. This leads us to 'a very important omission, viz. the diseases in which each remedy is to be employed.

• Under the third head, of Medical Virtues, the general and primary operations of the subject alone, for the most part, have been noticed, and not their application to the cure of particular disorders, which it is the business of medical science to deduce from the former: In fome initances, indeed, specific medicinal properties, not to be inferred from the general ones, are found, or are supposed, to exist; and these are enumerated."

This method would be undoubtedly juft, if the practice of pbyac was raised entirely above empiricisin; but many me.

thods thods of cure still remain, which depend on unknown properties of medicines, or at least such as are not easily de. fcribed : we need not adduce instances of this kind.

We have told Dr. Aikin very freely his faults, because reputation like his may mislead the unexperienced: we may be allowed to add, that reputation like his should not be trifled with, and frittered away by unconsidered publications. It may be alleged, that it is not easy to be more particular in fo small a coinpass; but, if he does not chuse, with Vogel, to make three classes, the ' ufitata,' the 'minus usitata,' and • inusitata,' he might, at least, have added, like Linnæus, • heroica,' exoleta,' dubia,' superflua,' ' frequens,' &c. or with Tefiari, notes of interrogation, &c. At present we see many doors open to error, with little chance of advantage.

We shall not enlarge on the sensible properties or the vir. tues here assigned. The latter are few ; and, though we are by no means fond of the conduct of those who load every medicine with virtues, yet sometimes there seems a defect. The ammoniacum is certainly an expectorant, independently of its stimulant properties; the columba lessens feverith heats, and the cafcarilla deserves to be more pointedly distinguished from the Peruvian bark than by calling the latter an antiseptic. We ought, in justice, to add, that the account of the different officinals is very particular, and commonly exact. This is a very valuable

part

of the manual. We ihall select one article as a specimen. We opened by accident at the bark : the practitioner will judge how far he will be reminded of its properties and use by this little work.

Peruvianus Cortex, P. L. & E. Peruvian bork: tha: of the Cinchona officinalis, Linn. a tree growing in Peru.

Senf. Prop. Smell, peculiar, not agreeable. Taste, strongly bitter and astringent.

« Med. Virt. Tonic, antiseptic.
M. Exhib. Powder, electuary, infufion, decoction.
Tinctura Corticis Peruviani, P. E.

fimplex, P. L. in proof spirit. Tinctura Corticis Peruviani volatilis, P. L. in spirit of fal ammoniac.

Tinctura Corticis Peruviani Huxhami : bark, orange-peel, Virginian snake-root, faffron, and cochineal, in Brandy.

Extractum Corticis Peruviani molle et durum, P. L. the dea coction evaporated to different confiftences.

Extracium Corticis Peruviani, P. E. the spirituous tincture, and watery decoction of the refiduum, both evaporated, and the products mixed.'

Travels

MR.

Travels in the Two Sicilies, by Henry Swinburne, Esq. (Cors

cluded, from Page 174.) R. Swinburne informs us, that the whole space, compre

hended within the walls of the ancient city, abounds with traces of antiquity, foundations, brick atches, and little channels for the conveyance of water ; but in no part are any ruins which can be presumed to have belonged to the places of public entertainment.

This he justly thinks the more extraordinary, as the Agrigentines were a sensual people, fond of fhews and dramatic performances, and the Roman's never dwelt in any place long without introducing their favourite games. Theatres and amphitheatres, our author observes, seem better calculated than most buildings to resist the out. rages

of time; and it is surprising that not even the vestiges of their form should remain on the ground.

On quitting Girgenti, the travellers had to encounter the worst roads in Sicily. The clay was fo tenacious, and the folid bottom lay so deep, that the horses and mules were scarce able to draw their legs out of the mud. The hills on each fide abound with fulphur, which is dug out by means of grooves driven into the heart of them. The mineral is brought op in fmali green lumps, and laid in large troughs, lined with plaister. When the fire has heated them to a proper degree, the brimstone exudes through holes in the bottom into wooden bowls placed under them.

After labouring nine miles in those intolerable roads, they caine to a sandy foil, fine orange gardens, and rocky defiles, that brought them to Palma, a small town situated in a most agreeable valley not far from the fea. Mr. Swinburne informs as, that in his whole tour, he never met with a spot that possessed so many points of rural elegance as this vale of Palma.

From Palma the road stretched fome miles through a pleafant plain, part of which is planted withi vines, the rest sown with corn, and inclosed with rows of almond-trees. veller then paffed over a high ledge of rocks, whence he had a view of the spacious plain, fupposed to be the Campi Geloi, seen by Æneas, as he coasted along this island.

At the town of Alicata, we are inforined that the populace carry their respect for the facerdotal character to a great height; for as the traveller walked through the streets, the old women and chil. dren cast themselves on their knees before the clergyman who accompanied him; touching his garments with their finger, and then kissing their hand with great veneration.

Here are fome curious Greek inscriptions relative to the ancient city of Gela. The most remarkable is a prephisına, or decree of the

fenate

The tra

fenate, for crowning Heraclides director of the public academy.

At Terranova the traveller quitted the fouthern coast, and directed his course north-east; but the low roads being impracticable on account of late rains, he was obliged to pass over the high country, which is almost an entire fandy forest of cork-trees. The prospects on every side were grand ; and he now, for the first time, discovered Etna, towering above all the intermediate mountains, white with snow, and discharging from its summit a constant but feeble stream of smoke. We must not omit to present our readers with the author's interesting account of Calatagerone.

• Calatagerone, a royal city, containing about seventeen thousand inhabitants, living by agriculture, and the making of potter's ware, is twenty miles from the sea, and situated on the fummit of a very high insulated hill, embosomed in thick groves of cypresies; the road to it, though paved, is very steep, difficult, and dangerous for any thing but a mule or an afs. 'I was conducted to the college of the late Jesuits ; and as the house was completely stripped of furniture, full of dirt and cobwebs, I apprehended my night's lodgings would be but indifferent. The servant belonging to the gentleman who has the management of this forfeited estate, and to witom I had brought a letter requesting a lodging in the college, perceiving the difficulties we lay under in making our settlement, ran home, and returned in a short time, with a polite invitation to his master's house. There was no refusing such an offer, though I was far from expecting any thing beyond a comfortable apartment, and homely fare, in a family settled among the inland mountains of Sicily ; but, to my great surprize, I found the house of the baron of Rofabia, large and convenient, fitted up in a modern tafte, with furniture that would be deemed elegant in any capital city in Europe. Every thing suited this outward few ; attendance, table, plate, and equipage. The baron and his lady having both travelled, and seen a great deal of the world, had returned to settle in their native they assured me I might find many families equally improved by an acquaintance with the manners of foreign countries, or, at least a frequentation of the best company in their own metropolis. Nothing could be more easy and polite than their address and conversation, and my astonishment was hourly increasing during my whole ftay. After I had refreshed myself with a short buc excellent meal, they took me out in a very handsome coach. It was a singular circumstance to meet a itring of carriages full of well-dressed ladies and gentlemen on the summit of a mountain, which no vehicle can ascend, unless it be previously taken to pieces, and placed upon the backs of mules. We seemed to be feated among the clouds. As the vait expanse of the hills and vales grew dim with the evening vapours, our

city, where

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