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the cross-piece of the handle to the point, is full nineteen inches, which is rather longer than the Roman gladii appear to have been, from the greater part of bassi relievi, yet generál Melvill, from seyeral circumstances, which we think wellfounded, concludes it to be a legionary gladius.
Art. XLI. A Letter from the Rev. Mr. James Douglas to General Melvill, on the Sword mentioned in the preceding Article:
Art. XLII. Account of fome Antiquities found in Gloucestershire. By the Rev. Mr. Mutlow.
Art. XLIII. Obfervations on the Language of the People commonly called Gypsies. By Mr. Marsden. The author of these Observations informs us that, after much accurate en." quiry, there is found to be a great fimilarity between the Hindoftanic language and that of the Gypsies in this kingdom. He inftitutes a coinparison in a number of words, which feem to justify the remark; but how far such a coincidence, observable likewise in some other languages, can evince, with any degree of certainty, that the. Hindoitanic and Gypfey tribes have formerly been one people, we are not such affertors of etymological or verbal authority to pronounce in the affirmative.
Art. XLIV. Collections on the Zingara, or Gypsey language. By Jacob Bryant, Esq. - This article, which seems to be intended as a supplement to the preceding, contains five pages of a vocabulary of the Zingara, or Gypley language ; leveral of which words accord with others in the native Perdic, or in the Persic of Indoftan. Some instances are likewife produced of a remarkable fimilarity between words of the Zingara and other languages, among which are the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.
Art. XLV. A Description and Plan of the ancient Timber Bridge at Rochester, collected from two manuscripts, published in Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent.
In an Appendix to the volume are contained extra&s of such communications as the Council of the Antiquarian Society has not thought proper to publish entire. The principal subjects are some Account of a brass Image of Roman workmanihip, found at Cirencester; Account of Discoveries at Allington in Kent; and of a Roman Pavement found at Caerwent, in
The , The Increase of Manufaktures, Commerce, and Finance, with the
Extension of Civil Liberty, proposed in Regulations for the
Interest of Money. 410. 65. in Boards. Robinson. THE 'HE subject, of which this author treats, is of great na.
tional importance; and we have the pleasure to find, both from his narrative and observations, that he has investigated it with particular attention. He endeavours to prove, that the present laws relative to the lending of money, by confining all intereft, whether for large or small fums, and upon certain or uncertain security, to the same standard, and without any regard to the necessities or circumstances of the borrower, are by no means fufficiently comprehensive or liberal to answer the lawful purposes of trade. To remedy this inconvenience the author gives the sketch of a plan for supplying individuals with sums of money, upon principles which would conduce greatly to the extension of commerce. The outlines of the proposed plan are as follow.
• The first regulation, in an institution of this fort, would require to be,
That no loan should ever be granted which did not appear to be for the advantage of the Lorrower, whatever other circamitances might warrant the expediency of granting it.
• That, as the minds of men are often too apt to be biaffid by circumstances, there should be a himit fet to the highest rate of interest that may be taken, which must be regulated by the extent of the loan; that is to say, the power of granting ufurious Loans not to be left to the directors of such a bank.
• The extent of the loan fhould be estimated by the interel which it produces during the whole time of the existence of the loan. Thus, sool. for two years, thould be reckoned the fame as soool. for one year.
. That the principal management be in the hands of men who have no interest in exacting too high a premium of infurance, nor of increasing the expence of the negociation.
• That men of character should be employed to inquire into the particular circumstances of borrowers, under the best regulations that can be devised for coming to the true state of their affairs,
• That a certain time elapse between the asking a loan and the granting of it, unless it be under such particular circumAtances as may be excepted from the general regulations.
“That, in order to avoid making any kind of monopoly of the lending of money, where security is so good as not to sequire much premium of insurance, this bank be never allowed to lend money without a premium, nor unless that premium amounts to two-fifths of the interest.
· That, in order also to render the institution quite competent to the equalizing the monied affairs of the kingdom, and without respect, in this instance, to public revenue, any person may be allowed to take, for the loan of money on une certain security, two-fifths premium of insurance more than what, at the time of such loan being granted, is given for the loan of money on mortgage. This last general licence for taking premia not to extend to loans above a certain amount.
• Registers of all transactions to be so kept, that the circumstances attending them may be known at any time afterwards.
• Probably the regulation of the institution might with ad. vantage be subjected, in some degree, to the yearly inspection of a committee of the house of commons; and, at all events, as there would be a good deal of discretionary power vested in the managers, it ought to have every possible check, which frequent and minute inspection into the exercise of such an office might afford.'
It is a preliminary article in this plan, that upon any appli. cation for money, the circumstances of the borrower thould be made known with the utmost fidelity. The proposal is undoubtedly reasonable and necessary; and when the result of the enquiry should be such as strongly favoured the probabi. lity of re-payment, to obtain a loan even at high interest, and at such a rate as at present comes under the denomination of osury, might not only extricate the borrower from embaraffment, but prove the means of both improving his private fortune, and of benefiting the public. These are the important confiderations on which the author founds the utility,of his plan; and we must acknowlege, that however the proposal may be received by those who could carry it into execution, it does honour to his benevolence and his regard to the interelts of the public.*
A Treatise on the Influence of the Moon in Fevers. By Francis'
Balfour, M.D. 8vo. is. 6d. Robinson.
commendation of this very respectable professor has led us to examine the Treatise with particular care, and it seems designed to induce practitioners to observe the periods of fevers, as connected with the changes of the moon, with greater attention. Dr. Balfour seems to have clearly establised its influence at Bengal, and Dr. J. Lind had :
observed fimilar appearances ; but the former seems chiefly to fail in extending this influence to other countries. He acknowleges, that it is much less obfervable at Madrass; and yet supposes that it has some effect on fevers in ftill more diftant climates,' He has chiefly mentioned Hippocrates, as having observed the influence of the moon on the periods of fevers ; but he might have added Ramazzini, Ballonius, Diemerbroek, and some others. It may be alleged that, if this be true, it should long fince have been established beyond a doubt; but, independent of its having been little attended to, so strong are the preposfessions against any regular progreffon in fcvers, that critical days are, even now, generally disbelieved.
Yet, on mature reflection, we fee an epidemic fo gradual in its fteps, and uniform in its appearances; we see attacks so frequent, patients in different periods of the lunar revolution affected in the same way, and the events, at all times, to nearly alike, that we muit either disbelieve the influence of the moon, or fuppose that our measures counteract it. In either case, atten. tion to it, except as a matter of curiofity, is useless. But we hould rather suspect, that the influence is confined to the warmer climates ; for our author used the bark very liberally, a medicine that more effectually disturbs the operations of fever than any other.
This Treatise is written with candour and good sense.' We fhall select that part of it where the author endeavours to adapt his observations to the common putrid and nervous fevers of these climates. We muit, however, premise, that the three days previous to both the full and change of the moon, are molt fatal, either in inducing dangerous fevers, or in influepcing the terminations. Each period contitts, therefore, of lix days, of which the most powerful are those of the full and change themselves. The intervals are comparatively mild.
. In the case of putrid fevers, continuing nineteen days, I fupposed that there must have been a itrong putrid tendency in the habit, and that the febriferous influence of the air which prevails at the full and change, co-operating with this tendency at these periods, had the power of producing a fever on the second day from their commencement : and that before means could be used to itop or correct this disposition in the patient's habit, the fever continued to run on through the first full or change, and succeeding interval, and alfo through a second full or change; but that the putrid tendency being now in some degree overcome by medicine, and at the same time the febriferous influence of the full or change removed by the arrival of the second interval, a critis of consequence imniediately took place at this juncture, just about nineteen days from the first attack.
• In the cale of putrid fevers continuing orily seventeen days, I supposed that in them the putrid tendency of the habit was fomewhat less at the beginning than in the former case; and
that the febriferous influence of the full or change had not power to excite a fever until the fourth day of the period, when the putrid tendency was farther advanced ; that the fever continued to run on during the remaining days of that full or change, through the succeeding interval, and also through another entire full or change, in the same manner as the fever of nineteen days ; and that at last, from the concurrence of the fame causes, it terminated critically, immediately on the commencement of the second interval ; just about seventeen days from the first attack.
The Benevolence of the Deity, fairly and impartially considered.
By Charles Chuuncy, D.D. Senior Paftor of the First Church
of Chrift in Boffon, America. 8vo. 45. in Boards. Dilly. 'THIS work is divided into three parts.
• The first explains the sense, in which we are to understand benevolence, as applicable to God. The second alerts, and proves, that this perfection, in the sense explained, is one of his eflential attributes.--The third endeavours to answer objections.'
• Under one or other of these heads,' Dr. Chauncy gives us to understand, in his title-page, that occafion will be taken to view man as an intelligent moral agent; having within himself an ability and freedom to will as well as to do, in oppoktion to necessity, from any extraneous cause whatever : to point out the origin of evil, both natural and moral : and to offer what may be thought sufficient to fhew, that there is no inconsistency between infinite benevolence in the Deity, which is always guided by infinite wisdom, and any appearances of evil in the creation.'
Such is the method in which our author means to conduct his confiderations on this important subject. He seems fenfible of its involving a solution of the great question of the origin of evil, which has hitherto baffled metaphysicians and divines. There is, however, reason to think fufficient data are want. ing for a satisfa.lory determination of this enquiry. It is not enough previously to demonstrate all the attributes of God; it Tould seem necessary to ascertain their measure in explicit and decisive terms, and then to prove their perfect consistency together, under the measures ascertained. Should we allow the tirft of these three points, namely, the existence of the divine attributes, as usually defined, to have been absolutely demonstrated, the measure of each still remains unfixed, and must remain so till clear ideas of their extent, and adequate terms to express them, can be found. To say that the attributes of the Deity, are infinite, immeasurable, &c. is admitting that Vol. LX. O&. 1785.