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the gospel, but from the rigid and tyrannical institutions of the Jews.
• Some caution will be requisite also, in engaging with a man, whose situation obliges him to be much conversant with the vi. cious or uncultivated part of mankind; or whose profession inures him to high notions of discipline and implicit obedience.'
• The Theory of Government, the Advantages and Inconveniencies of a Republican Form,compared with Monarchy,' are examined with candour; and we strongly recommend them to the warm patriots of the present day, eager for reformation.
The author next proceeds to the · Principles of Morals, the Atheistical System and Morals of the Ancients, and Religious Eftablishments. In these Essays he strongly endeavours to connect morality with religion, and to found wisdom on virtue. His arguments are generally strong; they are well selected, but seldom new.
The fourteenth Essay is on Education. We have anticipated our author's opinion on the French language, and little remains but to commend. Ms. Gregory is an advocate for schools large enough for the purpose of emulation, but so li. mited as not to prevent every boy from being under the mafter's eye: he recommends the interval also of a year or two, under the care of a private tutor, before the pupil goes to the university. The author, we believe, is well founded in this opinion, but the arguments on the opposite fide are plausible: we regret, that we cannot at present examine the subject, under the guidance of fo judicious a preceptor, as the author before us.
The following Effays on · Penetration and Foresight, and on the Unreasonableness of Suicide,' are greatly inferior to the others. They are not incorrect; but they skim over the Yurface, as a swallow skims over a river, who scarcely penetrates so far as to wet her wing.
The seventeenth Essay is on the · Justice, Humanity, and policy of the Slave Trade.'
These are written with great ftrength of argument and warm sensibility. Every one muft be convinced of the injustice and inhumanity of this trade, though interest may, for a moment, cover it with a veil. May they soon be persuaded also that it is impolitic; for it is highly probable that in the end it will be found fo!
The last Elay is on 'the Causes which may subvert British Liberty ;' and we are glad to find, that the apprehensions of modern patriots are ill founded. We have often given this opinion, and we are pleased to see it supported fo ably in the Elay before us.
On the whole, we think this a very respectable publication ; and, as we have freely censured the objectionable parts, we have as freely commended the many others which are va luable:
Platonis Euthydemus et Gorgias. Recensuit, vertit, notasque fuas
adjecit, Martinus Josephus Routh, A. M. Collegii D. Mariæ Magd. Oxon. Socius. Oxonii e Typographeo Clarendoniano. 8vo.
55. in Sheets, small Paper ; 73. 6d. large Paper. Elmily. THE learned world is already indebted to the Clarendon
press for an excellent edition of five of the dialogues of Plato, by Forster, published in the year 1745; and of three others by Etwall, published in the year 1771, whole edition, though inferior to that of Forster, is by no means destitute of merit. The Euthydemus and Gorgias are now presented to the pub. lic, by Mr. Routh, printed at the same press, with the usual elegance of type, and excellence of paper.
The former of these Dialogues, the Euthydemus, has, we believe, never before been printed separately. A Latin ver. fion of the Gorgias was published, together with some of the ocher dialogues of Plato, by Leonardus Aretinus, in the beginning of the fifteenth century: and, about the middle of the following century, the Greek text was printed at Strasburg, but without either version or notes.
In discussing the merits of the present edition, before we enter into particulars, it will be necessary to lay before our readers, a short account of the principal sources from which the editor has drawn his materials,
The works of Plato were first made public in Europe through the medium of a translation. Marûlius Ficinus, of Florence, the celebrated modern Platonist, first published his Latin vera fion at Florence, more than twenty years before the publication of Plato in the original language. This version was soon afterwards reprinted at Venice, in the year 1491.
The firit edition of Plato's works was printed at Venice, by Aldus, in the year 1513, under the care of Marcus Musurus, a Cretan, who was afterwards raised to the dignity of archbishop by pope Leo the Tenth. This learned and respectable editor has celebrated both his author and his patron, in an ele
poem which is prefixed to his edition, and which has since been reprinted, with a version and notes, by Mr. Forster, at the end of his Essay on Accent and Quantity *.
• A copy of this edition, printed on veilum, and bound in Turkey leather, is said to have been purchased at Dr. Aikew's sale, by the late Dr. Hunter, at the enormous price of fifty-five pounds thirteen shillings.
This edition of Aldus having been printed with great accuracy, from the oldest Greek copies, still retains its credit, and has, indeed, been made the great basis of succeeding editions.
In the year 1534, an edition of Plato's works was printed at Bafil, under the inspection of Oporinus: but this edition is undoubtedly of inferior authority, since Oporinus had recourse to no manuscripts.
A second edition was printed at Bafil, in the year 1556, under the care of Marcus Hopperus, but rendered more valuable than the former by the various readings with which it was enriched. These readings were taken from a copy of the former Bafil edition, which had been collated throughout with several manuscripts, by Arnoldus Arlenius.
The next edition which appears is that of Henry Stephens, printed at Paris in the year 1578, from the text of Aldus. This is the model which Mr. Routh has chosen to imitate; but he has at the same time corrected it, where it wanted correction, by the affiftance of preceding editions.
Stephens professed to have had recourse to fome ancient copies of Plato, but of what particular description cannot now with certainty be known; the expresfion which he uses is vague and indeterminate, * quum autem varia ex veteribus libris auxilia conquifivisset,' &c. The readings which he derived from these sources were partly admitted into the text, and partly inserted in the margin; but his own conjectural emendations were printed entirely either in the margin, or the potes.
Froin the credit of this edition, however, Mr. Routh has in some meafure endeavoured to detract, by infinuating, in Arong terms, that Stephens made use of no MSS. but drew his various readings principally, if not solely, from Ficinus's version, from the second Bafil edition, and from the notes of Cornarius. To this hypothefis, he says, one objection only can be made ; viz. that Stephens has passed over in silence fome of the best and most valuable readings of the Bafil edition; which it is utterly inconceivable that a man of his judga ment and penetration should have done, if he had consulted that edition at all, or at least if he had made it in any degree the basis of his own. But of this objection, strong as it may at first fight appear to the unprejudiced reader, our editor obviates the force in a moment, by saying, “Vereor autem, ne finulatio viri in caufâ hujusce rei fuerit; ụt ng videretur exemplo illo unquam fuisse usus. Imo vero Fischerus, (in præfat. in Platon. Euthyph. p. 16.) eundem arguit depravationis
et mutilationis lectionum Bafilensium, ut fraus eo certius la. teret.'
That there is something mysterious in the conduct of Stephens, cannot perhaps totally be denied; but, furely, charges of this kind, which involve so considerable a de. gree of moral obliquity, ought not haltily or rafhly to be im. puted to any character: much less are we juftified in admitting them, without the strongest evidence, when applied to a man whose extraordinary merits are universally acknowleged by the learned world, and whose name will ever be recorded with honour amongst the venerable restorers of Grecian literature.
The fucceeding editions of 1588, 1590, and 1602, being little more than copies of that of Stephens, do not at present claim any particular notice.
In addition to the assistance which has been derived from these several editions, Mr. Routh has given the collation of a manuscript of the Gorgias, reposited in the Bodleian Li. brary at Oxford. This MS, he says, is apparently of no very early age, but contains many valuable readings in common with other MSS. of Plato, and some which are peculiar to itfelf. Unfortunately, however, it has lhared the fate of many other precious remains of antiquity, near a fifth part of the whole dialogue having perished by the ravages of time, or the carelessness of its former pofsefsors. After the editor had com, pleted the text, and almost half of the notes, he was favoured with a collation of both the Dialogues, with a valuable MS. of the thirteenth century, containing a considerable part of Plato's works, and now preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. The readings of this MS. as far as the 135 th page of Mr. Routh's edition, arriving too late to be printed in their proper place, are subjoined under the title of Addenda: the remainder are partly arranged under the fame title, and partly inserted in the notes.
Besides these several sources of information, the editor has consulted a variety of authors, who have quoted and preserv. ed different passages of Plato in their respective writings. The principal of these are Aristides, Jamblichus, Stobæus, Plu, tarch, Eusebius, and Theodoret. And here it may not be improper to observe, that Mr. Routh professes to have made use of MSS. of all these authors, except Jamblichus and Plutarch; a circumstance which reflects considerable honour on his diligence and attention. In his
very sensible and unaffected preface, and also in his potes, Mr. Routh acknowledges with great candour the ad. vantages which he has derived, as well from the obferyations
of Stephens, Serranus, Cornarius, and Casaubon, as from the communication of some private and particolar friends.
With respect to the text, our present ediror has, as we have before observed, with some few exceptions, followed the edi. tion of H. Stephens. And, where he differs from it, he has not ventured to admit any reading which was not countenanc
ed by some former edition ; but whatever has been suggested either by his own conjecture, by the Bodleian MS. by the verfion of Ficinus, or by the different authors who have quoted Plato, which may tend to correct the text where it is corrupt, or to elucidate it where it is obscure, is submitted to the judge ment of the reader, either at the bottom of the page, or in the notes. • In hâc tamen cautione, fays he, admittendi nihil, quod non fuerat prius in editione aliquâ Platonis, laudan. dum me neutiquam affero, præfertim ubi librorum auctoritate fruebar. Verum nimis cauto facilius ignoscendum, quam temere mutanti.' If we cannot, without some limitations, ado mic the principle; we must at least admire the candid and an. assuming spirit of this apology.
Such is the plan on which the text is printed; and it is printed, as far as we have observed, with great accuracy; being, we believe, excepr the few errata' which have been noted by the editor, in general free from typographical errors.
Of the Latin' version which Mr. Routh has given, it is but juftice to say, that it appears to have united perfpicuity with conciseness ; that it is generally exact, and often elegant. The notes are, in proportion to the text, extremely nume
The text and version together occupy only three hun. dred pages. To these are allotted, in a type confiderably smaller, two hundred and fifty-eight pages of notes, various readings, and addenda. The notes on the Euthydemus fill fifty- fix pages, those on the Gorgias an hundred and seventyfour, and the addenda amount to twenty-eight.
To these notes it may perhaps juftly be objected, that they are not sufficiently philological; and that they oftener draw off the attention of the reader to tedious and uninteresting difcussions, than affist him in settling the reading of doubtful and disputed passages, or in fixing the precise meaning of particular words or expressions. It must, however, be confessed, that they bear strong marks of unwearied attention and indefati. gable industry; that they are replete with historical information, as well as general knowledge; and that they often contain much of profound, as well as extenfive erudition. But Mr. Routh will not, we conceive, totally escape an impatas tion which has been often invidiously, and often with justice,