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and the dusky Avernus is now clear and serene, offering a most alluring surface and charming scene for similar amusements.'
The next object of our author's attention is Puzzuoli, which, in very remote times, was the arsenal and dock-yard of the Cumeans. The ruins of its ancient edifices are widely spread along the adjacent hills and shores. An amphitheatre ftill exifts almost in its original state, with a great part of the temple of Serapis. The latter is square, environed with buildings for priests, and baths for votaries. In the centre remains a circular platform, ascended by four flights of steps, vases for fire, a centrical altar, rings for victims, and other appendages of facrifice.
Among the relics of ancient grandeur in this neighbour. hood is the Campanian way, paved with lava, and lined on cach side with venerable towers, the repositories of the dead, which are richly adorned with stucco in the inside. This road was executed by the order of Domitian ; and of all the monuments remaining of that emperor, is perhaps the most honourable to his memory. Not far hence lies the Solfatara, styled by the ancients the court of Vulcan ; with the lake of Agnano, on the verge of which are the sweating stones of San Germano, and the celebrated grottà del Cane. A phenomenon observable in this lake is its perpetual bubbling, with reSpect to which Mr. Swinburne informs us that he has difcovered an additional cause.
• I now, says he, passed down to the lake of Agnado, which exhibits true elegance of landscape, without any of the bold features of wild nature; its waters are unfavourable to fish, being covered in many places with fulphureous slime; all the flax that is gathered in the vicinage of Naples is brought to foak in this pool, under a weight of stones, till it be fufficiently foft for beating ; a putrid smell, occasioned by its fermentation, encreases the natural unwholesomeness of the air, and is often fenfibly felt even in the city of Naples. By order of the police no fteeped fax can be carried through the streets except in the night-time; and even then, the elluvia are so strong that I have sometimes been waked by them : the fax produced near the lake is in the highest estimation. These waters are said to bubble inceffantly from the fixed air forcing its way through them ; but could discern another cause of this bubbling in the continual leaping up of a large fish or tadpole. This fingular creature has two fore-legs, a fish's head and tail, and frequently is found full of spawn ; their motions are so swift and frequent, that if I had not caught them by putting a net suddenly into the water, I should never have discovered the cause of the bubbles.
The grand and variegated prospects which now presented themselves to the traveller, whilft he moved along the bay of Naples, can only be conceived by those who have viewed that magnificent and beautiful landscape. At length he arrived in: the city, of which he gives a particular account.
Faithful and agreeable delineation are not the only qualities with which Mr. Swinburne gratifies the taste of his readers ; for he joins the information of history to the remarks of the traveller ; and occasionally enriches the narrative likewise with philofophical reflections ; of which, in this part of the volume, we meet with the following infance.
• From the flight mention made of Naples by ancient writers, we may infer that its inhabitants long lived in obscure tranquillity, a happy though not a glorious fituation ; for where no complaints are made, no disturbances heard of, peace and abundance may be supposed to reign. Great misfortunes as ofien as great successes raise nations to a rank in history that entitles them to the notice of pofterity; victory and dominion did not, perhaps, procure to the Roman people a larger share of felicity than they would have talted, had they remained the free but yndistinguifed poffeffors of their original confined ter. sitóry ; in that case their name would not have been pre-eminent in the history of the great revolutions of the world; but their blood would not have flowed in profcriptions, nor would their liberties have been trampled upon by emperors the most vorthless of mankind. It is far from my intention to depre. ciate the value of generous ambition, and active spirit; on the contrary, I doubt whether any public prosperity can be lafting, without military exertions : philosophical content and moderation may ensure to private men an uncommon proportion of that imperfect sum of happiness, which alene is within our contracted reach, but if they predominate long in national councils, will inevitably lull'the state into pernicious apathy; every political body is so surrounded with rivals and enemies, and such is the necessity of motion in human affairs, that if they do not advance, they must retrograde. A people of philosophers, if such a one could be formed, must either fink rapidly into vie cious indolence, ending in confufion and Navery, or very soon be reinvolved in the busy vortex of enterprize, which alone can preserve it from corruption.'
The account of Naples is succeeded by that of Caserta, and the most remarkable articles which have been discovered in the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The entrance of Pompeii is near the quadrangular barracks of the Roman cohorts that composed the garrison. A portico runs round the court supported by pillars of stone, covered with stucco and painted. The troops, our author observes, seem to have been accommodated with every conyenience, and even luxury; for they
had both a theatre and an amphitheatre belonging to their quarters. From an inscription lately dug up, says Mr. Swinburne, I find that the Poinpeians had places of public entertainment, not unlike the modern ones in the suburbs of London and Paris. The number of workmen now employed in uncovering,
this city is very small, on account both of the satiety of antiqui. ties, and the difficulty of finding proper spots for the recep tion of the rubbish. Many projects of subscriptions have been proposed for carrying on these labours with activity, but hitherto none of them has met with the royal approbation.
The traveller continued his journey by Nocera and Salerno to the ancient Pæftum, celebrated by the classic poets for its roses. The wild rose which now Thoots up among the ruins, is of the small single damask kind, with a very high perfume ; and our author was assured by a farmer on the spot, that it flowers both in spring and autumn. The ancient town-ivall is almost entire, and incloses an area about three miles in circumference. The gates are placed in the centre of each side of the quadrangle, and a great street may yet be traced in a line from the north to the south gate. Neareft to the southa wall is a quadrilateral building with nine columns in each front, and eighteen on each side. But at a small distance towards the north is the most capital building, a temple of the kind called pseudodipteros, having fix columns in the fronts, and fourteen on the sides. The pediments and entablatures are almost entire.
• This, says our author, is one of the noblest monuments of antiquity we have left; though built in a ftyle few modern architects will adopt, it may perhaps serve to inspire them with sublime ideas, and convince them how necessary to true grandeur in architecture are fimplicity of plan, folidity in proportions, and greatness of the component members.'
We entirely join in opinion with Mr. Swinburne respecting the subsequent remarks.
• Not many years are elapsed since Pæstum began to engage the attention of the literary world; the first publishers of its views inform us that an accidental visit of a painter to a town in the neighbourhood rescủed these ruins from oblivion ; but we are not therefore to suppose that Pættum had remained un. known, buried deep in impervious forests, and hidden for ages from the fight of man; it certainly never was surrounded with wood ; and between the walls and the sea, a bare sandy down reigns along the coast. The pillars of Pesto have long been, and are to this day, a landmark to sailors, and are seen, as I can witness, from every part of the extensive gulph of Salerno. I am sorry to deitroy Mr. Brydone's hopes that fome magnifcent heap of ruins will hereafter be discovered among the fo. rests of Calabria ; the situation of almost all its ancient Greek cities is ascertained; from my own knowlege, and the information of the natives, who are well acquainted with the receíses of their wildernesses, and by no means inattentive to the remains of antiquity, I may venture to affirm that there is not a shadow of probability that any discoveries of that kind can be made in Calabria. Pendosia and 'Tempsa are the only towns which antiquaries differ in placing, and neither of them was of such note, as to promise any very superb ruins, if by chance they should have remained concealed from all eyes to the prefent time.'
The traveller proceeds afterwards to the isand of Sicily, his account of which is prefaced with a general history. Landing at Palermo he took the earliest opportunity of paying visits, and delivering the letters he had brought from Naples to the principal people of the Sicilian metropolis. Most of those recommendations had come from persons of such rank, and such connections with those they were addressed to, that Mr. Swinburne entertained the firmeft confidence of meeting with an agreeable reception in a city renowned for its civility to foreigners; but in this expectation he was disappointed. No notice was taken of the letters he presented; no civilities shewn, nor a single invitation given him to break bread under a Sicilian roof. To this general coolness he only makes two exceptions : one was the learned antiquary prince Lancellotti, of Torremusa, who paid great attention to his recommendatory introduction; and the other, monsignor Severino, of Naples, archbishop of the united fees of Palermo and Montreale.
Our author informs us, that from the sea Palermo exhibits a most noble spectacle. Its extensive bay is confined by a circle of mountains of various elevations and forms. It is walled round in almost a circular shape, and divided into four parts by two streets which intersect each other at right angles. Palermo is crowded with statues of sovereigns and tutelar saints, but most of them done by unskilful hands. No confiderable Greek or Roman antiquities now remain ; and the smaller, memorials of ancient grandeur which have been preserved, are collected in one museum, in the great college lately directed by the Jesuits.
Having traced the progress of this agreeable traveller to Sicily, we shall reserve a farther account of the work for a subsequent Review,
History of the English Lau. Vol. II. By Jchu Reeves, Esq.
Concluded, from Vol. LIX. p. 439.) HAving already given a cursory view of the principal
changes exprefly made in the law by the statutes of Richard II. Henry IV. and Henry V. we shall now proceed to mention the alterations tacitiy introduced in the practice and construction of the law, during the same period.
Actions on the case became more common in Westminster. hall, and the limits of them were insensibly enlarged, so as to include not only the consequences of injuries actually committed, but to give damages for an injury fuitained by the non-performance of any contract which the party ought to have completed. This was much to the advancement of juftice, as no action of covenant could be maintained which was not grounded on a deed.
The criminal law continued nearly on the same footing as in Edward the Third's time. By the Year-book of the first of Henry the Fourth it appears, that the proceedings against a peer for capital offences were nearly the same as they are now.
While the kingdom was fo divided into opposite parties, it is no wonder if many were convicted of treason without trial or examination. It is well for them who have lately pressed for reformation in all departments of state, that the law is somewhat altered from what it was when fir Thomas Haxey was condemned to die the death of a traitor, for having moved in the house of commons, that economy must be promoted at court; in order to which, he proposed that the court should not be so much frequented by bishops and ladies.
The commons, in the first of Henry IV. extorted a decla, ration from the lords, that they had a legislative authority in all statutes, grants, and subsidies.
The'roll, however, was not always drawn up according to their instructions : upon which they remonftrated, in 2 Henry V. that as they were affentors as well as petitioners, statutes should be made according to the tenor of their petition, and not altered.
In the ensuing chapters we have cause to lament that Mr. Reeves did not pursue his former plan. In the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV, the common law received such improvements from the decisions in Westminster, that it may juftly be called an æra in our legal history. The Year-books of these reigns are the mines from which lord Coke extracted great part of that treasure of learning, which he displayed to the world in his Commentary upon Littelton. All this matter is crowded into fo short a compass, that any account we could