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filled with bas-relief, the points of which are crowned with ftatues. On each side is a beautiful colonade of ten lofty pillars. The inside is adorned with medallions of those officers who did fo much honor to their country, and under the auspices of his lord ship's immortal relation, Mr. Pitt, carried its glory to fo high a pitch in the war of 1755; a war most eminently diftinguished by Concord and Victory. This temple stands on a gentle rise, and below it is a winding valley, the fides of which are adorned with groves and clumps of trees, and the open space is broken by single trees, of various forms. Some ftatues are interfperfed. This valley was once flowed with water, but the springs not supplying a sufficient quantity, have been diverted, and it is now grass.
On the opposite side of this vale is the Lady's Temple, on an elevated spot, commanding the distant views. Below is a stream, over which is thrown a plain wooden bridge.
On another eminence, divided from this by a great dip, stands a large Gothic building, fitted up in that taste, and furnished with some very good painted glass.
• The Temple of Friendship is adorned with elegant marble bafts of some whose friendihip did real honour to the noble owner.'
In treating of Banbury, Mr. Bray observes that Puritans were always numerous in the town. · Camden speaks of it as a place famous for cakes and ale ; and when Holland translated his Britannia without his consent, he played him a trick : getting at the printer, he changed cakes and ale, into cakes and zeal, which alteration got
enemies.' The seat of lord Scarsdale, at Kedleston, affords our author a large subject for architectural description ; bat for an account of this magnificient building, as well as of Chatsworth, already well-known, and of Wentworth Castle, we must reser to the work; in which the reader will meet with an agreeable mixture of anecdote and topographical delineation, accompanied in some places with etchings.
The Life of Cervantes: Ingether with Remarks on bis Writings, by
Mr. de Florian. Translated from the French by William Wall. beck. Small 8vo. Bew. R. Florian, we now use Mr. Wallbeck's words, will be
found to have executed his task as translator very ably. And I think, when you have perused the Life of Cervantes and the remarks upon his writings, you will agree with me that the Frenchman has evinced no less good sense, than liberality and candour : and, if he is not quite a Rousseau or D'Alembert, he is a good writer, and no despicable critic.'
We have transcribed these words, because they are well fitted to characterise, this shadow of a shade,' the translation
from Florian. If we change the name, the fable will suit Mr. Wallbeck and his work. ,In the dedication to the count of Lemos, our author seems not to know the meaning of the Great Bernard; but we must transcribe the note, to make the deficiency more generally known.
" What sort of a work the “ Garden Calendar” was, its title explains : but, I confess, I am at a loss to guess what Saavedra means by “ The Great Bernard ;" and the more so because Mr. De Florian has not thought proper to canonize it. I suspect, however, that it refers to that well-known mountain, called 66 The Great Saint Bernard,” on the confines of Switzerland and Piedmont; which is upwards of fix thousand feet, perpendicular height, above the Leman-lake, and is covered with eternal snow. If Saavedra ever visited this mountain, or beheld only from a distance its towering summit, well might he deem it worthy celebration.
• If I am wrong in this conjectural elucidation, which I propose with great diffidence, I hall think myself particularly obliged to any body who will be at the pains of setting me right, through the channel of the Reviews, Gentleman's Magazine, or any other respectable periodical work. Poliibly the Spanish edition of Cervantes's Life, which I have no opportunity of consulting, may of itfelf be fufficiently clear.'
We have looked into the Life of Cervantes, in the splendid edition which is here mentioned, and perceive that, among the unfinished works, was one which they call Il Bernardo; but we do not find the lightest information of its purport: and, at this time, we know not where to apply for more satisfactory information. Whatever the work was, it is probably' loft.
The English reader is acquainted with Cervantes, as a satirist and a novel writer; but knows little of him as a dramatic author ; so that we shall extract from this production the short account of his plays.
• Whether the number of plays Cervantes wrote was twenty or thirry, is immaterial; for to judge of thole which are lost by those which remain, we have no cause of regret. I have read through the eight he published with great attention; and not one of them is so much as tolerable. The ground plots are neither interesting in themselves, nor well wrought. We meet fre. quently with flashes of wit, but never with versimilitude. Such are their general characteristics.
• In the one which is entitled “ The Fortunate Lecher,” the hero, in the firit act, is the greateit rascal in all Seville; in the fecond he is a Jacobine monk, at Mexico; and is a pattern of piety. He has frequent contests with the devil, upon the stage ; and always comes off victorious. Called in to pray by a woman at the point of death; one who had led a very profligate life; father Crux (for so he is called) exhorts her to contess; which she, despairing of pardon, refuses to do. The zealous confeffor, to save her from consequent impenitency,
proposes to make an exchange with her,-his merits against her fins. The bargain is ftruck; and a contract signed in due form. The woman confefles, and expires : angels appear to take
away her soul; and the devil comes to lay in his claim to the monk : who, to his astonishment, finds himself grown all over leprouse In the third act, he dies, and performs miracles.
· Such is the plot of a play written by the author of “ Don Quixote :" and perhaps the best play he ever wrote.'
As a specimen of the notes of the translator we shall extract that which this account has suggested.
• What an eccentric genius Saavedra's was! Who would think it possible that the composer of fo fine a dramatic story, as
Don Quixote," could fo deviate from all manner of beauty and order; and pen so execrable a farce! If it had not been published by himself, there is but one circumstance by which we could have gueffed it to have been his : that is the boldness with which he has lifted his fatiric hand against the all-suffi. cient clergy. Not, probably, that it was done in so direct, and unqualified a manner, as these outlines of the comedy might lead us to suppose; but by covert fatire; by irony, if not finely imagined, at lealt so happily expreffed, that it would bear the construction of obsequiousness, or even adulation. The fpies, else, of that infernal tribunal, cailed the Holy Inquifition, would certainly have reported Saavedra. And yet, how gross must have been the ignorance, how rank the stupidity of those times, not to have detected the burlesque of such a representation !
« Taking the comedy in one sense, or rather one word of it, in (I fear) its only sense, literal or figurative, I with that Cervantes had not been jesting; but had written it in good and son ber earnest. The word which I advert to is “ Crux;" which he has casually taken, for the confeffor's name. I do not affect to be over-righteous, (God-malas!-knows, how very, very far I am from that,) but I cannot, and who, that has the least sense of religion can, bear to see “the cross,”-that precious memorial of our redemption, applied as a fit name for a ludicrous character.
• I marvel much how that word slipped from Saavedra's pen; unless through careless hafte. From his head, or heart, assured. ly it never came : for, if ever writer of a work of humour took pains to inculcate religion, it was the author of " Don Quix. ote.” There is not a chapter in the book that does not abound in religious and moral precepts. And the hero of the romance, whatever other extravagancies he is guilty of, never forgets hỉs God. Acquitting Saavedra, which I certainly do, of any in. tention of blasphemy, I would not have fixed the reader's atiention upon it, but by way of hint to writers in general, to be exceedingly cautious in the use of words, the injudicious application of which may, centuries after their death, bring their religious character in question.''
(; An Essay on the Theory of the Production of Animal Heat, and on
its Application in the Treatment of Cutaneous Eruptions, Infiammations, and fome other Diseases. By Edward Rigby. 8vo.
45. fewed. Johnson. WE E always attend on Mr. Rigby with pleasure ; for we
seldom separate from him without instruction. Even his mistakes are falutary lessons, and teach us to repress too great confidence in our own efforts. The work before us con. fifts of two parts, which are more distinct than the authoi probably intended them to be ; and if he fails in the one, yet as the other is not founded on, but rather loosely connected with it, the ruin will not be either general or fatal. The theory of animal heat has engaged the attention of many eminent philosophers; and, though each fees the oblivion into which his predecessors have fallen, the temptation is too strong to be refifted; the delusion too pleafing to be conquered. Like the fancied heroine of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, though the daily brides had, each successive morning, been led to the scaffold, the honour of the contest, and the glimmering hopes of fuccess, concurred to make her eager for the supreme dignity. Our readers will suppose, that our review of so many literary spectres hastening to condemnation, would give us 'no very favourable disposition towards Mr. Rigby's work, notwithstanding our avowed partiality for the author. Yet, as usual, we endeavoured to examine with caution, and determine with candour: as fo many had wandered, one might now be right; and former errors might have contributed to direct a fucceffor.
The last theory which had the smallest claim to the attention of the learned, was that of Mr. Crawford, which we reviewed in our forty-eighth Volume, page 181. The merit of the opinion rested on the evidence of the facts, and it cannot be expected that Reviewers should delay their accounts of experimental enquiries till they have ascertained the truth of the experiments. We applauded the author's industry, and waited for the result of other examinations. The principal work, in this line, was one by Mr. Morgan *, who, with great acuteness and precision, examined every part of the author's rea. foning, and his separate facts. There was much reason to suppose, that Mr. Crawford had observed and reasoned with too groat haste: perhaps the author may have thought the fame ; for we have yet heard no reply, nor has the theory been Le-published. We have given this little sketch chiefy to oba
* Sec Crit. Rev. vol. lii p. 2126 VOL. LX. Aug. 17856
Serve, that the principle on which Mr. Crawford began is probably well founded : his errors were undoubtedly numerous, and ought to have been again examined. If the distinction between absolute or latent, and sensible heat, be established, it will then be only necessary to enquire, whether the change which the blood undergoes in the course of circulation, can make any alteration in its capacity to retain heat. If this be true, and the change is such as to lefsen the quantity of absolute heat, which there is great reason to believe, the foundation is clear. The superftru&ure may be just or erroneous ; it may be rejected or retained ; for enough will be established. But it is time to proceed to the work before us.
Mr. Rigby supposes that heat is a body, and therefore capable of entering, as an ingredient, into the composition of other bodies. The substances which are conveyed into the ftomach abound with this ingredient; and le juftly observes, that when its feparation is the consequence of almost every decomposition with which we are acquainted, it is absurd to fuppose, that heat should not escape during the decomposition of the substances containing it, in the stomach. Mr. Rigby employs his first section not only in proving his general conclu. lions, but in thewing how nature has attended to them in a variety of instances, and in what degree fatiety and hunger, leanness and obesity, are connected with abundance or fcarcity, with the more or less rapid efcape of the heat which enters into the human fyftem.
The great defect of every fyftem on the subject of animal heat has been the want of obfervations, or rather of experiments, on the bodies of animals. The first circumstance, which feems to weaken the opinion of Mr. Rigby, is his fuppofing that there is one particular source of heat. If this were true, the stomach should be the warmest part, and the heat should gradually decrease till we arrive at the extremities. But, in the few experiments made on this subject, we find that this is not decidedly true. The mouth, the axilla, and the groin, raise the thermometer to the fame height. The urine has no greater effect on it than a fistulous ulcer in the thigh ; and, in a rabbit, the thermometer, placed between the muscles of the leg, was at the same point with one inserted into the abdo. men. These facts certainly support that opinion, which attributes the heat to a power acting at the same time in every part of the fyftem ; and there are now two opinions of this kind, which deserve our attention ; the one, that it proceeds from the energy of the nervous power; the other, which attributes it to the chemical change constantly going on in our fluids. If Mr. Rigby's opinion were true, it should be the best me