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World. Were the Christian Ob- punishment. The subject, look at server ever to be confounded with it in what light we will, is deeply certain other periodical works which painful ; yet I am inclined to aphave ostensibly the same design, prehend, ibat, upon the whole, it is, and make far greater professions, generally speaking, the duty of a I should really consider the public Christian, as a member of a civil as having sustained a serious loss; community, to bring a criminal to for it is perhaps the only correction justice; not of course from passion that there is to the works to which or revenge, but from a sense of I allude. It is too much to be fear. public obligation. If the award of ed, that many readers of works, punishment be over-measured, the which their editors, perhaps, ima- guilt is not his, but belongs to those give to have the same beneficial who appoint it. While a law retendency as yours, console them- maius in force, a private member selves under the unpleasant convice of the community does not appear tions which the awful truths of to be warranted in setting up bis which they are unquestionably the personal opinion against the authovehicle, may bring upon their minds, rity of “the powers that be,” unby observing in the writings of less in the case of a plainly untheir reprovers, such virulencé, christian command. party spirit, ignorance and inflation The question is, however, of such of mind, as but too clearly evince importance, that if any corresponthat tbey themselves have need to dent who has had occasion to make be instructed, not merely in human it a subject of serious reflection wisdom but Christian charity, and humble prayer for the Divine Permit me now, sir, to conclude, direction, would communicate bis with earnestly requesting you 10 sentiments upon it, he would greatlet it be distinctly understood, that ly oblige

DUBITANS. the Editor of the Christian Observer does not approve of having advertisemeuts appear on its covers, penned like the one that I have Tothe Editor of the Christian Observer. presumed to call your attention to. The Society of Friends in this Believe me, sir,

kingdom are now become a large Your sincere. well-wisher, and respectable body; aud expe

rience daily shews, that they are pot unwilling to do their part to

wards alleviating the distresses of To the Editor of the Christian Obserder, the community. We daily witness The investigations which have and hear of their exertions in vataken place ou the subject of our rious benevolent institutions ; and criminal law during the last few I am not the only person who re. years, have shewn in a striking grets that they are not made usepoint of view the impolicy, and I ful in tbe administration of the fear I must add the national guilt, criminal laws, with the rest of their of inflicting capital punishment for fellow-subjects. Perhaps there upany of those crimes to which it is niay be objections to their being still attached by our otherwise ex: eligible to every office wbich other cellent laws. This persuasion has Dissenters exercise; but I must con conduced in no small degree to the fess, they do not present themselves impunity of offenders; for many to my view. Their scruples respectpersons experience an unconquer- ing oaths do not appear, under preable scruple of conscience, to say sent circumstances, an insuperable nothing of their feelings, in prose- obstacle. I solicit the attention of cuting a criminal under the ex. your readers and tbe public to the pectation of his incurring capital subject.



PARAPHRASE OF THE PRO. Ungotic'd by the passing traveller's PHECY OF NAHUM.

eyes, Spout, Judah, shout! Behold thy King! Is this the den, where, breathing wild

And silent as a desert lake she lies. TL' Almighty comes—an awful form: His chariot is the whirlwind's wing;

dismay, His march is on the storm.

Th’ Assyrian lion tore his quiy'ring Before kis burning breath is driv'n,

food, Like dust, the fleecy rack of heav'n;

Stor'd every dark recess with mangled The flow'rs that bloom on Carmel's head,

prey, Wither beneath his glowipg tread;

And traip'd his tawny whelps to lap Scorch'd by the lightnings of his eye,

the feast of blood ? The rivers leave their channels dry; City of guilt, wbose stately street And Lebanon in terror bows

Is trod by Murder's gory feet, The palmy honours of bis brows: Where Rapine grasps her blood-stain'd Destruction tracks his way.

spoils, He comes to conquer and to save,

Where Treason spreads her secret toils To raise from earth the fainting slave:

Insatiate to devour; He comes to guard and bless his own, Bend, bend thy tow'r-crown'd head from And pour around the tyrant's throne high, A deluge of dismay.

For hovering round thy sunny sky Not wand'ring flames in fiercer tide

The clouds of terror low'r. Rage on the mountain's wooded breast,

See Desolation's vengeful form Devour the forest's leafy pride,

Ride on the pinions of the storm, And scale the cedar's crest.

While Havock pointing to the prey So where his with’ring vengeance

glows And thy pale children mark in speech

Marshals the stern avenger's way;
Its rage shall blast his mightiest foes;
And guilty empires form the pyre

less fear That feeds his unextiogaish'd ire.

The thunder of his wheels, the lightning Of idol gods the dæmon train

of his spear. Forsakes each long polluted fane; Remember Thebes, the queen whose ForTime hath brought the destin'd hour,

And Mercy arms the band of Pow'r. Contrould the children of the day,
Realm of the soff’ring seed, rejoice ! The sons of Mizraim's sultry sky,
Jehovah's thnoder-speaking voice The flow'r of Nubia's chivalry.-
Is only heard to bless :

Nile centinell’d her battled gate,
With plepty all thy vallies sing,

And nations mann'd her wall; With joy thy mountain summits ring, Defying Heav'n, disdaining Fate, And thy glad echoes roll around

Like thee she sate in regal state,
From hill to hill the ecstatic sound

And thou like her shalt fall.
Of peace and happiness.

Vain was the warrior's plamed pride,

And vain the river's guardian tide, Shake, tow'rs of Ninus.

The myriads vain, whose busy feet leagyer'd heads The fiery stream of wrathJehovah sheds. Incessant trod her crowded street; Bee where the ehariots whirl their rapid Her mangled infants felt the ruthless flight,

sword, Like meteors bounding on the clouds of And her proud pobles crouched beneath nigbt.

a foreign lord. They come-the fierce avengers. All They come,-thy countless foes appear. around

Blow the shrill clarion! Shake the beamLike leafless pines their woods of lances ing spear! spread;

Upfurl thy banner! Bare thy blade ! And groaning with their weight, the And call thy children to thine aid, burden'd ground,

Numerous as locusts when their squaBeams with their flashing shields, and drons ride thunders to their tread.

In clouds, upon the whirlwind's scorchHer bars roll back. Her moated turrets ing breath, fall,

And hang the pall of want and death And shoutingConquest scalesher castled O’er some fair province robed in ver. wall.

dant pride. CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 219. Z

O'er your

In vain! The sword, dread monarch of So.shall thy warriors, so thy sages fall; the fray,

The touch of cold Oblivion, tyrant lord, Drinks deep thy gore, and revels in dis- Shall rust thy sceptre and thy sword; may:

And night and silence brood above thy Unseen Destruction saps thy root,

wall. The land of War hath cull'd thy fruit, Thy flocks are scatter'd o'er the moun. And thy sear leaves, the spoils of autumn,

tain's steep,

Thy shepherds rest in dreamless, mornDown the cold current of the ev'ning gale. less sleep; Yes, like the flimsy insect train,

Earth shouts in joy; th' exulting slave Whose hosts encamp on ev'ry shelter'd Bounds o'er the fall'n oppressor's grave; plain,

Fair Freedom smiles; and Fame, with When Eve along the silent dale

wings unfurld, Expands her dank and dusky veil, Proclaims deliv'rance to the prostrate But like the melting dew decay,

world. Before the burning glance of day;




TODD on the Declarations of our sent article will briefly recapitulate

Reformers respecting Original the historical statements made in

Sin, Free-will, Grace, &c. the former part of our Review, and LAURENCE's Authentic Documents then proceed to render as full at

respecting the Predestinarian tention as possible to Mr. Todd's Controversy, 8c.

remaining extracts.

These extracts embrace two of the (Continued from the No. for Jan. p.48.)

three periods above-mentioned ; Our former article upon these namely, that during the reign of publications was occupied princi- King Henry VIII, and that during pally in tracing what may be called the reign of King Edward VI. We the historical argument respecting have already considered the former them. It will bave appeared from of these periods, with the prothence, that we had to do with three ductions which then appeared, and distinct periods of history; first, the which were in succession as follow. period of imperfect Reformation dur. The “ ten Articles" in 1536: The ing King Henry VIII.; secondly, the "Godly and Pious Institution of a period of more complete Reforma- Christian Man”in 1537: The Doction during the short reign of King trinæ Christianæ Articuli*”in 1540: Edward VI.; thirdly, the period of The “ Necessary Erudition of a Protestant Controversy during the Christian Man" in 1543; with its reign of popish Mary. The last translation, the “ Pia et Catholica period, embracing the Predestina- Christiani Hominis Institutio ” in rian Controversy, is that contained 1544. From each of these several in the Authentic Documents by productions, particularly the “InDr. Laurence, and must still be stitution" and “Necessary Erudideferred, unwilling as we are to tion," we gave quotations; and then protract this discussion, to a future endeavoured to shew, and we think Number. Consequently we shall also defer to the same Number daction of the reign, but never antho

* Apparently the most orthodox proevery thing in the two former pe- rized; remarked as having

some notes riods which has reference to the of the king in the margin.” Q. What Predestinarian question. Our pre- were those notes:

to demonstration, that these were deed appear, as we have already not the statements of doctrines stated, that Cranmer's annotations which would afford a genuine eluci- were ever attended to or adopted. dation of the opinions of our Eng. Both the Institution and Necessary lish Reformers'; and particularly Erudition were moreover (as we not of Cranmer, whose composition proved from history) set forth at a it has been affirmed they were. time when “all the books of the Indeed, so far from it, we con- Old and New Testament, of Tindal's tended that the quotations which Protestant translation, were forbidwe gave, more particularly those at den to be kept or used in the king's length from the Necessary Erudi- dominions." They contained avowtion," contained much obscurity ed popish doctrines; for instance, and popish doctrine; and that these those of transubstantiation, the mass, several productions were compos- auricular confession, and all the ed, if by Cranmer in part, yet still seven sacraments. Cranmer afterunder unfavourable and popish in. wards declared that the king was fluence.

seduced into the adoption of them. That these productions discover, Upon the death of that king indeed, either “the hand or the (Henry VIII.) Cranmer did not lose heart of Cranmer," we are the more a single year in setting forth a new inclined to doubt, notwithstanding Book of Homilies, the very same the suppositions of Mr. Todd, the which forms our present First Book more we consider the subject. We of Homilies, and which will be found have already alluded to that great to contradict the former “ Erudireformer's private sentiments at tion" in every “necessary” point. the time, as given in our own early On this new book the sagacious but pages. We might bave extracted obdurate Gardner instantly placed much froin certain annotations his ban as directly impugning the made by Cranmer, and still extant",

former; and did not cease to upon the “King's Book," as the represent it as mischievous in the “Necessary Erudition” was called extreme, urgiug against it all the through the flattering contrivance common place objections usually of Gardner. These annotations applied to the genuine doctrine of prove most clearly the dissatis- justification by faith. Upon the faction of Cranmer with many of its accession of popish Mary, and the expressions, and uniformly speak of professed return of the church to it as a book in which he had little the doctrine and ritual of her father hand, except unavailingly to criti- Henry VII., this new Book of cise its contents. It does not in- Homilies was, as a matter of course,

laid aside with the “Schismatical See them quoted in Strype, and, for Ordinal ” of Edward VI.; and a the first time printed in full, in “ The Fathers of the English Church," vol. iii. Doctrine” was substituted for it, by

“ Profitable and Necessary The editor of that valuable work could not have performed a more important

Bishop Bonner and others, after service, than the publication of these the heads of “ the Iostitution and very annotations, as found in a MS. in Necessary Erudition.” “It differthe Archbishop's own handwriting, pre- ed, however,” says Collier, “ in served in the library of Corpus Christi manner,” as might be expected, College, Cambridge.” We shall bave being more particular, and more occasion to refer to these annotations, polemical.In fine, the contrariety as well as to the work itself above-nam- upon actual collation between the ed, more than once in the future course

old “ Institution” or “Necessary of this Review. We only now observe, that these annotations will be found, in Erudition," and the present First general, to hold a langnage very dit Book of Homilies, as quoted by ferent from that, either of the author or

Mr. Todd himself, we asserted to the approrer of the “ King's Book.” be so apparent, so circumstantial,


so fundamental, and so irreconcile- comparing the several doctrines of able, that he needed no further il- the two periods under their proper lustration from history to confirm heads, there will be found no diffithe point. Nor can we avoid re- culty in ascertaining the exact difpeating our surprize, that with both ference between the two schemes documents fairly before our ex- of faith and practice. In this comtractor, he should not himself have parison we shall, except on extrabeen aware what a hopeless task of ordinary occasions, omit the correreconciliation he was undertaking. sponding or rather contrasting pasWe are not inclined to consider the sages in our own authorized Homiattempt to explain the Protestant lies, though they occupy a very Homilies of Cranmer by the former large space in Mr. Todd's work ; Declarations of King Henry VIII. becausė, as we have hipted before, even in so favourable a light as our readers have, or ought to have, the attempt would be to illustrate the means of making the comparison the operations and conceptions of for themselves. We shall only correct vision by the first beamings make this general observation in of the puré etheríal stream upon a the commencement, upon any re. man newly restored to sight. We semblance between the expressions are inclined to compare it rather of our own Homilies and those of to the wretched expedient (we do the “ Institution” and “Necessary not mean to say that this was in- Erudition," that it must of course tentional on the part of Mr. Todd) be expected, in passing from one of making every thing of one colour, class of doctrines to another, that by throwing a veil of darkness over the point of transition will exhibit all; or, to speak plainly, of making affinities in the mode of expressing two documents hold the same lan- varying doctrines; and this, more guage by endeavouring lo convince particularly, where the same hand us that neither holds any plain or was at one time conscientiously inintelligible language whatever, terfering to draw things as near as

Thus far, then, we have spoken possible to a correct statement of relative to the history of the first doctrine; and, at another, prudenperiod ; tbat is, during the reign of tially abstaining from introducing King Henry VIII. ; 'and we are so any novelties not absolutely neces. far advanced into the second period sary for the reformation and instrucalso, as to have embraced the pub. tiod ofthe Church-the same wisdom lication of the First Book of Homi- which our reformers also displayed lies, by Cranmer himself, as we in the formation of our Liturgy. now have them. This publication Under these circumstances, it is perfollowed immediately on the death haps more remarkable that so much, of that inonarch. From this time, rather than that so little, variation and through the period of the reign should be found in the several doof King Edward VI., we shall not cuments before and after the death pursue the documents quoted by of King Henry VIII.; for there is Mr. Todd in chronological order; not in ihein a single sentence verbut shall consider them all as con- bally the same. Approving, as we taining nearly the same excellent do, of Mr. Todd's object in his Protestant doctrines; and having present work—which, he tells us, is given a list of them as they occur to stem the Antinomiau beresies of in the pages of Mr. Todd, we shall the day-we, nevertheless,must dis. select from each of them at our con approve of the expedient he emvenience, classing our selections for ploys for accomplishing his purthe convenience of our readers, in pose, and whichi, in point of fact, is correspondence with the selections neither more nor less than attemptwe forinerly gave at length from the ing to introduce semi-popish doc"Necessary Erudition. Thus, by trines into the church, on the

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