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shoulders of our Reformers. It ments connected with the second certainly appears very surprizing to period, the period of more perfect us, that Mr. Todd should pot have reformation under King Edward been more struck with the many re- VI. from which Mr. Todd makes markable variations in the formula- extracts. These are,-1. “Reforries, whose identity, in point of matio Legum Ecclesiasticarum," doctrine, he labours to establish. finished in 1552, but never authoEven on the most cursory perusal, rized, owing to the premature death these variations cannot but excite of the young king. 2. “ Forty-two a strong suspicion of a diversity of Articles of Religion,” commonly sentiment; but, on a close exami- called “ King Edward's," publishnation, they will be found com- ed in 1552, and collated by Mr. pletely to overturn our author's hy- Todd with our own Thirty-nine pothesis, and to establish, instead of Articles, in 1662. 3. Edward's an identity, a most direct contra- " Brevis Catechismus," or
“ Short riety of doctrinal views respecting Catechism ;" to which the Fortyalmost all the fundamental verities two Articles were subjoined. 4. Biof the Christian faith. “If the shop Jewell's far-famed Apo. Necessary Erudition contains sound logy for the Church of England;" and serviceable doctrine," as Gard- which, indeed, outsteps the limits per shrewdly observes to Cranmer, of this period, as well as of the fol" how was his highness seduced lowing reign under Queen Mary, into it?" We add, why alter it at having been printed in 1662, under all, particularly its more doctrinal Queen Elizabeth, and published exparts ? And if Mr. Todd, in over- pressly by her authority. 5. The looking these alterations, identities "Augsburg Confession, which falls the two statements of doctrine, un- short of the earlier period, having der the sanction of Deans Martin been printed in 1530. 6. The and Tucker, and Dr. Nichols*; we “ Saxonic Confession," which was would ask, Has there been no ex- considered by Melancthon as a reamination, since their time, of these petition of the Augsburg, both bavvery subjects ? Do not even ourown ing been, as to their matter, derived humble pages, to which we referred from Luther, ibough composed by in the former part of this Review the eloquent and exquisite pen of (p. 36, &c.) leave Mr. Todd with Melarcthon himself. (See Mosheim, less excuse for overlooking differ- by Maclean, 1803, Vol. IV. p. 92.) ences which, we presume to think, 7. Our own Homilies.-Now, the he might have found pointed out by quotations we shall make from all ourselves in former volumes, with these documents (except the last, the greatest clearness ?
as being cufficiently beaten ground) But we proceed to those docu- will easily range ihemselves under * We are the more surprized at the the several heads of doctrine alcommendations extracted from Dr. Ni. ready employed in the quotations, chols's Defence of the English Church, which we before gave from the because we were much pleased with * Institution" and “ Necessary Eruhis primitive and learned view of our dition," and which will be found in church doctrines, in his most able our former Number(p.38, et seq.) in Exposition of the sixteen first Articles. the following order. First, Baptism But we remember well our disappoint. ment in tarning over the page for his is alluded to, as created of both in exposition of the seventeenth, and find the “ Institution" and the “ Neces. ing his labonrs terminated with the six- sary Erudition." We then gave exteenth! a termination which, unless ac- tracts, 1. On Faith; 2.On Free-will. counted for by some circumstance we 3. On Justification; 4. On Good know not of, speaks volumes as to his Works. On each of these several interpretation of the Seventeenth Arti. points, we think it will appear that cle, and its bearing on the Predestinarian there was an intention throughout question.
'the present Protestant documents : Can words seem intended more
on " original or birth-sin," con1. To begin with Baptism. The tains the expression, “ This infec« Institution' had stated, with re- tion of nature doth remain, yea, in spect to this grand initial rite of the them that are baptized.” Mr. Todd Christian Covevant, that “ by the here notes our own Thirty-nine Arsacrament of baptism men obtain ticles to bave changed the last word remission of their sins, the grace into “regenerate.” May it not be and favour of God, &c.; so that legitimate to infer from this change, children dying in infancy shall be made subsequently even to King saved thereby, and eise not.” (p. 3.) Edward's Articles, that later reItem, p. 6. • By virtue of that holy formers saw the necessity of still sacrament, men or children obtain more strongly marking the differgrace and remission, if they believe ence between actual and baptismal The promise of God adjoined to that regenerations, particularly in this sacrament ; that is to say, that in case, where the very point of docand by ibis said sacrament, God trine turned on the reality of the the Father giveth, for Christ's sake, regenerating change? This again remission, and the grace of the will shew a progression in the views Holy Spirit, whereby they be newly of our Reformers on this important regenerated, &c."
article. Now what says, 1. The “ Refor. Again, in Edward VI.'s “ short matio Legum" on this point? After Catechism," after a description of asserting the absurdity of those
our justification and salvation by who hold that the efficacy of bap- faith, as the mother of all good uism consists in the water itself (ip- works (a passage we shall have to sis baptismi fonticulis); and after refer to hereafter more particularly), maintaining that “our regeneration, the formulary proceeds thus adoption, &c. proceed from the “ Which thing baptism represents Divine mercy flowing to us through and puts before our eyes; namely, Christ and his promise" (not, as the that we are, by the Spirit of Christ, Institution had said, "adjoined to regenerate and cleansed from sin ; that sacrament,” butj“appearing to and that we are members and parts .us in holy Scripture;" it proceeds, of the church, enrolled in the com“ Their scrupulous superstition munion of saints; for water signifies nust be considered as impious, who the Spirit. Baptism is also a figure so tie together (colligant) the grace of God and his Holy Spirit with he has profited by the bint which that the elements of the sacraments, as
remarkable discrepancy might have afopenly to affirm that no child born forded him, as to the intended denial in of Christian parents can allain sal
these new formularies, of many other as vation, who shall be carried away by important errors in the old.
* It is remarkable, however, that in deatli, before he can have been another article on “ No man without sin brought to baptism, which we hold but Christ alone,” the expression “ bapto be far otherwise *,"
tized and born again in Christ," does • “ Illorum etiam impia videri debet occnr in these Forty-two Articles, as if to scrupulosa superstitio,' &c. p. 115. We convey a clear intimation, that they did shall not give the Latin original where not consider the two expressions as quite we think there can be no misunder- identical. And tbis may possibly afford a standing in the sense. Mr. Todd has solution to a difficulty which has occa. properly and fairly noted the above im- sioned much controversy; namely, how portant variation in his own Introduc- to account for this apparent tantology tion; but it does not appear to us that both in that and our own Article,
of our burial in Christ, and that we sacrament of remission, and the shall rise with bim in a new life. *" washing we have in Christ's blood,
Here, then, we have baptism, the from which not even children are representation, the ocular exhibi- to be repelled " tion, the sign, the figure of our In the Confession of Augsburg, new birth. But where is it de- the expressions are almost equally scribed, as in the "Institution," the indetinite : one indeed is more so. cause, the condition, the means Baptism is necessary to salvahaving "virtue” to effect it, the tion, as a ceremony instituted by sine-quo-non, the quo-cum semper ? Christ. By baptism the grace of
It imay be our simplicity, but we God is OFFERED: children are to unfeignedly believe the above para- be baptized, and so become chilgraph to convey a strong and sig. dren of God, &c.” (Art. IX.) nificant intimation of the writer's Finally, in the Saxonic Confesopinion, that baptism is but a pic- sion it does not appear that Mr. ture, a sign of the grace of regene. Todd has found, or at least extractration vouchsafed to “the elect peo. ed, any thing on the subject of ple of God,” but not indiscriminate- baptism : but as if his documents ly to all who appear at the sacred were destined to point out, one by font. So Bradford bad expressed one, still more of the true reformed himself, in a passage extracted in the doctrines on this head, we find the former part of our critique ; " bap- very text itself in John iii. on which tism requiring no less faith on the so much reliance lias been placed part of the believer than this, that in proof of the uniforin connexion his regeneration is signified to him between water and the Spirit, in it.” But where no faith takes quoted in this document, in referplace at the time, or subsequently, ence to mere adult conversion, disviva et vera ;" what should we connected from any baptism, wheimagine that either the Catechism ther infant or adult. We give the of Edward or the opinion of Brad- passage at the bottom of the page t; ford, would intimate as to the and shall only remark upon it, that reality of the mere baptisenal re- it comes from an extract made by generation? What but even, as Hooker says, " Reatus impii est Baptismum quidem sacramentum pium nomen-godly names do not esse," &c. De Baptismo, p. 149.
+ " Ostendimus autem supra, fide justify godless men.” (Discourse of Justification.)
significari fiduciam acquiescentem in
Filio Dei Propitiatore, propter quem In Jewell's “ Apology," the bap- recipimur et placemus, non propter tismal dogma is still more inde- nostras virtutes, aut legis impletionem. finite : simply that “baptism is the Cum autem in hâc ipsâ consolatione,
**Quam rem nobis repræsentat, et ob fiducia, quâ acquiescimus in Filio Dei, oculos ponit, baptismus. Nos esse per verè sit inotus, accensus a Spiritu Sancto, Spiritum Christi renatos, et mundatos à quo vivificatur cor, et liberatur ex peccato; quodque simus membra et æternâ morte, dicitur hæc conversio, regepartes, ecclesiæ, ascripti in communio. neralio, Joan iii. Nisi quis renatus fuerit, nem sanctorum; aqua enim significat in aqua et Spiritu.” [This CONVERSpiritum. Baptismus etiam est figura sion, when the heart is truly warmed and sepulturæ nostræ in Christo, qnodque quickened by the Holy Spirit, is called REcam illo unà resuscitabimur in nova GENERATION, in that passuge of John iii. vità.” pp. 136, 137. We are far from a 'Except u man be born of water und of the wish to catechise words and grammaticul Spirit.'). Et fit liomo jam cere domici. terms for spiritual meanings; but we
lium Dei, qui est in eo efficax, ut Joan cannot but suggest the apparent separa- xiv. dicitur: Si quis diligit me, sertion in tense, and consequently in time,
monem meuin servabit, et Pater meus of the blessings figured by baptism, and diliget eum et veniemus ad eum, et man. the act of baptism itself. It figures to sionem apud enm faciemus. Æternus us, that we are born again, and shall be Pater, et Filius, Spirito suo sancto, vivi
ficant, et renovant corda." pp. 182, 183.
Mr. Todd himself from a docu- predestination and election in ment, which but repeats the Augs- Christ, is said “ to confirm our burg Confession, called by Dr. faith of eternal salvation to be obLaurence and we agree with him), tained through Christ, and to kindle “ the pride and glory of the Refor- love to God, &c.” according to our mation."
Seventeenth Article. Here it is But to proceed to our next head evident, faith is used in its only of quotations; namely, those in re- proper Protestant sense. ference to the extracts from the In the Forty-two Articles, we are "Necessary Erudition."
told, that "Justification by only faith 1. Of Faith. This, as we have iu Jesus Christ, in that sense as it is amply seen, by quotation from the declared in the Homily on JustifiErudition," is ihere taken in two cation, is a most certain and wholeproper senses : First as a full assent some doctrine for Christian men." to all Christian truth, wrought in (p. 124.) the heart by the Spirit of God, the Here faith is used as in the Ho. necessary beginning of all right. milies; that is, as we have seen, in cousness; yet not justifying unless its proper sense; viva, vera, frucproceeding to hope and charity; tuosa. and then not justifying as a separate la the " Brevis Catechismus," virtue from hope, charity, fear of we are informed, -"Faith (or rather God, and repentance, but as mean- trust--fiducia) alone lays hold of, ing obedience to the whole doctrine understands, and knows that our and religion of Christ. This last com. justification is given us freely of plex sense is considered asthe second God, from no merit of our own, &c. and proper sense of the term faith. Then faith begets the love of our • Now, in reply to this, we might neighbour, and actions well pleasing quote the direct and careful denial to God. For if it be lively and true, made by our own Homilies through- and effectuated (animata] by the out, of any proper sense of faith Holy Spirit, it is ihe mother of all but one, a true, living, and necessa- good works and deeds. So do good rily productive faith. Of a mere works adhere to faith, that it can kuowledge of scriptural truth, they never be found without them, nor expressly say, " This is not proper. they without it.” (p. 136.) Is then ly called faith." They deny it to the first kind of faith given of God, be "given of God," by calling it the as the “ Erudition" tells us, which faith of devils. They also express- yet may not be productive of good ly deny it to be the beginning of fruits i all righteousness, by saying that In Jewell's "Apology " we have “the first entry unto God is the short but pithy declaration, through that] faith, whereby we “ True faith is lively, and cannot be justified before God." The be inactive;" “Vera fides viva est, authors of the Erudition, on the nec potest esse otiosa.” (p. 138.) contrary, tell us, that the first entry In the Confession of Augsburg, unto God is through that faith we bave the same doctrine. whereby we be not justified, unless word faith does not signify only a it afterwards proceed to hope, knowledge of the bistory of Christ," charity, &c. which they affirm it to (uay, says the "Erudition," but faith be possible that it may not do. But may be that and nothing more,] we leave the Homilies to our " but also a belief of, and assent to readers, and proceed as before, to that promise which is proper to the the next document, the "Reformatio Gospel, in which, for Christ's sake, Legum." In this, the only occa- are promised to us remission of sion of using the term faith occurs sins, justification, and life eternal. in the dogma on Predestination, in ............And when we thus console which a true knowledge of our ourselves with the promise, or tbę
Gospel, and encourage ourselves by This is the very sort of language faith, we with certainty obtain (certo used in the Erudition, when it consequimur) remission of sins, and speaks of faith, as mere knowledge, at the same time is given us the "the beginning (preparation) of all Holy Spirit......true love, true fear righteousness," butnot justificatory, of God," &c. &c.*
except it proceed to good works. We have hitherto withheld our Thus the views of Mr. Todd, in quotations respecting faith, consi- favour of the Protestantism of the dered as a justifying principle; be- “Erudition," are coufuted by his ing desirous, at present, only to own documents *. point out the utter variance between the definition of faith given * How decisive, however, would have by the “ Erudition," and that given been the argument, as far as it respects by the other really Protestant Mr. Todd's principal appeal, which is documents quoted by Mr. Todd.
to the opinions of Cranmer himself, bad
he adopted into the number of his doAod were we to give all that would tend to elucidate this variance in complete view of the case, the annota
cumeuts (as he should have done, for a the last document to which we have tions we have before mentioned of to refer, a document by far the most Craumer himself, in this very book, the to our point of any-we mean the “ Erudition," as given in the Fathers of Saxonic Confession-we should go the English Church, vol. iii. We quote, near to quote the whole extract. from p. 84, the following conclusion to We must content ourselves with a long annotation, the fourth, to which the two passages :-“ Faith does not archbishop refers, as his full and final signify only a knowledge of the his opinion on the subject of faith. Never tory, such as is in the devils......but mentioning at all the first faith of the
“Erudition," and speaking only of the it sigoifies to embrace all the articles
true faith and its counterfeit, which latter of faith, and this among them, “I be- he deems to be pone at all, he observes, lieve the remission of sins ;' and not “ This is the faith,” (namely, a faith that it is given to others only, but which engenders in the heart a batred of to myself also.” [Faith is here re- all sin, and makes a sinner clean, a new presented not only as an assento, man,)
every Christian man ing but an appropriating grace.] ought to profess in his creed, and of this “ This faith is at the same time an
faith runneth all our paraphrases upon
the same. assured confidence resting in the
For as for the other feigned, Mediator, as in that expression, in the mouth, it is but only a painted visor
pretended, hypocritical, and adulterute faith • Being justified by faith, we have before men; but before God it is hollow peace with God through our Lord within, dead, rotten, and nothing worth. Jesus Chrisit.'”
This being declared, in my judgment it Again :-“ From all this it will shall not be necessary to interline or inbe understood that their grammati
sèrt in many places where we protest cal shift is to be condemuęd (justė our pure Christian faith, these words seprebendi synecdochem eorum],
or sentences that be newly added (namewho so interpret that passage of St.
ly,– I being in will to follow God's pre
cepts,' I rejecting in any will and heart Paul, we are justified by faith, as if the devil and his works; " I willing to he meant in the form of charity,'or return to God;' " I continue not in as' working by love,'as they speak. sin ;'*if I continue a Christian's life,' v For they understand the word faith I follow Christ's precepts,' we living only of knowledge, and therefore well,'' if we order and conforin our wills say By faith we are justified, that in this world to his precepts:' if we is, are prepared for justification 1.'” join our wills to his godly motions; and
such other like sentences or clanses *« Et fidei vocabulum non solum cog- conditional) which to the right faith need nitionem," &c. p. 146.
not to be added; for without these con+" Fides significat non tantum his. ditions is no right faith. And these sentoriæ notitiam," &c. p. 175.
tences, methinks, come not in aptly in "Ex his omuibus etiam," &c. p. 182. some places, as they be brought in, but CHRIST, OBSERV. No, 219. 2 A