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tution and Erudition, had been the utmost inconsistency taking equally divine and catholic, with them again into favour; as “ merito out “any leven of affected compo- rious to salvation;" while the new, sition;" although it is surely bold containing Cranmer's real sentiin a Protestant divine, to say he ments and our own genuine Prowished that Cranmer had been as testant doctrines, consistently redivine and catholic in bis new Ho- ject them in toto, as having any milies under King Edward, as he meritorious claim whatever, either had been in the older ones, com- to our first justification or posed by the help or sanction of final salvation. Gardner and the Papists. To ask After all, it may perhaps be said the most conclusive question, un- . that these distinctions are without resolved by Mr, Todd; How comes a difference, since both the old and it that the new Homilies, if they the new Homilies equally assert the are to be construed by the old, necessity of good works; a necessity bave omitted the actually popish which we ourselves, in common good works of the latter; for with Mr. Todd, not only fully adexample, the seven sacraments, the mit but earnestly contend for. To ave-Maria, prayers for the dead, this we reply, that if these distincholy water, and so great a mass of tions have been made the ground the will-worship set up by idolatrous of a great diversity in the respecRome herself in her worst times ? tive formularies, the onus lies on
We have bere a dilemma to pro- Mr. Todd to sbew, that this great dipose to those wlio bave their own versity is only apparent, and not real; way of expounding the doctrine of that both the old and the new for justification by faith without works; mularies meant the same thing ; and who think that our Homilies and that although they thus meant meant only that we are justified by the same thing, there still were faith without the popish works of wise reasons for introducing so rehuman inventiou, but not without markable a diversity of statement. really good and Christia) works. Thus far we conceive we have a If our Homilies meant to exclude just claim on Mr. Todd: and we only popish works from justifica- can by no means'admit that be has in tion, and not all works; then, ac- any adequate degree discharged this cording to Mr. Todd, the Institu- claim by printing a series of docu. tion and Erudition meant to ex- ments, and assuring us, on his own clude those said popish works also: word, that they really all mean the and 10 prescribe only bona fide same thing; wbile it is evident, as good and Christian works as avail. we conceive, on the slightest inspecing to justification. But if so, bow tion, that the diversities are both is it ibat ibese very popish works numerous and important. The are prescribed in the Institution only proof Mr. Todd has attemptand Erudition as availing to justi- ed to give, that the two varying fication ? Either, then, our new statements involve no real differHomilies are essentially different ence, and are, in short, quite the from the old, in rejecting the popish same, is confined to three or four works which the latter recommend: general quotations from Shelor else neither the one northe other, ford, 1635; John Wallis, D.D. in rejecting ibe merit of good 1682; the late Dean Tucker, and works, as valuable to justification, the present venerable Bishop of means popish works exclusively, Durham. The statement of the but all good works alike. The real last on justification, in his never fact is, both the old and the new to be forgotten Charge, has always Homilies alike, in words, reject the been to us inter delicias. Wallis is merit of all good works. But the made to tell us, contrary to the old only verbally reject them, with “ Institution” and “ Erudition," CHRIST. OBSERY, No. 219.
butin perfect agreement with Scrip- ner essentially different from those ture, and our own Homilies," that semi-popish formularies, that he good works are as necessary as betrayed his opponents into the faith, or justification connecting "absurdity of thinking that he had justification with faith only), 10 rejected good works, in a treatise bring us to heaven; and that our which, to Protestant ears, proves church owos none for a true or live- the very reverse." ly faith, but what is attended with We had intended to have engood works as the necessary fruit larged more particularly upon Mr. ihereof." Shelford seems to us Todd's quotation from DeanTucker, equally correct, “ acknowledging but time forbids us. We much apfaith to be the only beginning in prove of the strong disclaimer the preparation of sin preparing] against human merit, which, quoting our justification.” The Jesuit Cam- our present Homilies, he puts into pian is here intermediately brought the mouths of the Reformers. We in by Mr. Todd, as "absurd enough cannot equally applaud, however, to siate it as one of the monstrous the sophistry (it deserves no better opinions of the English Church, that term, while it has the additional de• God dotb not regard our works,' merit of being really and at bottom appealing to a passage in the Apo- unintelligible,) by which be enlogy of Bishop Jewell, which proves deavours to connect this disclaimer the very reverse.” Mr. Todd here with the doctrine taught in the seems not to be aware that others earlier formularies, of the necessity besides the Jesuit Campian were of good works, as actually pre-exequally “ absurd ;” witness the istent in order of time, and prepaJesuit Harding, through a folio of ratory to justification. We were controversy with the same Bishop also surprised to find Mr. Todd deJewell; and Bishop Gardner of signaling the opposition between old, in dispute with Cranmer; and faith and works, in the matter of the whole body of Papists against justification, attributed (falsely as the whole body of Protestants, par-' he would hold) to the Homilies, as ticularly the former, as speaking the Calvinistic system. We never through the decrees of the Council before heard that Calvin, however of Trent. There must have been peccant on the subject of predestisomething very puzzling to popish nation, held wrong notions of faith; ears in the doctrine of justification nor that he carried his views reby faith, to have so betrayed all specting the doctrine of justification these Papists into “ absurdity” as to any extravagant lengths. We respects the Protestants; and we had imagined he was far more mofind it difficult to believe that they derate than Luther in his statements were all at issue upon points of on that point, and at least as modistinction without difference. Of derate as the Augsburg and Saxonic tbis, bowever, we are sure, that if Confessions cited by Mr. Todd. the true and real Protestant doc- We are not at all concerned to trine had been framed and set defend the Calvinism of Calvin ; forth, as it appears in the “ Insti- but perhaps Mr. Todd, and many tution" aud Necessary Erudi- niore, may not be aware of such tion,” Papists and Jesuits could not passages as the following, in the have fallen into the mistake under works of that Reformer. In his which they seem to have laboured; Commentary on Col. iii. 12. “ Put nor would they have been "absurd” on, as the elect of God, boly and enough to slate that." The Church beloved, bowels of mercies, &c." he of England monstrously asserted observes, “ Elect I here understand that God doth not regard our as set apart; as if the Apostle had works.'” It was because Bishop said, With this condition God Jewell expressed himself in a man- elected you to himself, sanctified you, and received you to his love, abundant confirmation to our own ibat ye should be merciful, &c. minds of the true doctrine of jusWhoever has not these virtues vainly tification by faith, not only as it is boasts of being holy and beloved; so admirably set forth in our Homivainly enrols himself amongst the lies, but as it is there accompanied nomber of the faithful.” Yet, ac. by such a noble compendium of cording to Mr.Todd, the Calvinistic Christian practice, as must for ever system is an opposition between relieve that doctrine from the “abfaith and works"! This eminent surd” imputation of being inimical Reformer has borne the blame of to good works. For purity of many an erroneous opinion, both practice, no less than of doctrine, doctrinal and practical, wbich be we boldly offer our Homilies to a spent his life in opposing; and of rigid comparisou with the Instituwhich 00 confutation could be tion and Erudition, as well as with found, in the whole circuit of theo- all other semi-popish or more enlogy, more masterly than in his own tirely popish productions. Scriptural Commentaries. Dr. Win- for all these graduated and uuhalchester, Mr. Todd tells us, has found lowed approximations to the merit in Calvin's opinions of 1635, the of good works, so calculated to keep prototype of Cranmer's on Univer- up the pride of the human heart, sal Redemption ; “ which might, and at bottom to weaken the deupon reflection, have taught him mands of holiness, we can most unmore moderation towards those feigoedly say with our immortal who differed from his later system.” champion, “ If any man think that Calvin then, it appears, neither un- I seek to varnish their opinions, to derstood bis adversaries nor him- set the better foot of a lame cause self. But Dr. Winchester did ; and foremost, let him know, that since I discovers Calvin's system to be began thoroughly to understand self-contradictory, and self-destruc- their meaning, I have found their tive; and bis latter system (when halting greater than perhaps it men usually cool on the more rigid seemeth to them which know not predestinarian tenets, and Calvin, it the deepness of satan, as the blessed is said, amongst others) to be "worse divine speaketh." (See Hooker's than the first," Dean Tucker, Discourse immediately following likewise, helps Calvin to the very statement, in other words*, light ou the “ opposition between of the Institution and Erudition.] faith and works." Is all this from
* Hooker's words, describing the popish a calm and dispassionate view of his doctrine, are these. “ Our countrymen writings ? Had these gentlemen read at Rheims (say] that they seek salvation his works? Did they know or un- no other way than by the blood of Christ: derstand them? Yet, if not, how and that humbly they use prayers, are we ever to come at truth? And and fastings, alms, faith, charity, sacrifice, what is theology made by these sacraments, priests, only as the means apcrude and absurd attacks, but an
pointed by Christ, to apply the benefit of
his holy blood unto them; touching our arena, and often a disgraceful arena, good works, that in their own natures for the mere display of polemical they are not meritorious, nor answered lactics, and the dishonourable shouts to the joys of heaven ; it cometh by the of party-triumph ?
grace of Christ, and not of the work it. For the present, we take our self, that we have, by well-doing, a right leave of Mr. Todd. We bold our- to beaven, and deserve it worthily." selves indebted to him for a much
Could the “ varnished opinions" and larger and deeper investigation of lame cause of the Institution and
Erudition have been better delineated ? the points at issue between us and the seni-papists of the reign of Popery. Are we to blame for annexing
Yet this, according to Hooker, was King Henry VIII. tban we bad at the same heavy charge to the divinity or first contemplated; as well as for King Henry VIII.?
If a further reference to names happy, and everlasting immortality: be necessary, we will set before the no, nor yet those things which we advocates of the meritoriousness, do under grace, by the motion of the either in whole or in part, of good Holy Ghost. For that blessed and works, as conducing to our justiti- immortal glory is given and bestowed cation, the choice of two examples upop us mortal men, of the heavenly equally eminent in their way, to Father, for his Son our Saviour either of which they may, as they Christ's sake, as $t. Paul testifieth, shall see fit, have respect. The "The gift of God is eternal life.'” amiable and pious Dr. Redman- (See "Letter of Master Young to “one of the solidest and best read Master Cheke, concerning Doctor divines in the land, and to whose Redman,” in Fox's Acts and Monujudgment great deference was paid ments, Vol. II.) by all, and therefore who was ap- The second person in the same pointed one of the divines to com- contemporary history whose exampose the Common Prayer Book," ple shall be adduced, is Bishop (Strype's Memorials of Reformation, Gardner, who also lay dying, Vol. II. Oxford edition)-on his having been mortally seized, just death-bed, and in the inost solemn after hearing the report of the exemanner, before many witnesses, de- oution, under his own advice and clared his last judgment on several direction, of Bishops Latimer and points of Christian doctrine.--"Fi- Ridley. “At four o'clock," says the nally, of his own voluntary will, no able and interesting biographer of man (as far as I can call to remem- Bishop Ridley, qnoted above, “the brance), demanding of him, he wretch was made happy [by the reshewed his opinion concerning jus- port of the execution being brought tification by Christ. I lament,' to bim) and went to dinner: he said he, and repent, beseeching was not disappointed of his last ; God forgiveness of the same, that, but while the meat was yet in bis too seriously and earnestly, I have mouth, the heavy wrath of God withstood this proposition, That came upon him. He was seized... only faith doth justify; but I al- [with the deadly symptoms of a ways feared that it should be taken mortal disorder, thought to be the to the liberty of the flesh, and so effect of a dissolute life). He felt should defile the ionocency of life all the bitter remorse of conscience, which is in Christ. But that pro- without being able to mingle with position, that only faith doth jus- it that salutary sorrow which can tify, is true,' quoth be, sweet, and alone make it supportable. 'I have full of spiritual comfort, if it be erred,' says he, with Peler, but I truly taken and rightly understood.' have not wept like him.' The And when he was demanded what Bishop of Chichester, visiting him, he thought to be the true and very would have comforted him with the sense thereof, 'I upderstand,' quoth assurance of justification through he, that to be the lively faith, the blood of Christ: Gardner acwhich resteth in our only Saviour knowledged the truth in private, Jesus Christ, and embraceth him; and thereby assented to the Reso that in our only Saviour Jesus formers; but desired him politically Christ all the hope and trust of our to suppress it, saying, "He might salvation be surely fixed. And as speak of that to him, or others in concerning good works,' saith be, his condition; but if he opened that
they have their crown and merit, gap again, and preached that to the and are not destitute of their re- people, then farewell altogether. ward; yet, nevertheless, they do We proceed not with the dreadful not merit the kingdom of heaven.' relation, given on the authority of For no works, said be, could pur- Strype, as we apprehend the former chase and obtain that blessed, part is on that of Fox. But we con
elude, with no uncertain impression ing expressed a wish to be provided on our minds, as to whieh of the with some instructions, by which two authorities, on the point of he might be enabled to afford rejustification by faith, our readers lief on such occasious, the conwould choose to have recourse. tents of the following pages (some We have little doubt wbich of the subsequent additions excepted) two modes and motives, chosen by were communicaled to him in these two men respectively, for a writing, for bis own private accomdeath-bed confession, would be modation. Ou perusing them, his most congenial to the feelings of all. friend thought they might, if printFar less bave we any design in ed, be useful to many parochial placing the two together, to raise clergymen similarly circumstanced an invidious suspicion against the with himself. They liave, therecharacter of any modern, even fore, been committed to the press.” though mistaken, doctrinist. And, - In addition to the above reprewith regard to Mr. Todd himself, sentation, the fidelity of which our of whom we now take our leave, we personal knowledge of the parties are disposed to hope, from bis work enables us to authenticate, it ought itself, and the quotations he has to be stated, that the author, having given, that his own views of justifi- at first ooly printed his Instructious cation by faith are those of the true for private circulatiou, has been Protestant, and are to be sought since persuaded to publish them. for, not in the lostitution and Ne- His compliance with the solicitacessary Erudition by which he has tions of bis friends to that effect vainly (we conceive) attempted to will be found highly beneficial, we illustrate our Articles and Homilies, are convinced, to all clerical pracbut in those other quotations both titioners in medicine, as well as to in his work and in the Introduction such practical friends of the poor, to it, to which he has as vainly en- separately from any advantages indeavoured to assimilate the Insti- direetly derived to themselves in tution and Erudition of a popish general cases of indisposition, as age,
combine with a wish to assist their (To be continued.)
sick dependants, a prudential care
not to venture beyond their depth Instructions for the Relief of the into the mysteries of medical sciSick Poor, in some Diseases of, and clerical, who, with very kind
ence. There are those, both lay frequent Occurrence : addressed to a Parochial Clergyman, re
intentions, have darkened the wasiding at a distance from Pro-lignity of disease in certain infessional Aid. By a Púysicias. stances, where the patient, from the 12mo. Pp. viji. & 43. Glouces first hour of its attack, ought to ter: Walker and Sons. London:
have been exclusively superintended Seeley, 1819,
by a professional person. A great
measure, we suspect, of the evil The circumstances under which, productive of such a consequence as detailed by the author, this tract has arisen from familiarity with bas been offered to the considera- what are called complete systems of tion of the public, and particularly physic. These, as the reader will of the clergy, are these :-"A cler- anticipate, are useful or injurious, gyman of the Established Church, according to the cautiou or temerity the author's particular friend, re- of the persons who study them; siding in a part of the country and if it be no libel on the present where medical assistance cannot generation of the charitable world always be promptly and punctually to affirm, that “the majority are” obtained for the poorer inhabitants, -not" wicked,” but still unfit to be when suffering from sickuess, hav- trusted with the administration of