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pro ratione voluntas may eventually he name the accuser, and to produce the carried. We confess we are somewhat evidence. It is too much to presume, surprized that the upper house, who of any order of men, that they never are ordinarily such vigilant and even will be warped, or prejudiced, or misjealous guardians of the rights of pro- informed. Even where they act rightly perty and patronage, should have in the exercise of their discretion, the passed over this matter so lightly. benefit of the example is lost to the If our great hereditary patrons should clergy and the public, for want of find their ecclesiastical nominees ar- their reasons being assigned ; and bitrarily rejected, and the pecuniary if they act wrongly, the sufferer value of their patronage reduced in must pine in hopeless submission, the market, it will not be for want having no right to demand what is his of the danger having been pointed offence or who are his accusers. We out. Our bishops at present enjoy hope that some member of the epis(or rather possess, for to a good man copal bench will be found sufficiently there can be no enjoyment in arbitrary inirepid and impartial to call the atpower) a discretionary authority al- tention of the legislature to the prelowed to no other order of men in sent system, and to procure a “ selfthis free country, and which is ut- denying ordinance,” to restrict the preterly inconsistent with the liberties lacy in their official conduct to those of the clergy, or the good govern- rules of evidence and decision which ment of the church. We shall never apply to other bodies, as far, at least, cease to protest, whether in the case as the case will properly admit. The of curates or incumbents, against public is becoming interested in the this unwise and injurious system ;- question; and some modifications, a system which tends to convert every both as it respects curates and incumepiscopal palace into an Inquisition bents, are likely to be urgently proor Star-Chamber, and which renders posed. We therefore bumbly entreat. every clergyman liable to fall the the episcopal bench to reconsider victim of a secret whisper or unau- these subjects, and to do for themselves. thenticated slander. We do not envy what ruder hands may otherwise evenour venerable prelates their power: it tually do for them. We are convinought to be great, and in the whole- ced that, in the present state of things, some exercise of it they ought to be especially, they cannot generally wish strongly protected, and even their to retain powers which only tend to errors leviently regarded. But, again render themselves and their function and again we would say, let them be unpopular, without benefiting either constrained to state the crime, and to religion or the church.
ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq
the emperor of Russia, as a reward for On the 12111 of Aprilia t, at the honse agriculural services in that country. of the Board of Agriculture, in Sack- Mr. A. Young froni his earliest manville-street, died ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq. houd was warmly attached to agricul. F.R.S. of Bradfield Hall, iu Suffolk, ture; and before he was thirty, lie had in the 791h year of his age. He had published several works, with a view been Secretary to the Board of Agri- to its improvement, particularly his culture, from its first formation in 1793 Northern, Southern, and Eastern Tours, -was an honorary member of almost thionghi England; the first in five volumes all the Agricnitural Societies, and also octavo, and all of them containing much of most of the philosophical and lite. useful information. These tours soon sary societies of his own country, and altracted the notice of the late Catherine of all the chief agricultural and econo- of Russia, and by lier express order were mical societies in Europe, and of some translated into the Russian langnage. in the United States. His Christian Her imperial majesty, at the same time, name he derived from Astbur Onslow, sent several young Russians to the author Esq. to whom his tallier Dr. Young, tu learn the system of Englisli agriculture prebendary of Canterbury, and a bene under liis superintendence. Prince Poficed clergyman, was chaplain. Mr. temikin afterwards sent over two yomg Arthur young married in 1765, and men for the same porpose; and the exa has left behind him a son and a daugh- ample was sul.sequently followed by the itr; the former a clergyman, who at the Marquis de Fayette. time of his father's death was residing Mr. Young, during his whole life, was in the Crimea on an estate given him by an attentive observer of passing events i but till the period of the French Revo. through the good providence of God, lation, agriculture and political econo, at the time when he was led, by the loss my had chiefly oceupied his mind, and of bis favourite child, to feel the prehad been the inain subjects of his pubcariousness of all earthly enjoyments, Jications. His valuable work, a Tour and to remember, that to himself also, in Ireland, in two volumes, octavo, pub. " the time must be short,” he applied lished as long ago as 1778, may still be by letter to a friend, stating his ignoregarded as the best repository that has rance of religion, and was directed to appeared, of valuable facts and useful the diligent perusal of the Scriptares, suggestions, concerning that interesting with earnest prayer for the Divine country. His Travels in France, Spain, teaching. He was also led to the peaud Italy, two volumes, quarto, publish rusal of some books, and was introdnced ed in 1791, contain a mass of valuable to a few religious acquaintances, that information, and bear all the marks of were signally blessed to him. From his intelligent mind. His Annals of this time, religion became his chief Agriculture, commenced in 1781, and concern. The diligence with wbich he continued monthly during his whole discharged his official daties, and proselife, amounted at his death to forty-five cuted his studies and pursuits, was in volumes, octavo, and are the richest no degree abated, but the motive was storehouse that ever existed of facts, wholly changed: he was no longer ac. essays, and communications, on all tuated merely by natural ardoar of disquestions of agriculture and political position, by the hope of profit, or the economy:-On the breaking out of the love of worldly repntation, but by the French Revolution, the agitated state desire of pleasing God, to whom he of the public mind in this country im- looked, in a firm reliance on the pro. pressed him with a deep sense of our mises of the Gospel, as a reconciled Fa. danger; and in 1792, he published a ther through Christ Jesus. Toward the very spirited pamphlet, entitled, “The end of bis life, it pleased God to a fict Example of France a Warning to Great him with a cataract, which commenced Britain;" aud at other subsequent pe- in the autumn of 1807. He was couched riods of his life, he published pamph in the spring of 1811, but unsuccessfullets on the iuteresting topics of the ly: he became and continned completeday; his works never failing to engage ly blind during his whole life. This was much of the public attention, both in a peculiarly severe trial to Mr. Young; his own and in other countries. A but he bore his painful privation with French translation, of all his works Christian resignation; and the natural which had then appeared, was published vigour of his character, reinforeed by in Paris, in twenty volumes, octavo, by Christian principle, triumphed over this order of the Directory, chiefly, it was impediment, and he afterwards drew up said, by the advice of the Director Car- and published several useful works, not, who presented the author with a both agricultural and religious ; in copy of the translation. From time to time particular, two duodecimo volumes of he surveyed, and published agricultural select passages from the works of Bax. reports concerning the counties of Suf. ter and Owen, under the title of Bax. folk, Lincoln, Norfolk, Hertford, Essex, teriana and Oweniana. and Oxford. To his very last days, Mr. Young was a man of a strong unhis attachment to his favourite pursuit derstanding, of a vigorons mind, and of still continued ; anıl at the time of his warm feelings; a most diligent student, death, he was preparing for the press a but yet disposed to think for himself. work containing his agricultural expe. His works on political economy bear riments aud observations, made during the marks of a highly intelligent mind, a period of fifty years. But a most im- though in all his publications, it must portant change in his principles and be confessed, that marks of haste, and character took place in the year 1797. sometimes, in consequence, errors ocThe death of his youugest daughter, to casionally appear.--Mr. Young was whom he had been most tenderly at- extremely teinperate in his habits, ara tached, tirst led him to apply for relief dent and ivdefatigable in prosecuting his to the only trne source of consolation. pursuits, and, to a degree almost unDuring all his former life of fifty-six equalled in modern times, diligent and years, while almost all other subjects of laborious. Throughout his whole life, he importance, at one time or other, erie
very early riser, and continued gaged his attention, the most important so, even after his blindness rendered of all subjects, religion, scarcely ever him dependent on others for the proseoccupied a thonght. He was not indeed cution of his studies. Indeed he felt an avowed sceptic; but his mind was so his blindness, perhaps, most sensibly winstructed; and, still more, his heart from the difficulty there was in finding was so unconcerned, in all that respect the means of answering the claiins of ed religion, that, as afterwards he used his insatiate and ever-active mind. His often to declare, and deeply to fament, firmness was great; but to a man of he was little better than a beathen. But, his rangnine spirit the continual ob.
struction, producod by the want of admitted into his hall to partake in sight, could scarcely bave been borde his family religious exercises. ^ After a with patience, except for the influence sermon bad been read to the assembly, of religion; and never were its triumphs he would address them, as he also did more strikingly displayed. Not only the children in the schools, with a was he patient, he was eminently grate warmth and an earnestness of affection ful; and whenever the occasion admitted that could scarcely be surpassed, and of it, he would break out into the warm- which could not but make a powerful est effusions of thankfulness. Especi. impression on ah who heard him. Mr. ally he was used to express his grati- Young's religion bad from the very first tude to that God who had so patiently corrected his natural vehemence of chaborne with his long course of neglect racter; but it was in his later years, and forgetfulness, and bad nevertheless and, above all, in his last illness, that shewn such mercy to him. His grati. the effects of this blessed principle were tude to his Saviour, to whose grace he chiefly conspicuous. The vigorous unconstantly looked as the sole ground of interrupted bealth which he bad enhis acceptance with God, was great and joyed, during almost his whole life, renwarm, and was often expressed in af- dered it more difficult to bear the infirfectionate and vehement effusiovs. The mities of his declining years. Before ground of his hope as a Christian, ac- the last attack, of which he died, he cording to the good old custom, he de- was in the habit of uttering solemn clared at the outset of his last will. admonitions, sach as “ Prepare to meet
Mr. Young iuberited a inoderate pa- thy God, Oh my soul ! by holiness of trimony; and, as a landlord and a conn. heart, of lip, and of life," with many try gentleman, he was eminently kind others of a similar kind; and these ad. to his poorer neighbours. In the circle monitory warnings were particularly round his own family residence, the addressed to those to whom he thought peasantry looked up to Mr. Young as they might be useful. The disease of to a friend and a father. A very large which he died was extremely painful; proportion of bis fortune was devoted but in the most excrnciating bodily to the relief of the distressed; and to agony, his patience and resignation enable him to give away more, he lived were still manifested. Not one repiuwithout ostentation, and with simplicity ing word escaped him. He was chiefly and moderation, though with hospita- occupied in pious ejaculations. With lity; for no man had a warmer heart these were mixed prayers, that it towards his friends than Mr. Young. might please God to release him from But from the time of his becoming re- his sufferings. In short, Mr. Young ligious, the spiritual and immortal con- throughout his whole life was an extracerns of his fellow-creatures became, ordinary man, of superior talents, of of course, the chief objects of his at- indefatigable exertion, and of great tention. Besides maintaining a large usefulness: one of the best of citizens, school, every Sunday a considerable he became at last a warm and earnest number of his poor neighbours were Christian.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. VIGIL; G. H.; and " The Author of a Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury"
in reply to P. will be inserted.-R. P. B.; HERMENEUS; A LAYMAN; J. D.; E.;
A CHRISTIAN OBSERVER; and EDINENSIS; are under consideration. MATHITES will perceive that we have availed ourselves of some of his remarks. We fear we shall not be able to oblige our numerous Prophetical Correspondents,
whose communications would fill our pages, to the exclusion of every other topic. We must refer B. A. C. for information to the Advertisements which occasionally
appear on our Cover. MINOR FRATER bas sent us an extract from Sir James Stonehouse's “ Hints from a
Minister to his Curate," on the subject of reading the Act agaiust profane Swearing, in which the Reverend Baronet recommends reading un abridgment only, which he considers “sufficient in foro conscienti«,' and as complying with the spirit of the law." His argument for not reading the whole is, that " it would take up too much time, and be useless." Another correspondent also, our readers will perceive, has furnished from the same authority a inode of evading the law altogether. We cannot, however, but enter our protest, nota withstanding the great respectability of Sir James Stonehouse's name, against practices of this kiud. An act of parliament, not contrary to tbe law of God, is binding on the conscience, not because a penalty is annexed to it, but because it expresses the will of the sovereign power in the state, which all are required in Scripture to obey. Whether the reading of the Act in the poblic service of the church is calculated to produce all the good effects wbich the . legislature intended to secure, is quite another question. T. J. C, will find his papers at the publisher's.
To the Edi!or of the Christian Observer. stedfastly believe the promises of
God made to them in that sacraOST of your readers, I have ment.
doubt, will feel interested Why they are infants baptized, in whatever relates to so eminent a when by reason of their tender wan, and so great an ornament of age they cannot perform them? the church of Christ, as the late Dean “ Because they promise them of Carlisle. Having had an oppor- both by their sureties; which protunity of conferring with him at mise, when they come 10 age, themlarge, on several very important selves are bound to perform." subjects in theology, and having at The Dean remarked, there was the time taken notes of what pass. here clearly an hypothesis, a pledge, ed in conversation, I am enabled a cbaritable assumption of repentto furnish you with some additional ance and faith on the part of the relics of that great man. Should infant: on this assumption the lanyou deem them proper to appear guage of the office proceeded; and in your publication, as a kind of on its being realized, when the supplement to the general account child should be of due age, the of him which you have already in- blessings of the sacrament itself serted, they are entirely at your were suspended. service. The observations of my On the language of our church, departed friend, which I now sub- in her baptismal offices, we have mit to you, respect the following the following weighty remarks, assubjects.
cribed to "a learned friend,” in First, The Baptismal Contro- Mr. J. Scott's last work, in reply versy.
to Dr. Laurence, but which there Second, The Holy Trinity. can now be no indelicacy in avowThird, The General Confession ing to have been from the pen of of our Church.
the late Dean of Carlisle. I shall proceed with them in the “ | conceive that in believing order in which they stand.
adults the substance of regeneraFirst, The Baptismal Contro- tion has actually taken place before versy.
baptism; but as the new-birth is The Dean of Carlisle's opinion said to be both of water and of the on this subject was noticed in your Spirit, it may be too much to say last Number. It may here be that it is complete without wateradded, that he gave it as his deli- that is, without baptism.
And berale judgment, that the follow- this would be true, even if baptism ing passage in the Catechism was were observed merely because it quite conclusive against the main is an ordinance of Christ. But, statements of Dr. Mant.
besides this, the Holy Spirit blesses “What is required of persons the due performance of the ordi. to be baptized!
dance, and increases
grace in it. “Repentance, whereby they for- “ At first, the business of bapsake sin ; and faith, whereby they tism was necessarily with adults,
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 222. 3 A
for the most part. Of course there tism, we ought boldly and unwere repentance and faith, at least, shrinkingly to designate, by the supposed to exist; and then bap: term regeneration, the inward tism closed the initiation ; and, change and conversion of the heart being as it were the seal, it came to God, by whatever means it might to be called Regeneration, because be effected, and to address those without it the initiation could not as unregenerate who were evidentbe complete.
ly without any spiritual life. This, Originally regeneration im- he apprehended, had been uniform plied repentance, faith, and bap- ly the language of all our greatest tism : when transferred to infants divines from the time of the Refor. the name was continued, though mation. The Dean rejoiced in the two of the ingredients were drop- important changes which were inped, or necessarily excluded.” troduced into Dr. Mani's tract on
Dr. Milner was much grieved at this subject, by the Society for the dogmatical manner in which the promoting Christian Knowledge ; controversy had been handled, and for by these (although he considerat the bardy assertions made, thated that the iract remained still in there could be no doubt on the many respects very objectionable), meaning of the Church of England in point of argument, the chief matwith regard to it. The fact was, ter in dispute was conceded. In he said, that the doctrine of the short, the Dean regarded the whole grace of the sacrament bad al- discussion as of vital IMPORT. ways been a question of great ANCE and as in effect involving the difficulty, and more especially in grand distinctions between cold and this very matter of infant bapiism, languid formality, and really spiriwhere controversialisis now affirin- tual religion. ed, there was none at all. The In adducing the above brief but Dean bad, at one time, nearly de- weighty testimony of my venerable termined to write upon the subject, friend on this question, permit me and was actually beginning to col- to add, that in iny opinion the more lect the chief publications which the two observations of the Dean, bad appeared. But his increasing which begin this statement, are infirmity of health probably pre weighed, the more solid and convented the execution of this, as clusive will they be found. They well as of many other excellent de- seem to comprize in a few words signs. He, however, on several oc- the nucleus of the controversy. If casions, expressed his sentiments in connexion with these obserto me very strongly on the general vations, we take a calm review question. He thought that those of the Twenty-fifth and Twentywho opposed Dr. Mant's state- seventh Articles, little more will be ments had not spoken out with necessary, in order to arrive at a sufficient distinctness; for to him sound practical determination resit appeared most grievous, that a pecting the real views of the church. minister of our Protestant church But, besides this, let it not be forshould thus be permitted, for the gotten, that the doctrine, thus gafirst time, to broach, as the Dean ihered from a fair consideration of conceived, popish sentiments on the whole of the formularies of our so vital a point, and to do this in a church, is confirmed, beyond all manner the most positive, and with contradiction, by the uniform lanout any cbaritableness of construc- guage of that Sacred Book on tion for those who differed from which our church is built, and to him in opinion. He was decidedly which the ultimate appeal on this of opinion, that whatever difficul- and on every theological question ties might exist in ascertaining the must be made. exaet benefits accompanying bap- Perhaps in the conduct of this