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If our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things.-1 John ü. 20.

surpassed in personal experience. The houses are raohs, is entered; where Turk and Arab boatmen conclean and neat, standing out in pleasing relief from tend, and on shore hundreds of brawny natives with the steep bold mountain side which flanks the town. camels and donkeys squabble for employment. Dr. All those plants which, in England, can be reared Robinson describes the scene, vol. i. p. 20. thus:only in the hot-house, here grow in open air. The • The moment we set foot on shore, we needed no finest grapes are sold for one penny per pound, and further conviction that we had left Europe and were every other fruit proportionably cheap. GIBRALTAR now in the Oriental world: we found ourselves in the is defended in an almost impregnable manner. The midst of a dense crowd, through

which we made our inhabitants consist of Jews, Spaniards, Turks, &c., way with difficulty; Egyptians, Turks, Arabs, Copts, wearing the costumes of their different countries; Negroes, Franks; complexions of white, black, olive, presenting a grotesque appearance; and which, to bronze, brown, and almost all other colours; long a stranger only a few days removed from English so beards and no beards at all; all costumes and no cosciety, makes the place appear to him another world. tumes; silks and rags; wide robes and no robes; woAfter a few hours, the boiling steam is again plied, men muffled in shapeless black mantles, their faces and the calm evening renews its music and its grace. wholly covered except peep-holes for the eyes; endless ful charms. On the eighth day, the blue waters confusion, and a clatter and medley of tongues, Araof the Mediterranean are stemmed, and the playful bic, Turkish, Greek, Italian, French, German, and porpoise gambols on its surface. The day follow- English, as the case right be; strings of huge camels ing, the blazing sun asserts his power, and is acknow- in single file, with high loads; little donkeys, bridled ledged by all who expose themselves to his influence and saddled, each guided by a sore-eyed Arab boy, The Algerine coast is neared; the town is clearly with a few words of sailor-English, who thrusts his seen, nearly surrounding the harbour, as an amphi. little animal, nolens volens, almost between your legs.' theatre: the curious sails of its small craft affording scope for the pencil's mimic art. Hitherto all has

All travellers Jerusalem must proceed from been smooth, calm, and delightful; but another day Alexandria to Joppa, or across the desert by Suez, dawns with storm, and tempest, and angry billows; Sinai, &c. The mail leaves Alexandria for Beyrout, and, instead of the pleasant evening cool, sickness is calling at Joppa, within 48 hours after the arrival of an unwelcome visiter. The eleventh day, the power the English packet. Beyrout is a sea-port on the of steam quails to Almightiness ; – trembling and coast of Palestine, about 250 miles from Alexandria. rolling, like a drunken man, before the lashing of the Joppa is a port on the same coast, about half-way. surge.

Onward still, she passes one island after an- Passengers, by other vessels, for Jerusalem, must go other. On the morning of the twelfth, MALTA, the to Beyrout, and return thence in a hired vessel to island on which St. Paul was shipwrecked, opens its Joppa : which materially increases the length of the capacious harbour, and boatmen clamouring for en journey to such as cannot afford to go by land from gagement surround the vessel; others present shells Beyrout to Jerusalem. The following description of and curiosities for sale; others carry in their skiff's the passage from Alexandria to Beyrout is from an brown naked boys, who sportively dive for money, or

interesting modern publication :other things thrown into water, which they never It was blowing very fresh as we ran out to sea under fail to reach ere it touches the bottom; and for ap- a close-reefed mainsail, but the sun shone brightly, and plause, frequently descend under the ship to the the waves were of the purple hue that they wore to other side. The houses are built of white and yellow Homer's eyes; their foam flew from them in rainbow stone; which the beautiful light and clear atmo- fragments; and the gallant little craft darted from sphere of the Mediterranean strikes, and causes all wave to wave, like the joyous sea birds that flew the designs of the cornices, corners of the angles, ba- around her. Now she hovers for a moment on the lustrades of the terraces, and carved work of the bal watery precipice, now flings herself into the bosom of conies, to be articulated fully and clearly in the blue old Neptune, whose next throb sent her aloft again horizon. This quality of the air, this white, yellow, into the golden sunshine and the diamond spray, till golden colour of the stone, imparts to the meanest the merry gale catches her drapery, and she plunges edifice a firmness and neatness which revive and once more into the watery valley, as if at hide and gladden the sight. As at Gibraltar, the inhabitants seek with her invisible playfellow, the wind. are dressed in the most diversified colours, and seemingly are from all parts of the world, amid a melan

. We never saw a sail, or caught sight of land, but choly exhibition of squalid disease and mendicity. Alying-fish fluttered on board with their iridescent

now and then we had a glimpse of a dolphin; several Another day, the thirteenth, at Malta, will afford an opportunity to witness the illustration of our Lord's wings, and lay panting, and apparently quite con

tented. beautiful description, Jno. X. 4, of a shepherd going yacht than a passage in a packet.

Our voyage savoured more of a cruise in a before his flock, leading them out to pasture, And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before On the fourth morning, the coast of Syria rose them, and the sheep follow him : for they know his over the horizon; and the clearness of the atmosphere, voice.' Some of the streets are named after the crafts- together with the speed of our yacht bounding before men who occupy them; as the Tailor Street, where, a southerly gale, made the magnificent panorama of almost at every door, may be seen two or three tailors, Lebanon start into sight, and develop its complicated cutting and sewing. Further on may be seen cobblers, beauty, as if by magic. At sunrise, a faint wavy line shoemakers, and others, following their handicraft announced our approach to land; at eight o'clock, we with might and main, in the middle of the street. seemed in the very shadow of its mountains, and that Grapes, of the most luscious kind, are sold at one half-country before us was the Holy LAND. penny per pound, and are seen everywhere hanging

For 1,800 years, the Western world, in all its prosfrom the trees in large clusters. Some of the Roman perous life and youthful energy, has looked with reCatholic churches are magnificent in their structure,

verence and hope towards that hopeless and stricken, and richly adorned; that of St. John has two gates, but yet honoured land. After ages of obscurity and as large as those of a gentleman's mansion, of solid oblivion, as a mere province of a fallen empire, that silver. The gates were formerly of solid gold, but country suddenly became invested with a glory till Buonaparte unceremoniously removed them. After then unknown to earth. A few poor fishermen went an agreeable detention of, sometimes, two days for forth from those shores among the nations, and anthe Marseilles mail, a bustle pervades the vicinity ounced such tidings, as changed their destiny for of the packet, and again the passenger for the Holy ever. Human life became an altered state; new moLand and the Holy City sleeps on the bosom of old tives, sympathies, and principles arose, new humani, Ocean. The fourteenth day, only the broad and blue ties became developed ; new hopes, no longer bounded sea, besprinkled with a few vessels gracefully gliding by, but enlarging from, the grave, animateri our race. along, and the canopy of heaven, can now be seen.

God had been amongst us, and spoken to us, like This brings again the heavenly blessing, the brethren, of our glorious inheritance. Lord's day,' mercifully appointed a day of rest for man and beast. Again the bell tolls; and all bow

• NARROW AS ARE ITS BOUNDARIES, WE HAVE ALL

WHAT A CHURCH IS down to the Lord God Almighty, meekly bending upon A SHARE IN TAE POSSESSION. their knees. The sixteenth-The refreshing sweetness

TO A CITY, PALESTINE 18 TO THE WORLD. of the early breeze is delightful to him who can forego • Phænician fleets once covered these silent waters; the luxury of slumber. The seventeenth-The never- wealthy cities once fringed those lonely shores; and tiring vessel now approaches land; the coast of Africa during 3,000 years, war has led all the nations of the is beheld; preparations are made, by assorting the earth in terrible procession along those historic plains: passengers' luggage, for disembarkation on the fol- yet it is not mere history that thrills the pilgrim to lowing day; the eighteenth. Awaking in the morn- the Holy Land with such feelings, as no other spot on ing, Alexandria, the seaport of the land of the Pha- the wide earth inspires; but the belief that on yonder

Let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us: and establish thou the work of our hands upon us.-Ps. xc. 17.

What doth the LORD require of thee 2-See Micah vi. 8.

Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of beaven;

earth the Creator once trod with human feet, bowed spreading of nets in the midst of the sea. Multitudes down with human sutiering, linked to humanity by its of ruins mark its former greatness.

The sin of closest sympathy of sorrow, bedewing our tombs with Tyre was 'pride.'t Coasting south ward CARMEL his tears, and consecrating our world with his blood. is reached. The village of Kishon, about two miles Such thoughts will influence the most thoughtless tra- and a half north of Carmel, is mean and dirty, but on veller on his first view of Palestine, and convert into the mount is a convent of great magnificence; the a pilgrim, for the time, the most reckless wanderer: seat of superstition and idolatry, as in the days when even the infidel, in his lonely and desecrated heart, Elijah slew there the false prophets of Baal. CÆSAREA, must feel a reverence for the human character of one the town where Herod was eaten of worms, is south who lived and died like him of Nazareth.

of Carmel; after which is JOPPA. This is the coast of And now we can recognise Tyre and Sidon ; dow

PALESTINE-TRE HOLY LAND-THE LAND OF CAthe pine forest and the garden-covered promontory: NAAN-THE LAND

OF JUDEA: but the most pleasing and now we open the city of Beyrout, with its groves name by which we recognise it, is 'THE LAND OY and dismantled towers, and the magnificent scenery

PROMISE; for to Abraham, and to his seed, God that surrounds it.

gave it for an everlasting possession. Situated at

the extremity of the Mediterranean sea, having the • The promontory of Beyrout is of a triangular form, Euphrates and the Persian gulf on the east, and and the town lies on the N. W. coast, about an hour the Red sea on the south, it is the centre of all distant from the cape, directly on the shore. A broad lands; and in it is situated JERUSALEM, of which it plain or valley extends from S. to N. across the is said, The LORD of hosts shall reign in mount promontory, full of cultivation, and containing the Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients largest olive grove in Syria.* All around Beyrout gloriously.' - See Isa. xxiv. 23. Travellers from is covered with mulberry groves: the culture of silk Europe to the Holy City usually land at JAFFA, being the chief employment of all the inhabitants. anciently Joppa, the principal sea-port in PalesThe plain and adjacent mountain side swarms with tine; and to which the cedar, employed by king villages. The port is now filled up; so that yessels Solomon in the building of the temple,' was brought can anchor only in the open road. The town is sur- from mount Lebanon. It is a small fortified town, rounded, on the land side, by a wall of no great standing on a promontory: having for its harbour a strength, with towers. The houses are high, and miserable enclosure of rocks. The town is a labyrinth solidly built of stone. The streets are narrow and of khans, convents, narrow lanes, deserted ruins, and gloomy, badly paved, or rather laid, with large stones, waste places, with a few dirty streets leading from one with a deep channel in the middle for animals, in

quarter to another. The Franciscan convent often which water often runs. The city lies on a gradual shelters 1,000 pilgrims at Easter, and other seasons of slope, so that the streets have a descent towards the pilgrimage. The bazaars and markets look very gay sea; but back of the town, the ground rises towards with Syrian silks, and shining arms, and a profusion the south, with considerable elevation.

of fruit and flowers. From Jaffa to Jerusalem is about In the valley that lies between the promontory and 40 miles. The road for nearly 3 miles is through the mountains, spreads one of the richest and most cultivated gardens, well filled with fig, orange, lemon, varied tracts of verdure in the world. Gardens, groves, pomegranate, and palm trees. The Indian fig, with the gleams of a winding river, white cottages, half its prickles, is used for and makes a durable fence. covered by creeping shrubs, lanes of flowering cactus, The road then opens on the highly fertile, but almost alternating tracts of yellow sands, and clumps of pine deserted and uncultivated plain of Sharon. Rainleh trees, afford a delighiful range for the searching eye. is about 10 miles distant, and is ordinarily made the For those who have any time to spare, few places in resting place for the night, the remainder of the the East afford so desirable a resting place as this, journey being performed ihe following day. Ramleh combining, with many resources, such opportunities stands on a slight elevation, and is a mean

straggling of acquiring information. A tolerably clean and town, without fortification, and surrounded with gar. comfortable boarding-house is in the vicinity. All dens and orchards. From Ramleh the road continues Beyrout seem to be perpetually bathing in the deli- for several miles through a luxuriant but almost waste cious sea : little pyramids of red, and blue, and white plain, with scarcely an inhabitanı; after which it engarments, may be seen all along the shore, and the ters a narrow defile of rocky mountains, rising almost shaved heads of their owners dotting the surface of perpendicularly, with toppling precipices all around, the water. Little children, almost as soon as they and obstructed with huge stones. Slippery rocks, can sprawl upon the ground, are to be seen kicking yawning into deep fissures, and almost impracticable among the waves.'-Crescent and the Cross, pp. 4–26. footing, is the only road, and this for 4,000 years pro• The dwellings of the Franks are scattered upon at length the last acclivity is reached, emerging on a

bably the highway from Jaffa to Jerusalem. When the hills towards the south, each in the midst of its wide and sterile plain, and the first glimpse of the garden; they are built of stone, in the European Holy City is gained, the leading pilgrims sink on style, and exhibit many of the comforts of the West, their knees, and a shout of enthusiasm bursts from heightened by the luxuries of the East. On the right, each traveller, and Arab, Italian, Greek, and English; the mighty wall of Lebanon rises in indescribable majesty, teeming with villages, and more or less cultivated Gerusalemma! Hagiopolis!' The Holy City!'

man exclaims, each in his own tongue, 'El Khuds!' to the very top. Beyrout is the centre of European From this height not a tree or green spot is visible; trade, and the port for Damascus. From the convenience of its communication with the interior, it is right and left, as far as the eye can reach, vague un

no sign of life breaks the solemn stillness. To the made the chief seat of the American mission in Syria; dulations of colourless rocks extend to the horizon. having flourishing schools, and doing good according A broken and desolate plain

in front is bounded by a to their means. The population is supposed to be wavy battlemented wall, over which are seen towers, about 10,000.'-See also Lowthian's Journal, pp. 26-minarets, and mosque domes, intermingled with 40, for a short residence at Beyrout.

church turrets and terraced roofs. High over the The passage by sea from Beyront to Joppa intro- city, to the left, rises the mount of Olives; and the dnces many places of Old Testament interest. A few distant hills of Moab afford a background to the pichours' sail brings SIDON close at hand, Lebanon con- ture. As the city is approached, nothing but the bare tinuing long in sight, a magnificent and sublime ob- walls are visible, with the massive gates and lofty ject. From a distance, Sidon looks clean and neat: towers; and Jerusalem is entered under a high archand many small villages are seen on the sides, and way called the Jaffa Pilgrim's gate. Pilgrims find even on ihe summits of the mountains. About 6 lodgings in the various convents, and others, accom. miles south of Sidon is TYRE, a city of ancient re-modation in a hotel kept by a Maltese, a relation of nown, but now poor and miserable, a place for the the late bishop's dragoman.See Sect. v. p. 36, and

[$ 23, pp. 181-..4.

but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in beaven.--Matthew vii. 21.

• Since the above was written, this is said to have been destroyed in the fierce contests of the Druses and the Maronites. + See Sect. 45, 'Harmony of the Holy Gospel.'

* Ibid.

Who is able to stand before this holy LORD God ?-1 Sam. vi. 20.

AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE LAND OF PROMISE.

When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of Adam,

TAE LAND OF ISRAEL-PALESTINE, OR JUDÆA- for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give Was given in an everlasting covenant to Abraham it, and to thy seed for ever. And I will make thy and his seed for ever.See Gen. xii. 6, 7; xiii. 14-7. seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man cau It was washed on the w. by the Mediterranean, or number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed Great sea, as it is called in the Bible : Nu. xxxiv. 6, also be numbered. Arise, walk through the land, in * And as for the western border, ye shall even have the length of it, and in the breadth of it: for I will the great sea for a border: this shall be your west give it unto thee.'-xvii. 8, 'And I will give unte border.' Josh. i. 4, . From the wilderness and this thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein Lebanon, even unto the great river, the

river Eu thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an phrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the everlasting possession; and I will be their God.' great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall

It was called the LAND OF CANAAN, because, upon be your coast.' NORTHWARD, it reached along the Mediterranean sea to Mount Casius at the mouth of the dispersion of the three great families of manthe Orontes, which is the entrance into Hamath.kind, the country lying at the south-eastern extreNumb. xxxiv. 7-9, . This shall be your north border; mity of the Mediterranean, from Sidon to Gaza, from the great sea ye shall point out for you Mount And the name of PALESTINE was derived from the

was usurped by Canaan, the eldest son of Ham. HOR (Heb. Hor-ha-hor). From mount or ye shall point out unto the entrance into Hamath, &c. Philistines, whose ancestors were the Philistim, or Its SOUTH border-is the River of Egypt,' – see children of the Caphtorim and Casluhim, wito were Gen. xv. 18, Unto thy seed have I given this land, descendants of Mizraim, (see Gen. x. 13, .4,) and came from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the drove out the ancient inhabitants, and they possessed

from Egypt. They passed into Canaan, whence they river Euphrates. And the East border, -see Deut. xi. 24, . Every place whereon the soles of your feet a considerable tract of country at the time Abrashall tread shall be yours: ::: from the river, the Abraham sojourned in the Philistines'

land many

ham sojourned in Canaan.-See Gen. xxi. 34, . And river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea shall days."-See also xxvi. 14, .5. They extended their your coast be.'

conquests as far northward as Ekron, and nearly to • The difference of latitude and longitude in the Joppa, and divided their territory into five lordships, land actually occupied by ancient Israel, and that called after their principal cities, viz. Ekron, Ashdod, which was promised in the everlasting covenant, and Gath, Ascalon, and Gaza.-See Josh. xiii. 3, From still remains to be fulfilled, as follows:-see 1 Kings Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders iv. 25, " Judah and Israel dwelt safely from Dan even of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanto Beersheba, all the days of Solomon." (But Solo- ite: five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and mon, like his father David, exercised a nominal or the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and real sovereignty over all the regions which the Lord the Ekronites; also the Avites.' These dwelt in the had given to the seed of Jacob.See I Ki. iv. 21.) western or maritime part of it, bordering on Egypt; The latitude of Beersheba is 31 deg. 15 min.; of and,

though they were subjected by David, and kept Dan, 33 deg. 15 min. ;-the south point of the Dead in obedience by some of his successors, they became sea, the ancient border of Israel, is 31 deg. 7 min. in afterwards so powerful as to furnish the Greek and the same longitude with Dan, the intervening dis- Latin writers, as well as the neighbouring people, tance, in a line from north to south, being 128 geo with a general appellation for the whole country, graphical, or about 150 English, miles.

The Israelites left Egypt B.C. 1560, and after wan• The latitude of the north point of the Elanitic dering forty years in the wilderness, two tribes and a gulf o the Red sea, on which Ezion-geber, a port of half of them were settled E. of the Jordan by Moses, Solomon's, stood, is 29 deg. 31 min. This is the south who died shortly afterwards the children of Israel border promised to Abraham. The niouth of the crossed over the river, under the conduct of Joshua, Orontes, or the entrance into Hamath from the Me- and, after six years' successful fighting against the diterranean, is 36 deg., and that of Beer, or Berothah Canaanites, divided their land amongst the nine on the Euphrates, 37 deg. But the range of Amanus tribes and a half. The southern part of the country, lies beyond it, and the medium longitude

of the north between the Dead sea and the Mediterranean, from boundary is more than 36 deg. 31 min. N.; or in an the Torrent of Egypt to Jabneel, now called Yebna, ideal line, from south to north, the length of the was at first allotted to the tribe of Judah : but as land is upwards of seven degrees, or 500 miles, in- it was subsequently found that this was too much stead of 150 as of old.

for them, the western part of it was given to the • The breadth of IMMANUEL's land, instead of its tribes of Simeon and Dan, and that io the north anciently contracted span, from the Mediterranean tribe, on whose southern limits was the city of Jeru

was bestowed upon Benjamin. The last-mentioned sea on the west, to a few miles on the east of Jordan, salem,

touched to the E. on a small part of the Jorstops not short of a navigable frontier everywhere, and on every side. The longitude of the river Nile dan, and to the W. upon Dan.-After the death of is 30 deg. 2 min.; that of the Euphrates, as it flows Joshua, the Israelites became subject to the surthrough the Persian Gulf, 48 deg. 26 min.; or a dif. rounding nations; but under Saul and David they ference of nearly 18 deg. and a half, or more than regained their independence. 1,100 miles.

The name of JUDAH, or JODÆA, was first applied On the northern extremity of the land, the range tribes revolted from the house of David. Upon the

to the southern part of Palestine, when ten of the of Amanus mountains from the river Euphrates, to death of Solomon, B. C. 974, the kingdom was dithe uttermost sea, or extremity of the Mediterranean, scarcely exceeds ivo miles. În round numbers, the vided; Rehoboam, his son, being chosen by the tribes average breadth of the PROMISED LAND is 600 miles, of Judah and Benjamin, and Jeroboam by the rewhich, multiplied by its length 500 miles, gives an maining ten tribes: the former was henceforward area of 300,000 square miles, or more than that of any dom of Israel. -(1 Ki. xii. 16, 17, “So when all Israel

called The kingdom of Judah; the latter, The kingkingdom or empire in Europe, Russia alone excepted. saw that the king hearkened 'not unto them, the

Separated as Israel is from other lands, such are people answered the king, saying, What portion have its borders, that it has unequalled freedom of access we in David ? neither have we inheritance in the son to all ... and is still fitted for becoming “the glory of Jesse : to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine of all lands," the heritage of a people blessed of the own house, David. So Israel departed unto their LORD.'t

tents. But as for the children of Israel which dwelt THE LAND OF PROMISE was 80 called from in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.' God's having given ic by promise to the seed of 20 ver. 'And it came to pass, when all Israel heard Abraham, Gen. xii. 7; see also Gen. xiii. 14-17, that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and * And the Lord said unto Abraham, after that Lot called him unto the congregation, and made him was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, king over all Israel: there was none that followed the and look from the place where thou art, north house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.') Judah, ward, and southward, and eastward, and westward : and the children of Israel, his companions, were

He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel.-Deut. xxxii. 8.

# A very high mountain.

+ See Keith's Land of Israel.'

I See Greswell, vol. iii., p. 443.

The kingdom is the Lord's; and He.. the Governor among the nations.-Psalm xxii. 28.

Gracious is the LORD, and righteous ; yea, our God is merciful.-Psalm cxvi. 3.

from that time called the kingdom of Judah.' into Upper and Lower, so named with respect to the After the defection of the ten tribes from under river Jordan, the former being also called Galilee of Rehoboam, the two kingdoms maintained their free- the Gentiles,' from its being inhabited not only by dom for many years, amidst the continual wars Jews, but by Syrians, Greeks, Phænicians, and Egypby which they were harassed; but Hazael, king of tians. This province was, above all, honoured with Syria, at last subdued Israel, and for a long time our Saviour's presence. It was here that he was conkept it in subjection. The king of Assyria next in-ceived ; and here, in an obscure village, he lived with vaded them, and having besieged their city Samaria his reputed parents until he began to be about thirty for three years, reduced it to asbes.-See SAMARIA. years of age, and was baptized of John. And though

Such of the inhabitants as survived the dreadful he visited the other provinces and Judæa at the stated carnage which ensued, were carried away captive feasts, when the male Israelites were commanded to into Assyria, B. C. 719; and the kingdom of Israel, go up to worship in Jerusalem, yet, in fulfilment of which had stood divided from that of Judah for prophecy, (see $ 16,) he fixed upon Capernaum to more than 250 years, was now at an end. After this, dwell in: and after his resurrection the disciples Judah also was attacked by the Babylonians, and went away into Galilee, into a mountain, where they subsequently by the Egyptians, the latter of whom saw and worshipped him: the same probably on reduced it to subjection; but upon the defeat of which he had been seen by Peter, James, and the Egyptians by the Babylonians, Nebuchadnezzar John, in glory, along with Moses and Elias.* And seized upon Jerusalem, and, after having tyrannized they were men of Galilee' whom he commissioned, over the people for some years, at last levelled the saying, 'Go into all the world, and preach the gospel city and the temple with the ground, and carried to every creature.'-UPPER GALILEE belonged for. away the inhabitants to Babylon, and thus put an merly to the tribe of Naphtali. It bordered on end to the kingdom of Judah, about B. C. 588, or 476 Tyre and Sidon, and extended E. of the river Joryears from the time that David began to reign over

dan. In its northern part, close to the W. source it.-See 2 Chr. xxxvi. Seventy years after, when of the Jordan, stood Dan, which was formerly Leish, Cyrus was king of Persia, a remnant of the Jews until it was wrested by conquest from the Sidonians, returned, and built again their city and temple, when it received the name of the tribe which took it. around which they settled; and the southern part of It was the northernmost town occupied by the chilPALESTINE was henceforth called JUDEA. To the dren of Israel, in the same way that Beersheba was N. of them, in the former inheritance of Ephraim the southernmost: hence the frequent definition of and the half tribe of Manasseh, sate a mixed race of the land of Israel - from Dan to Beersheba.' people, among whom may have been some families LOWER GALILEE lay between lake Gennesaret and casually left behind in the great captivity. More cer

the Mediterranean sea. The northern part belonged tain are we, that colonies of idolatrous heathen were to the tribe of Zebulun, and the southern part to the placed there by the Assyrian monarch, 2 Ki. xvii. 24– tribe of Issachar, 34; and that these were subsequently joined by some SAMARIA. -Touched to the W. on the MediterJews, such as Joia da, mentioned Neh. xiii. 28. They ranean, to the N. on Phænice and Galilee, to the E. were called Samaritans, from their dwelling round the on Peræa, and to the S. on Judæa; it contained old capital of the kingdom of Israel; and were looked 1,330 square miles. It occupied the whole country upon by the Jews as so impure, that they had no deal. between the Jordan and the sea; and therefore such ings with them. Alexander the Great subdued Pales- as travelled frorn Judæa into Galilee 'must needs go tine, and at his death its possession was disputed through Samaria.' by Antigonus and the Egyptians, until Antiochus the

Samaria derived its name from its metropolis Sa. Great, king of Syria, united it to his dominions. The maria, which was so called after one Shemer, of whom Jews, under Judas Maccabeus, revolted, and esta- Omri, king of Israel, bought the ground, for the blished their freedom. They over-ran Samaria, and planted colonies in the northern part of the this city having become the subsequent capital of the

building of the city; and from the circumstance of country, which assumed henceforward the name of kingdom of Israel, the name of samariu is frequently GALILEE ; and raised up a king about B.C. 107. successors called in the Romans to settle their dis- denote the whole of that kingdom. Samaria is inter

His used by the sacred writers of the Old Testament, to putes; and the Roman general, Pompey, irritated by sected by a range of mountains connected with Mut. the little respect shewn to him, marched against Je- Hermon of Galilee; where this range enters the prorusalern and reduced it, B.C. 63, and soon after com

vinces it is called Gilboa. Mount Gilboa, celebrated pleted the subjugation of the whole

country. In the for the death of Saul and Jonathan, and for the detime of Marc Antony, Herod was made king of Ju- feat of the Israelites by the Philistines, was in the dæa, and it was during his reign that our Saviour northern part of Samaria, and formed part of that was born. Judæa remained subject to the Romans range of hills which traverses the whole province till A. D. 66, when a contest arose between the Jews from north to south; towards the city of Samaria, it and Syrians respecting the possession of Cæsarea : is known by the names of Phinehas, Ebal, and Gerithe case being referred to Nero, he decided in favour zim, and upon the borders of Judæa as the mounof the latter; upon which the Jews took up arms, and, after committing some dreadful massacres, succeeded tains of Ephraim. in driving all the Romans and Syrians from Judæa. Upon the division of the tribes into the two kingVespasian was sent against them with a powerful doms of Judah and Israel, Jeroboam, king of the army, and would soon have brought them to subjec- latter, built Sichem, or Shechem, in mount Ephraim, tion, but, on his march to Jerusalem, he received the about the centre of Samaria, and made it the capital intelligence of his having been chosen emperor: he of his dominions.-See Sect. i3. accordingly left the command of the army to his son Titus, who, A.D. 70, reduced the city to ashes, and of Israel till the time of the Assyrian captivity, was

Samaria, the subsequent metropolis of the kingdom put an end to the Jewish nation, as had been prophe only a few miles to the north of Sichem; it was nearly sied for ages beforehand.

destroyed by the Assyrians, but was restored by the The name of the HOLY LAND is applied to it by colonists, whom they sent into the country, and who, Christians in nearly all the languages of Europe; from this city, first

assumed the name of Samaritans. chiefly and eminently from its having been the scene It was very flourishing under the Maccabees, but of our Blessed Lord's life, death, and resurrection. being once more destroyed, it was again rebuilt and

In the time of the events recorded in the history of beautified by Herod, who named it Sebaste, in honour the New Testament, Palestine was divided into five of Augustus; it is still called Sebaste, or Kalaat principal parts. These were Galilee, Samaria, Ju- Sanour. dæa, properly so called, Batanæa, and Peræa; the

JODÆA, properly so called.-Was bounded on the N. three first of which were on this side Jordan, and the by Samaria, on the E. by the Dead sea, on the s. by two last beyond it: over all of which Herod, sur- Arabia Petræa, and on the W. by the Mediterranean named 'the Great,' was king.-See Less. v. Herod.' sea. It contained 3,135 square miles, and constituted

GALILEE-Was the northernmost province of Pales- the inheritance of four out of the twelve tribes, viz. tine, and was exceedingly fertile and populous, having of Benjamin, Dan, Judah, and Simeon, the two last 204 towns and villages, containing, upon an average, being in the southern part of the province. The 15,000 souls, making in all above 3,000,000 inhabitants. frontier between Judæa and Arabia Propria is formed It touched to the W. on Phænice, to the N. on Cælo- by a range of mountains, connected with mount Seir, Syria, to the E. on Batanæa, and to the S. on Sama- and known by the names of Halak and Maaleh ACria. It contained 930 square miles. It was subdivided rabbin; this latter gives the adjacent district the

* See Sections 1. & xcvi. + Page viii. first paragraph, et seq.

Behold, He that keepeth

Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep.-- Psalm cxxi. 4.

Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion.-Psalm cxiv. 2.

The Lord loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob.-Psalm lxxxvii. 2.

name of Acrubattene. These mountains separated ance of radiant stripes around and below the summit. the possessions of the children of Israel from the North-westward of Hermon is Lebanon, so full of inland of Edom, or Idumea, as the Greeks called it: teresting associations. but when the Jews were carried captive to Babylon, TABOR.-Although undeserving of the name of the southern part of their country, being left desti- Mountain, for height, yet is prominent in Scripture tute, was seized by the Idumeans, who became so for many important transactions. In its neighbourstrong as to be able to maintain possession of it long hood, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, with his after the Jews returned from their bondage. They chariots and his multitude, were delivered into the were conquered at last by the Maccabees, but, having hand of Barak, Judg. iv. 6-15; and by many it has embraced Judaism, they were incorporated with the been regarded as the place of our Lord's transfiguraJewish nation, and allowed to retain possession of the tion. The beauty of the mountain, and its conspicuous country they had seized upon, which from them was position, rendered it a favourite subject of poetic concalled Idumea; it extended as far north ward as He-templation; and when the Psalmist (lxxxix. 12) exbron, and was noted, as was the whole of Judæa, for claims, Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy its fine palm trees. To the north ward of this, lay the name,' he selects these two as the representatives of district Daromas, which still preserves its na in all the mountains of Palestine; the former as the most Darom : between it and Samaria stretches a range of graceful, and the latter as the loftiest.–See Sect. 51. hills, which caused the district they traversed to be called Orine, or "The hill country of Judæa.'--See

MOUNT CARMEL.-Is often mentioned by the sacred Sect. 2, p. 14.

writers; it forms one of the most remarkable head.

lands on the whole coast of the Mediterranean sea, Judæa is celebrated above all other divisions of and is about 1,500 feet high. Palestine. The chief city of the whole land-even Jernsalem, the city of the Great King,' was there have been so exactly accomplished, that they may be

The prophecies concerning the LAND OF ISRAEL In Jerusalem was the temple of the LORD, to which used as history. The traveller, however careless of the Jews were commanded to go up three times divine revelation, and even the scorner, abundantly every year to worship JEHOVAH, the LORD their testifies to the present desolation of the land: the once God. In JODRA was Bethlehem, the city of David, strong forts and towers are become dens--defenced out of which, although it was little among the cities are destroyed, uninhabited, and laid waste. thousands of Judah, came forth He that is to be

The once productive and well-watered plains are beruler in Israel ; whose goings forth have been from

come barren, and the herbs of every field wither. The of old, from everlasting. He who was David's son, infidel Volney bears witness to the truth of prophecy; and is David's Lord, was born there. Jerusalem was the scene of his sufferings ; for there he offered him thrown down, the palaces are demolished, the ports are

for as it had been foretold, he writes, 'The temples are self,' a Lamb without spot, without the gate; there filled up, the towns destroyed, and the earth, stripped he burst the bonds of death; and from OLIVET, on the east, he ascended into heaven. In Judea were Almost daily, accounts reach us, vividly portraying

of its inhabitants, seems a dreary burying place.' the disciples to remain until they were endued with power from on high, and from thence was the gospel God, has become heaps ; and Zion, as was predicted,

the curse that is upon it. Jerusalem, the City of our to go forth unto the uttermost parts of the earth.

is plowed as a field; and the place of the temple of

the Most High is desecrated by the erection of a BATANRA._Was bounded on the W. by Galilee, on the N. and E. by Syria, and on the S. by Peræa, and Muhammedan mosque, where death awaits the true corresponded nearly with the inheritance of the half worshipper that dares intrude within the polluted tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan; it contained 1000 place. The ancient population was, for the limits of square miles. It derived its name from Basan, or

the country, greater than that of any other part of the Bashan, of the Bible, and was noted for its fine cattle then known world. In the time of David, the population

must have amounted to several millions, as the men and good pasturage; its lofty bills were likewise able to bear arms were numbered, at the lowest commuch celebrated for their beautiful oaks. In the putation, and after an imperfect census, at 1,300,000 northern part of the province was mount Hermon, - In the time of Jehoshaphat, the men of war, in Judah Heish, called by the Sidonians, Sirion or Sion, and by alone, amounted to 1,060,000. Josephus tells us that the Amorites Shenir. In its western part was Cæsareu at one celebration of the Passover, in the reign of Philippi. - See Sect. 50. In the south-western corner Nero, there were present at Jerusalem 2,700,000 perwas Gadara-Om Keis.-See Sect. 35.

sons. The valleys are composed of a deep rich soil, PERRA.-Was bounded on the N. by Batanæa, on

free from stones. The rocks are principally of grey the W. by Samaria, on the s. by Arabia, and on the limestone, and they contributed greatly towards the E. by Syria; it contained 1,505 square miles. It de

sustenance of a large population, as they were terraced rived its name from the Greek word spav, ultra, from in all directions with embankments built up with loose its lying beyond Jordan. The southern part of Pe- stones, on which grew melons, cucumbers, and other ræa, between the two rivers Arnon and Jabok, formed creeping plants, as well as the vine, the fig, and the the kingdom of the Amorites, whose king, Sihon, was

olive, as now seen on a few cultivated spots. It would defeated by the Israelites. In the centre of Peræa

be wrong to argue the former capabilities of the Holy rose the lofty mount Gilead, or Galeed, still called Land from its present appearance, as it is now under Djelaoud, near which Jacob and Laban raised a heap the curse of God, and its general barrenness is in full of stones in token of friendship; 'therefore was the accordance with prophetic denunciation. name of it called Galeed,' i.e. "The heap of witness."

But the time is fast approaching, when, as said -Gen. xxxi. 48.

Moses, Deut. xxx.3–5,. That then the LORD thy God

will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon of the LAND OF PROMISE Moses said, Deut. xi. thee, and will return and gather thee from all the 10_.2, ' The land, whither thou goest in to possess it, nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, thee. If any of thine be driven out unto the utmost where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God thy foot, as a garden of herbs : but the land, whither gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee: and ye go to possess it, is a land of hills and valleys, and the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which drinketh water of the rain of heaven: a land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and the LORD thy God careth for: the eyes of the LORD he will do ihee good, and multiply ihee above thy thy God are always upon it, from the beginning of fathers.' - See also Isa. Ixi. 4; Ezek. xxxvi. 8; Amos the year even unto the end of the year.'

ix. 135. The Jordan is the principal river.-See Sect. 8. To the antiquary, to the lover of the sublime and Few of the HiLLS approach to the character of abounds with so many attractious as 'The Land of

beautiful, and, above all, to the child of God, no land mountains.

Israel.' We have connected therewith the earliest QUARANTINA, north of Jericho, rises an almost per- and most faithful records of the wonderful provipendicular rock, 1200 or 1500 feet.

dence of God, from the beginning of creation, to the

redemption of man. Magnificent remains of the HERMON.-In the N.E. of Galilee is the majestic oldest cities in the world are there : its scenery is of HERMON, or Sion, of the Old Testament. The the most diversified beauty. The position is best usual estimate of the height of Hermon (Jebel Esh-fitted for its becoming what it was appointed to be, Sheikh) is 10,000 feet above the Mediterranean. The the glory of all lands. IMMANUEL'S LAND may be top is partially crowned with snow, or rather ice, the earthly centre of MESSIAH'S KINGDOM, when its during the whole year, which however lies only in the bounds are extended according to the description of ravines, and thus presents at a distance the appear- prophecy, as Psalm lxxii.

For the Lord's portion is his people ; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. -Deut. xxxii. 9.

Come and see the works of God: He is terrible in his doing toward the children of men.-Psalm lxvi. 5.

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