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are to be handled, and of those, only such as pertain to the churches of that resort; concerning other churches, unless they be desired, they are to determine nothing farther than to refer such matters to their next common and great meeting.
Let the order of proceeding in them be this: first, let the survey be taken of those that are present, and the names of those that are absent, and should be there, be noted, that they may give a reason at their next meeting of their absence, or be censured by the judgment of the assembly. Next, let the acts of the last assembly of that kind be read, that if any of the same remain unfinished, they may be dispatched: then, let those things be dealt in that are properly belonging to the present assembly ; where first the instructions sent from the churches are to be delivered by every one in order, as they sit together, with their letters of credence. Secondly, Let the state of the churches of that resort be considered, to wit, how they are instructed and guided : whether the holy doctrine and discipline be taught and exercised in them; and whether the miuisters of public charges do their duty, and such like. Furthermore, they shall determine of those things that do appertain to the common state of all the churches of that resort, or
of the same; which way may be sufficient for the oversight of the churches. Lastly, if it seem meet, the delegates present may be censured.
They that are to meet in such assemblies are to be chosen by the consent of the churches of that assembly and conference, to whom it may appertain.
Let such only be chosen that exercise public function in the church, of ministry or eldership, and which have subscribed to the doet rine and discipline, and have promised to behave themselves according to the word of God: notwithstanding, it may be lawful also to be present for other elders and other ministers; and likewise (if the assembly think it meet) for deacons, and for students in divinity, especially those that exercise themselves in expounding the holy scriptures in the conferences, and be asked their opinion; which in students is to this end, that their judgment, in handling matters ecclesiastical, may be both tried and sharpened. But they only are to give voice which are chosen by the churches, and have brought their instructions signed from them.
If there fall out any very weighty matter to be consulted of, let notice of it be given to the moderator of the assembly next going before, or to the minister of that church where the next meeting is to be: the same is to send word of it in due time to the minister of every church of that assembly, that they may communicate it aforehand with those to whom it appertaineth, that the delegates resorting to the next meeting may understand and report their judgments.
In appointing of the place for the assembly, regard must be had of the convenient distance, and other commodities, that no part may justly complain that they are burthensome above others, VOL. V.
In every such ecelesiastical assembly, it is meet there be a moderator: he is to have charge of the assembly, to see it kept in good order. He is always, if it may be conveniently, to be changed. The choice is to be in this manner:
'The moderator of the former assembly of that kind, or, in his absence, the minister of the church where they meet, having first prayed fitly to that purpose, is to move the assembly to choose a moderator. He being chosen, is to provide that things dene in the assembly may be written, that the delegates of every chureh may write them out, and communicate them with the conferences from whence they came.
The moderator is also, by the order and judgment of the assembly, to give answer, either by speech or by letters, to such as desire any answer; and to execute censures, if any be to be executed. Further, he is to procure all things to be done in it, godly and quietly: exhorting to meekness, moderation of spirit, and forbearing one of another where need shall be, and referring it to the assembly to take order for such as are obstinate and contentious. Lastly, he is to remember them of the next meeting following, with thanks for their pains, and exhortation to proceed cheerfully in their calling; and so courteously to dismiss the assembly. Before such time none may depart without leave of the asssembly.
Those assemblies, according to their kinds, have great authority, if they be greater, and less if they be less. Therefore (unless it be a plain act, and manifest unto all) if any think himself injured by the less meeting, be may appeal still unto a greater, till he come to a general council; so that he ascend orderly from the less to the next greater. But it is to be understood that the sentence of the assemblies be holden firm, until it be otherwise judged by an assembly of greater authority.
Assemblies or Meetings are either Conferences or Synods.
CONFERENCES are the meetings of the elders of a few churches, as for example of twelve. There are to meet in a conference, chosen of the eldership of every particular ehureh, one minister, and ope elder. The conferences are to be kept onee in six weeks.
They are specially to look into the state of the churches of that resort and conference; examining particularly these several points : Whether all things be done in them according to the holy doctrine and discipline of the gospel : to wit, whether any questions be moved concerning any point of doctrine : 'Whether the ecclesiastical discipline be duly observed ? Whether any minister be wanting in any of those churches, that a sufficient one in due time may be procured? Whether the other ministers of public charge in the church' be appointed in every congregation ? Whether care be had of schools, and for the poor? Finally, they are to be demanded wherein any of them needeth the ad
sice of the conference, for the advancement of the gospel amongst them.
Before the end of the meeting, if it shall be so thought good by them, let one of the ministers assembled in conference, either chosen by voice, or taking it by turn, preach publicly. Of his speech, let the rest judge among themselves, (the elders being put apart) and admonish him brotherly, if there be any cause, examining all things according to those rules that are before declared in the chapter concerning the things that are to be performed by thuse that preach.
Of Synods. A SYNOD is the ineeting of chosen men of many conferences : in them let the whole treatise of discipline be read : in them also (other things first being finished, as was said before) let all those that are present be censured, (if it may be done conveniently) and let theni also have a communion in and with the church where they were called.
There are two sorts of synods; the first is particular, which conaprehendeth both the provincial and national synod. A provincial synod is the meeting of the chosen men of every conference, within the province. A province containeth four-and-twenty conferences.
A fit way to call a provincial council may be this: the care thereof (except themselves will determine of it) may be committed to the particular eldership of some conference within the province; which, by advice of the same conference, may appoint the place and time for the meeting of the provincial synod.
To that church or eldership are to be sent the matters that seemed, to the particular conferences, more difficult for them to take order in, and such as belong to the churches of the whole province; which is to be done diligently, and in good time, that the same may, in due season, give notice of the place and time of the synod, and of the mat. ters to be debated therein, that they which shall be sent may come the better prepared, and judge of them according to the advice of the conferences.
Two ministers, and as many elders, are to be sent from every conference unto the provincial synod. The same is to be held every half year, or oftener, till the discipline be settled. It is to be held 'three months before every national synod; that they may prepare and make ready those things that pertain to the national. The acts of the provincial synod are to be sent unto the national, by the eldership of that church in which it was holden; and every minister is to be furnished with a copy of them, and with the reasons of the same. A national $ypod, or convocation, is a meeting of the chosen men of every province, within the dominion of the same nation and civil government. The way to call it, (unless it shall determine otherwise)
may be the
same with the provincial, that is, by the eldership of some particular church, which shall appoint the time and place of the next pational convocation ; but not otherwise than by the advice of their provincial synod.
Out of every provincial synod there are to be chosen three ministers, and as many elders, to be sent to the national. They are to handle the things pertaining to the churches of the wbole nation or kingdom, as the doctrine, discipline, ceremonies, things not decided by inferior meetings, appeals, and such like. By the order of the same, one is to be appointeil which may gather into one book the notes of every particular church.
Thus much for particular meetings; the universal followeth, which is called a general or ecumenical council ; which is a meeting of the chosen men of every pational synod. The acts of all such council are to be registered and reported in a book.
The discipline, entitled, the Discipline of the Church, described in the word of God, as far as we can judge, is taken and drawn from the most pure fountain of the word of God; and containeth in it the discipline of the cburch that is necessary, essential, and common to all ages of the church.
The synodical also adjoined, as it resteth upon the same foundations, is likewise necessary and perpetual ; but as far as it is not expressly con. firmed by authority of the holy seripture, but is applied to the use and times of ibe church, as their divers states may require, according to the analogy and general rules of the same scripture, is to be judged profitable for the churches that receive it, but may be changed in such things as belong not to the essence of the discipline upon a like godly reason, as the diverse estates of the church may require.
The Form of the Subscription,
THE brethren of the copference of N. whose names are here underwritten, have subscribed this discipline after this manner :- This discipline we allow as a godly discipline, and agreeable to the word of God: (yet so as we may be satisfied in the things hereunto noted) and desire the same so acknowledged by us, to be furthered by all lawful means; that by public authority of the magistrate, and of our church, it may be established.
Which thing, if it may be obtained of her right excellent Majesty, and or her the magistrates of this kingdom, we promise that we will do nothing against ii, whereby the public peace of the church may be troubled. In the mean time we promise to observe it so far as it may be lawful for us so to do, by the public laws of this kingdom, and by the peace of our church.
A Letter of the Puritan Ministers imprisoned, to her Majesty, in Vindication of their Innocence; dated April, 1592,
“ May it please your Excellent Majesty, “THERE is nothing, right gracious sovereign, next to the saving mercy of Almighty God, that can be more comfortable than your highness's favor, as to all other your faithful and dutiful subjects, so to us your Majesty's most humble suppliants, who are by our calling ministers of God's holy word; and by our present condition now, and of long time, prisoners in divers prisons in and about the city of Lon. don ; for which cause our most humble suit is, that it may please your most excellent Majesty, graciously to understand oor necessary answer to such grievous charges as we hear to be informed against us, which if they were true, might be just canse of withdrawing for ever from us your highness's gracious protection and favor, which above all other earthly things we most desire to enjoy. The reason of our trouble is, a suspicion that we should be guilty of many heinous crimes; but these supposed crimes we have not been charged with in any due and ordinary course of proceeding, by open accusation and witnesses. But being called up to London by authority of some of your Majesty's commissioners in causes ecclesiastical, we have been required by them to take an oath of inquisition, or office, as it is called; for not taking whereof we were first committed to prison, and since have continued there a long time, notwithstanding that all of us, save one, have been deprived of our livings, and degraded of our ministry.
“ Wherefore, for that the oath is the next and immediate cause of our trouble, we have made our answer first to that, and then after also to the crimes that are suggested, and secretly informed against us.
THE OATH. 6. As for the oath, the reason why we took it not, is because it is without limitation of any certain matter, infinite and general, to answer whatsoever shall be demanded of us. Of this kind of oath we find peither role nor example in the word of God; but contrariwise, both precepts and precedents of all lawful oaths reported ir the same tend to this, that an oath ought to be taken with judgment, and so as he that sweareth may see the bounds of his oath, and to what condition it does bind him, &c. But this oath is to enquire of our private speeches and cooferences, with our dearest and nearest friends; yea, of the very secret thoughts and intents of our hearts, that so we may furnish both matter of accusation and evidence of proof against ourselves,