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who have this authority may and ought to preach the gospel, thougti without human commission or literature ; as, on the other hand, those who want the authority of this divine gift, however learned or author ized by the commissions of men and churches, are to be esteemed but as deceivers, and not true ministers of the gospel. Also, who have received this holy and unspotted gift, as they have freely received, so are they freely to give, without hire or bargaining, far less to use it as a trade to get money by it: yet if God bath called any from their employments, or trades, by which they acquire their livelihood, it may be lawful for such (according to the liberty which they feel giver them in the Lord) to receive such temporals (to wit, what may be needful to them for meat and clothing) as are freely given them by those to whoin they have communicated spirituals.


Concerning Worship. ALL true and acceptable worship to God, is offered in the inward and immediate moving and drawing of his own Spirit, which is neither linited to places, times, or persons : for though we be to worship him always, in that we are to fear before him; yet as to the outward sig. nification thereof in prayers, praises, and preachings, we ought not to do it, where and when we will, but where and when we are moved thereunto, by the secret inspirations of his Spirit in our hearts; which God heareth and accepteth of, and is never wanting to move us thereunto, when need is, of which he himself is the alone proper judge. All other worship then, both praises, prayers, and preachings, which man sets about in his own will, and at his own appointment, which he can both begin and end at his pleasure, do or leave undone as himself sees meet; whether they be a prescribed form, as a liturgy or prayers conceived extemporarily, by the natural strength and faculty of the mind; they are all bui superstitions, will-worship, and abominable idolatry in the sight of God;t which are to be denied, rejected, and separated from, in this day of his spiritual arising; however it might have pleased him (who winked at the times of ignorance, with respect to the simplicity and integrity of some, and of his own innocent seed, which lay as it were buried in the hearts of men, under the mass of superstition) to blow upon the dead and dry bones, and to raise some breathings, and answer them, and that until the day should more clearly dawn and break forth.


Concerning Baptism. AS there is One Lord and One Faith, so there is One Baptism; which is not the putting away the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a

• Matt. x. 8.--+ Ezek. xiii. Mark x. 20. Acta ii, 4; and xviii. 5. Joha iii. 6; and iv. 21. Jude 19. Acts xyii. 23.

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good conscience before God, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And this baptism is a pare and spiritual thing, to wit, the baptism of the spirit and fire, by which we are buried with him, that being washed and purged from our sins, we may walk in newness of life ;t of which the baptism of John was a figure, which was commanded for a time, and not to continue for ever. As to the baptism of infants, it is a mere human tradition, for which neither precept nor practice is to be found in all the scripture.


Concerning the Communion, or Participation of the Body and

Blood of Christ. THE communion of the body and blood of Christ is inward and spiritual,t which is the participation of his flesh and blood, by which the inward man is daily nourished in the hearts of those in whom Christ dwells ; of which things the breaking of bread by Christ with his disciples was a figure, which they even used in the church for a time, who had received the substance, for the cause of the weak; even as abstaining from things strangied, and from blood, the washing one another's feet, and the anointing of the sick with oil ;ll all which are commanded with no less authority and solemnity than the former; yet seeing they are but the shadows of better things, they cease in such as have obtained the substance,

THE TOURTEENTH PROPOSITION. Concerning the Power of the Civil Magistrate, in Matters purely

Religious, and pertaining to the Conscience. SINCE God hath assumed to himself the power and dominion of the conscieuce, who alone can rightly instruct and govern it, therefore it is not lawful for any whatsoever, by virtue of any authority or principality they bear in the government of this world, to force the consciences of others; and therefore all killing, banishing, fining, imprisoning, and other such things, which men are afflicted with, for the alone exercise of their conscience, or difference in worship of opinion, proceedeth from the spirit of Cain the murderer, and is contrary to the truth : provided always, that no man, under the pretence of conscience, prejudice his neighbor in his life or estate; or do any thing destructive to, or inconsistent with, human society; in which case the Jaw is for the transgressor, and justice to be administered upon all, without respect of persons.

* Eph. iv. 5. 1 Peter iii. 21. Rom. vi. 4. Gal. iii. 27. Col. ii. 12. John iii. 30.-- 1 Cor. i. 17.-11 Cor. X. 16, 17, -$ John vi. 32.

1 Cor. v. 8. || Acts xv 20. John xiii. 14. James v. 14. - Luke ix, 55, 56. Matt. vii. 12, 29. Titus iii. 10. VOL. V.


33, 35.

THE FIFTEENTH PROPOSITION. Concerning the Salutations and Recreation, fc. Seeing the chief end of all religion is to redeem man from the spiris and vain conversation of this world, and to lead into inward commanjoo with God.t before whoin if we fear always, we are accounted happy; therefore all the vain customs and habits thereof, both in word and deed, are to be rejected and forsaken by those who come to this fear; such as the taking off the hat to a man, the bowings and cringings of the body, and such other salutations of that kind, with all the foolish and superstitions formalities attending them; all which man has invented in his degenerate state, to feed his pride in the vain pomp and glory of this world; as also the unprofitable plays, frivolous recreations, sportings and gamings, which are invented to pass away the precious tine, and divert the mind from the witness of God in the heart, and from the living sense of his fear, and from that evangelical spirit wherewith christians ought to be leavened, and which leads into sobriety, gravity, and godly fear; in which as we abide, the blessing of the Lord is felt to attend us in those actions in which we are necessarily engaged, in order to the taking care for the sustenance of the outward man.

† Eph. v. 11. 1 Peter i. 14. Jobn v. 44. Jer. x. 3. Acts x. 26. Matt. xv. 13, Col. ii. 8.

No. XII.

The TOLERATION Act, entitled, an Act for exempting

their Majesties Protestant Subjects dissenting from the Church of England from the Penalties of certain Laws. FOR ASMUCH as some ease to scrupulous consciences, in the exercise of religion, may be an effectual means to unite their Majesties? protestant subjects in interest and affection,

I. Be it enacted by the king and queen's most excellent majesties, and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that neither the statute made in the 23d year of the reign of the late queen Elizabeth,t entitled, an act to retain the queen majesty's subjects in their due obedience ; nor that statute made in The 29th year of the said queen,t entitled, an act for the more speedy

1 Will. and Mary, eap. 18. + 23 Eliz. cap. 1. | 29 Eliz. cap. 6.

and due exceution of certain branches of the statute made in the 23d year of the queen majesty's reign, viz. the aforesaid act; nor that branch or clause of a statute made in the first year of the reign of the said queen, entitled, an act for the uniformity of common-prayer and service in the church and administration of the sacraments ;* whereby all persons, having no lawful or reasonable excuse to be absent, are required to resort to their parish church or chapel, or some usual place where the common-prayer shall be used, upon pain of punishment by the censures of the church; and also, upon pain that every person so offending shall forfeit for every such offence twelve-pence. Nor that statute made in the 3d year of the late king James the first, entitled an act for the better discovering and repressing popish recusants. Nor that after statute made in the same year,t entitled, an act to prevent and avoid dangers which may grow by popish recusants. Nor any other law or statute of this realm made against papists or popish recusants, except the statute made in the 25th year of king Charles II.9 entitled, an act for preventing dangers which may happen from popish recusants. And except also the statute made in the 30th year of the said king Charles Il.ll entitled, an act for the more effectual preserving the king's person and government, by disabling papists from sitting in either house of parliament, shall be construed to extend to any person or persons dissenting from the church of England, that shall take the oaths mentioned in a statute made this present parliament, entitled, an act for removing and preventing all questions and disputes concerning the assembling and sitting of the present parliament, shall make and subscribe the declaration mentioned in a statute made in the 30th year of the reign of king Charles II. entitled an act to prevent papists from sitting in either house of parliament. Which oaths and declaration the justices of peace at the general sessions of the peace to be held for the county or place where such person shall live, are hereby required to tender and administer to such persons as shall offer themselves to take, make and subscribe the same, and thereof to keep a register. And likewise none of the persons aforesaid shall give or pay, as any fee or reward, to any officer or officers belonging to the court aforesaid, above the sum of six-pence, nor that more than once, for his or their entry of his taking the said oaths, and making and subscribing the said declaration; nor above the further sum of six-pence for any certificate of the same, to be made out and signed by the officer or officers of the said court.

II. And be it further enaeted by the authority aforesaid, that all and every person and persons already convicted, or prosecnted in order to conviction of recusancy, by indictment, information, action of debt, or otherwise grounded upon the aforesaid statutes, or any of them, that shall take the said oaths mentioned in the said statutes made this pres

29 Eliz. cap. 2, S. 14. † 3 Jac. I. cap. 4. cap. 2. 30 Car. II. stat, 2d cap, 1, IId.

3 Jac. I. cap. 5. $25 Car. II.

ent parliament, and make and subseribe the declaration aforesaid, in the court of Exchequer, or assize, or general or quarter-sessions, to be held for the county where such person lives, and to be thence respeetively certified into the Exchequer; shall be thenceforth exempted and discharged from all the penalties, seizures, forfeitures judgments, and executions, incurred by foree of any of the aforesaid statutes, without any composition, fee, or further charge whatsoever.

III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that all and every person and persons that shall, as aforesaid, take the said oaths, and make and subscribe the declaration aforesaid, shall not be liable to any pains, penalties, or forfeitures, mentioned in an act made in the 35ih year of the reign of the late queen Elizabeth, entitled, an act to retain the queen majesty's subjects in their due obedience. Nor in an act made in the 22d year of the reign of the late king Charles II.+ entitled, an act to prevent and suppress seditious conrenticles. Nor shall any of the said persons be prosecuted in any ecclesiastical court, for or by reason of their non-conforming to the church of England.

IV. Provided always, and be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any assembly of persons, dissenting from the church of Eng. land, shall be held in any place for religious worship, with the doors locked, barred or bolted, during any time of such meeting together, all and every person or persons that shall come to, and be at such meeting, shall not receive any benefit from this law, but be liable to all the pains and penalties of all the aforesaid laws reeit. ed in this aet, for such their meeting, notwithstanding his taking the oaths, and his making and subseribing the declaration aforesaid.

V. Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to exempt any of the persons aforesaid from paying of titkes, or other parochial daties, or any other duties to the church or minister; nor from any prosecution in any ecclesiastical court, or elsewhere, for the same.

VI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any person dissenting from the church of England, as aforesaid, shall hereafter be chosen, or otherwise appointed to bear the office of high-constable, or petit-constable, church-warden, overseer of the poor, or any other parochial or ward effice, and such person shall seruple to take upon him any of the said offices, in regard of the oaths, or any other matter or thing required by the law to be taken or done in respeet of such office, every such person shall and may execute such office or employment, by a sufficient deputy, by him to be provided, that shall comply with the laws on this behalf; provided always, the said deputy,

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