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clared, he would not suffer his prerogative of making war and peace to be invaded, nor be prescribed to as to his al. liauces. However, he cousented to a separate peace with the Dutch, and then prorogued the parliament to the middle of July, by wbich time the French had almost completed their conquests of the Spanish Flanders. The chief thing the parliament could obtain, was the repeal of the popish aet de hæretico comburendo.*
But when the campaign was over, bis majesty did one of the most popular actions of his reign, which was marrying the princess Miry, eldest daughter of the duke of York, to the PRINCE OF ORANGE. The king imagined he could oblige the Dutch, by this family alliance, to submit to a disadvantageous peace with the French ; but when the prince declared roundly, that he would not sacrifice his honor, nor the liberties of Europe, for a wife, his majesty said, he was an honest man, and gave him the princess without any conditions, to the great joy of all the true friends of their country, who had now a protestant heir to the crown in view, though at some distance. The nuptials were solemnized Nov. 4, 1677, and the royal pair soon after embarked privately for Holland.
This year died archbishop Sheldon, one of the most inveterate enemies of the non-conformists, a man of persecuting principles, and a tool of the prerogative, who made a eluded, were found to be in proportion to the members of the church of England, as one to twenty : " which was a number.” says bishop Sherlock, * too small to hurt the constitutiou.” His Test Act vindicated, as quoted by Dr. Calamy; Own Life, p. 63, Ms. Ed.
* This writ was taken away, on the principle of the wisdom of prevention, under the apprehension of popery, " to preclude the risk of being burnt themselves, not to exempt others from the possibility of bejog burnt.” The conduct of administration, in this instance, " was the effect of fear, not of general and enlarged principles." Hobhouse's Treatise on Heresy, p. 29, note.
Another modern writer observes, that “though the state, in this instance, shewed some moderation, neither then, nor at any subsequent time, has any alteration been made in the constitution of the Church." It still assomes exclusively to itself all truth. and may persecute some sectaries as Hereties, and punish them by “ excommunication, degradation, and other ecclesiastical censures. riot extending to death." It is not clear, that ecclesiastical judges may not, even now. doom them to the flames, though the civil power will not execute the sentence.-a High-Church Politics, p. 64. Ed. VOL. V.
jest of religion, any farther than it was a political engine of state. He was succeeded by Dr. Sancroft, who was deprived for jacobitism at the revolution.* Dr. Compton was promoted to the see of London, in the room of Dr. Henchman, a man of weak but arbitrary principles, till it came to his turn to be a sufferer. 1 Many of the bishops
+ " I scarce believe,” says Dr. Grey," that the moderate the impartial, the peaceable Mr. Neal, could write down so many untruths, in one paragraph, without blushing.” The Doctor expresses himself in another place, vol. ii. p. 320, displeased with Mr. Neal for saying, that Dr. Sheldon " never gave any great specimens of his piety or learning to the world,” vol. iii. p 423. In reply to this he quotes bishop Burnet, who allows that Sheldon " was esteemed'a learned man before the wars." Here the doctor refers to bishop Kennet, who says that Sheldon 5 withdrew from all state affairs some years before his death ;” aud to Eachard, who extols his learning and piety, as well as bis munificent benefactions, whieh we have specified, vol.iii. p. 451, nole. Dr. Samuel Parker, who had been his chaplain, says, “ he was a man ofundoubted piety; but though he was very assiduous at prayers, yet he did not set so great a value upon them as others did, nor regarded so much worslip as the use of worship: placing the chief point of religion in the praciice of a good life." Mr. Granger represents him as “meriting. by his benevolent heart, public spirit, prudent conduct, and exemplary piety, the highest and most conspicuous station in the church.” These characters of liis grace appear to contradiet Mrs Neal. On the other hand, he is supported by the testimony of bishop Burnet, who says, " He seemed not to have a deep sense of religion, if any at all, and spoke of it most commonly as of an engine of government, and a matter of policy :" and the facts, adduced above, shew bis intolerant spirit But all agree in describing him as a man whose generous and munificent deeds displayed a benevolent and liberal mind, and whose pleasantness and affability of manner were truly ingratiating. “ flis conversation," as Dr. Parker draws his character, “ was easy; be never sent any mun away discontented ; among his doinesties he was both pleasant and grave, and governed his family with authority and courtesy." His advice to young noblemen and gentlemen, who, by the order of their parents, daily resorted to him, deserves to be mentioued. It was always this : * Let it be your principal care to become honest men, and afterwards be as devout and religious as you will. No piety will be of any advantage to yourselves or any body else, unless you are honest and moral men." Granger, vol. iii. p. 230. British Biogr. vol. v. p. 25, 26, pote ; and Burnet, vol. i. p 257. Ed.
* * The bare mention of this is sufficient to expose Mr. Neal's sneer upon one of the greatest, the best, and most conscientious prelates." Dr. Grey, vol. iii. p. 376. Ed.
+ Dr. Grey affects to doubt, whether Mr. Neal designed this character for bishop Henchman or bishop Compton; though Henchman is the immediate antecedent, whose character more properly follows the men
waited on the king this summer, for his commands to put the penal laws into execution, which they did with so much diligence, that Mr. Baxter says, he was so weary of keeping his doors shut against persons who came to distrain bis goods for preaching, that he was forced to leave his house, to sell bis goods, and part with his very books.* About twelve years (says he) I have been driven one hundred miles from them, and when I had paid dear for the carriage, after two or three years I was forced to sell them. This was the case of many others, who, being separated from their families and friends, and having no way of subsistence, were forced to sell their books, and household furpiture, to keep them from starving.
This year (1877] died the Rev. Tho. Manton, ejected from Covent-garden; he was born in Somersetsbire 1620, educated at Tiverton school, and from thence placed at Wadham college, Oxon. He was ordained by Dr. Hall, bishop of Exeter, when he was not more than twenty years of age; his first settlement was at Stoke-Newington near London, where he continued seven years, being generally esteemed an excellent preacher, and a learned expositor of scripture. Upon the death or resignation of Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick, he was presented to the living of Covent-garden by the duke of Bedford, and preached to a numerous congregation. The doctor was appointed one of the protector's ehaplains, and one of the triers of persons' qualifications for the ministry; which service he constantly attended. In the year 1660, he was very forward, in concert with the presbyterian ministers, to accomplish the king's restoration, and was one of the commissioners at the Savoy conference; he was then created doctor of divinity, and offered the deanery tion of his death. The doetor appeals from Mr. Neal to Mr. Eachard, who commends bishop Henchman's wisdom and prudence, and his admirable management of the king's escape after the battle of Worcester. Mr. Neal, in speaking of his arbitrary principles, till he was pinched. undoubtedly refers to his conduct, when the declaration for liberty of conseience was published. On this occasion he was much alarmedl, and strictly enjoined his clergy to preach against popery, though it oftended the king. This prelate was lord almoner, and he was the editor of the ó Gentleman's Calling," supposed to be written by the author of the “ Whole Duty of Man." Granger, vol. ii. p. 233. Bishop Compton's charaeter will appear in the succeeding part of this histas
* Baxter, part iii. p. 171, 172.
of Rochester, but declined it. After he was turned out of his living iu 1662, he held a private meeting in his own house, but was imprisoned, and met with several distarbances in his ministerial work. He was consulted in all the treaties for a comprehension with the established church, and was high in the esteem of the duke of Bedford, earl of Manchester, and other noble persons. At length, finding his constitution breaking, he resigned himself to God's wise disposal, and being seized with a kind of lethargy, he died October 18, 1677, in the 57th year of his age, and was buried in the chancel of the church of Stoke-Newington. * Dr. Bates in bis funeral sermon says, he was a divine of a rich fancy, a strong memory, and happy elocution, improv. ed by diligent study. He was an excellent christian, a fervent preacher, and every way a blessing to the church of God.* His practical works were published in five volumes in folio, at several times after bis death, and are in great esteem among the dissenters to this day.t
About the same time died Mr. John Rowe, M. A. born in the year 1626, and educated for some time at Cambridge, but translated to Oxford about the time of the visitation in the year 1618. Here he was admitted M. A. and fellow of Corpus-Christi college. He was first lecturer at Witney in Oxfordshire; afterwards preacher at Tivertop in Devon* Calamy, vol. ii. p. 42; and Palmer's Noneon. Mem. vol. i. p. 138.
† Dr. Manton was also in great estimation for his activity and address in the management of pablic affairs.and was generally in the chairin meetings of the dissenting ministers in the city. Dr Grey questions the truth of Mr. Neal's assertion, that he was ordained at the age of i wenty years, especially as he gives no authority for it. " Bishop Hall" be says, “ was too canonical a man to admit any person into deacon's orders at that age.” If the fact be misstated, he must be destitute of all candor who can impute this to a wilful falsification. Archbishop Usher used to call Dr. Manton a roluminous preacher, meaning that he had the art of reducing the substance of volumes of divinity into a narrow compass. But it was true in the literal sense. be was voluminous as an author : for his sermons run into several folios, one of which contains 190 sermons on the 119ih psalm. The task of reading these, when he was a youth, to his aunt, had an unhappy effect on the mind of lord Bolingbroke. In a letter to Dr. Swift, he writes, diy rext shall be as long as one of Dr. Manton's sermons, who taught my youtb to yawn, and prepared me to be a high churehman, that I might never hear him read, por read him more.Granger's History, vol. iii. p. 304, note. Ed.
shire, and one of the commissioners for ejecting ignorant and insufficient ministers in that county. Upon the death of Mr. William Strong, in the year 165t, he was called to succeed bim in the abbey church of Westminster: at which place, as in all others, his sermons were very much attended to by persons of all persuasions.* On the 14th of March 1659, he was appointed one of the approvers of ministers by act of parliament ; but on the king's restoration he gave way to the change of the times, and was silenced with his brethren by the act of uniformity. He was a divine of great gravity and piety; his sermons were judicious and well studied, fit for the audience of men of the best quality in those.times. After the Bartholomew act, he continued with his people, and preached to them in Bartholomew-Close, and elsewhere, as the times would permit, till bis death, which happened October 12, 1677, in the fifty-second year of his age. He lies buried in Bunhillfields onder an altar monument of a brick foundation. The words with which he concluded his last sermon were these: We should not desire to continue longer in this world than to glorify God, to finish our work, and to be ready to say, Farewell, time; welcome, blessed eternity; even so come Lord Jesus !
* Mr. Rowe was a good scholar, and well read in the Fathers ; and bad such a knowledge of Greek, that he began very young to keep a diary in that language ; which he continued till bis death; but he burnt most of it in his last illness. Palmer. Ed.
Calamy, vol.ii.p. 39. Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 142.