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song ulfa-tne use of snuff and tobacco, had cruelly "After all these good things, served one upon chased its good looks. I could very well have dis. the other of which it gave 'me pleasure to see the pensed with such an auxiliary, for my stomach had last, succeeded the second course, which was prealready much ado to support the various ragouts, ceded by a little ceremony, of which the object each one more surprising than another, which I had seemed to me to be a trial of the guests? appetites. been obliged, nolens volens, to taste of. However, I Upon the edges of four bowls, arranged in a square, contrived to eat with tolerable propriety a soup pre- three others were placed filled with stews, and sur pared with the famous birds’-nests, in which the mounted by an eighth, which thus formed the summit Chinese are such epicures. The substance thus of a pyramid ; and the custom is to touch none of served up is reduced into very thin filaments, trans- these, although invited by the host. On the refusal parent as ising-glass, and resembling vermicelli, with of the party, the whole disappeared, and the table little or no taste. At first I was much puzzled to was covered with articles in pastry and sugar, in the find out how, with our chop-sticks, we should be midst of which was a salad composed of the tender able to taste of the various soups which composed shoots of the bamboo, and some watery preparations the greater part of the dinner, and had already call. that exhaled a most disagreeable odour. ed to mind the 'fable of the fox and the stork, when Up to this point, the relishes, of which I first our two Chinese entertainers, dipping at once into spoke, had been the sole accompaniments of all the the bowls with the little saucer placed at the side of successive ragouts ; they still served to season the each guest, showed us how to get rid of the difficulty.” bowls of plain rice, which the attendants now for the
“To the younger guests, naturally lively, such a first time placed before each of the guests. I re-' crowd of novelties presented an inexhaustible fund garded with an air of considerable embarrassment of pleasantry, and, though unintelligible to the worthy the two little sticks, with which notwithstanding the Hong merchant and his brother, the jokes seemed experience acquired since the commencement of the to delight them not a bit the less. The wine in the repast, it seemed very doubtful whether I should be meanwhile circulated freely, and the toasts followed able to eat my rice grain by grain, according to the each other in rapid succession. This liquor which to belief of Europeans regarding the Chinese custom. ny taste was by no means agreeable, is always taken I therefore waited until my host should begin, to folhot ; and in this state it approaches pretty nearly to low his example, foreseeing that, on this new occaMadeira in colour, as well as a little in taste ; but it sion, some fresh discovery would serve to relieve us is not easy to get tipsy with it, for, in spite of the from the truly ludicrous embarrassment which we all necessity of frequently attending to the invitations of displayed: in a word, our two Chinese, cleverly joinmy host, this wine did not in the least affect my ing the ends of their chop-sticks, plunged them into head. We drank it in little gilt cups, having the the bowls of rice, held up to the mouth, which was shape of an antique vase, with two handles of perfect opened to its full extent, and thus easily shovelled in workmanship, and kept constantly filled by attendants the rice, not by grains, but by handfuls. Thus in holding large silver vessels like coffee-pots. The structed, I might have followed their example; but Chinese mode of pledging is singular enough, but I preferred making up with the other delicacies for has at the same time some little resemblance to the the few attractions which, to my taste, had been disEnglish. The person who wishes to do this courtesy played by the first course. The second lasted a to one or more guests gives them notice by an atten- much shorter time : the attendants cleared away dant; then, taking the full cup with both hands, he every thing. Presently the table was strewed with lifts it to the level of his mouth, and, after making flowers, which vied with each other in brilliancy; ä сomical sign with his head, he drinks off the con- pretty baskets, filled with the same, were mixed with tents ; he waits until the other party has done the plates which contained a vast variety of delicious same, and finally repeats the first nod of the head, sweetmeats as well as cakes, of which the forms holding the cup downward before him, to show it is were as ingenious as they were varied. This disquite empty.
play of the productions of nature and of art was
equally agreeable to the eyes and the tastes of the of the silkworm. If the length of these threads be guests : by the side of the yellow plantain was seen greater than their breadth, they are called fibres; if, The litchi, of which the strong, rough, and bright crim- on the contrary, their breadth exceed their length, son skin defends a stone enveloped in a whitish pulp, they are termed plates or laminæ. By the approxiwhich for its fine aromatic taste is superior to most mation of these fibres or plates in every possible of the tropical fruits. Indigenous to the provinces direction, and by their accumulation, combination, which border on the Chinese Sea, the newly-gath- and condensation, is constituted the simplest form ered litchi presents to the inhabitants a wholesome of organized substance, the primary tissue called and delicious food during the summer, and forms, membrane. when dried, an excellent provision for the winter. Membrane once formed is extensively employed With these fruits of the warm climates were iningled in the composition of the body ; it is indeed the mathose of the temperate zone, brought at some ex- terial principally used in producing, covering, conpense from the northern provinces; as walnuts, taining, protecting, and fixing every other component chestnuts (small, and inferiour to those of France), part of it. It forms the main bulk of the cartilaginous apples, grapes, and Peking pears, which last, though tissue ; it receives into its cells the earthy matter on their lively colour and pleasant smell attracted the which depend the strength and hardness of the osseous attention, proved to be lasteless, and even retained tissue; it composes the canals or sheaths in which are all the harshness of wild fruits. The conversation, deposited the delicate substance of the muscular, and frequently interrupted during the commencement of the still more tender pulp of the nervous tissue ; it gives ihe repast, in order to do honour to the numerous an external covering to the entire body; it lines all its pledges of our host, and to all the wonders of the internal surfaces; it envelopes all internal organs ; it Chinese kitchen assembled before us, became now enters largely as a component element into the subgeneral and sufficiently noisy. My neighbour es-stance of every organ of every kind; it almost wholly pecially little accustomed to such lively mirth, was constitutes all the internal pouches and sacs, such as quite enchanted, and displayed his satisfaction by the stomach, the intestines, the bladder ; and all tubes loud laughs, to which was perpetually joined the and vessels, such as arteries, veins, and lymphatics; sonorous accompaniment of his somewhat over- it furnishes the common substance in which all the loaded stomach. According to the received usages parts of the body are, as it were, packed; it fills up of Chinese fashion, I ought to have followed this the interstices between them; it fixes them in their example, in testimony of a more than satisfied appe- several situations; it connects them all together; in a tite, but my wish to gratify our excellent Amphitryon word, it forms the basis upon which the other parts would not carry me quite so far. This custom, are superinduced; or rather the mould into which which in France would seem more than extraordi- their particles are deposited ; so that were it posnary, was however nothing new to myself, for I had sible to remove every other kind of matter, and to already remarked it in the best societies at Manilla. leave this primary tissue unaltered in figure and unNeed I then to be surprised on finding the Chinese diminished in bulk, the general form and outline of so little nice in their convivial ha when our near the body, as well as the form and outline of all its neighbours the Spaniards have not yet cast off this individual parts, would remain unchanged. remnant of the grossness of the olden time ?
The properties which belong to membrane are cohesion, flexibility, extensibility, and elasticity. By its property of cohesion, the several parts of the body
are held together; by its combined properties of THE HUMAN BODY-No. II.
cohesion, flexibility, and extensibility, the body in
general is rendered strong, light, and yielding, while Anatomists and physiologists have been at great particular parts of it are made capable of free motion. pains to discriminate and classify the primary tissues; But elasticity, that property by which parts removed for it is found that when employed in the composition from their situation in the necessary actions of life are of the body, each preserves its peculiar structure and restored to their natural position, may be regarded as properties wherever placed, however combined, and its specific property. The yaried purposes accom io whatever purpose applied, undergoing only such plished in the economy by the property of elasticity modification as its local connexions and specific uses will be apparent as we advance in our subject. render indispensable. Considering every substance Meantime, it will suffice to observe that it is indisemployed in the construction of the body, not very pensable to the action of the artery in the function of obviously alike, as a distinct form of organized matter, the circulation ; to the action of the thorax in the these priinary tissues may be said to consist of five, function of respiration ; to the action of the joints in
namely, the membranous, the cartilaginous, the osse- the function of locomotion : in a word, to the work:: ous, the muscular, and the nervous.
ing of the entire mechanism by which motion of The first primary tissue is the peculiar substance every kind and degree is effected. All these protermed MEMBRANE. It has been already stated that perties are physical, not vital; vital properties do one of ihe ultimate forms of animal matter is a co- belong even to this primary form of animal matter: agulable substance, becoming concrete or solid under but they are comparatively obscure. In the tissue the process of coagulation. The commencement of with which organization con mences, and which is organization seems to be the arrangement of this con- the least removed from an inorganic substance, the crete matter into straight thready lines, at first so properties that are prominent and essential are merely small as to be imperceptible to the naked eye. Vast physical numbers of these threads successively uniting, at By chymical analysis, membrane is found to conlength form a single thread of sufficient magnitude tain but a small proportion of azote, the peculiar ele to be visible, but still smaller than the finest thread ment of animal matter. Its proximate principles are
small spheriodal particles (2, 2); each particle is blood; and from this serous fluid the membrane again divisible into still smaller grains, which, on derives its name. minute inspection, present the appearance of vesicles Though thin, serous membrane is dense, compact, filled with the adipose matter (3). SPET and of great strength in proportion to its bulk ; it is
extensible and elastick ; extensible, for it expands
with the dilatation of the chest in inspiration; elastick, Y for it contracts with the diminished size of the chest
in expiration. In like manner, it stretches with the enlargement of the stomach during a hearty meal, and contracts as the stomach gradually diminishes on emptying itself of its contents. It is furnished with no blood vessels large enough to admit the colouring matter of the blood; but it is supplied with a great number of the colourless vessels termed er. halents, with the vessels termed absorbents, and with a few nerves. It indicates no vital properties, but those which are common to the simple form of the primary tissue. Its specific uses are to afford a lining
to the internal cavities; to furnish a covering to the 11.
A portion of adipose tissue ; 2 minute bags containing the internal organs ; by its polished and smooth surface, fat; 3, a cluster of the bags, separated and suspended.] to allow a free motion of those organs on each other,
The cells of the cellular tissue, as has been shown and by the moisture with which it is lubricated, to are continuous over the whole body; but each adipose prevent them from adhering together, however closely, vesicle is a distinct bag, having no communication or for however long a period they may be in contact. whatever with any other. The cellular tissue is The fourth form of membrane, the fibrous, named universally diffused; but the adipose is placed only from the obvious arrangement of its component parts, in particular parts of the body ; principally beneath consists of longitudinal fibres, large enough to be the skin, and more especially between the skin and visible to the naked eye, placed parallel to each other, the abdominal muscles, and around some of the organs and closely united. Sometimes these fibres are comcontained in the chest and abdomen, as the heart, the bined in such a manner as to form a continuous and kidneys, the mesentery, and the omenta. In most extended surface, constituting a thin, smooth, dense, of these situations some portion of it is generally and strong membrane such as that which covers the found, whatever be the degree of leanness to which external surface of bones termed PERIOSTEUM, or which the body may be reduced ; while in the cranium, the lines the internal surface of the skull (dura mater). brain, the eye, the ear, the nose, and several other At other times they form a firm and tough expansion organs, there is none, whatever be the degree of cor- (aponeurosis) which descends between certain muscles pulency. The uses of the fat, which are various, separating them from each other, affording a fixed point will be stated hereafter.
for the origin or insertion of neighbouring muscles; or The third form of membrane is termed the serous. which is stretched over muscles and sometimes over Like the adipose, serous membrane is a modification even an entire limb, in order to confine the muscles of the cellular, and, like it also, it is limited in its firmly in their situation, and to aid and direct their situation 10 particular parts of the body, that is, to its action. Fibrous membrane also constitutes the comthree great cavities, namely the head, the chest, and pact, strong, tough, and flexible bands used for tying the abdomen. To the two latter it affords an inter- parts firmly together, termed LIGAMENTS, principally nal lining, and to all the organs contained in all the employed in connecting the bones with each other,
and particularly about the joints ; and lastly, fibrous membrane forms the rounded white cords in which muscles often terminate, called TENDONS, the princi. pal use of which is to connect the muscles with the bones, and to serve as cords or ropes to transmit the action of the muscle to a distant point, in the accomplishment of which purposes their operation appears to be entirely mechanical,
The fifth form of membrane, the mucous derives its name from the peculiar Auid with which its surface is covered, called mucus, and which is secreted by
numerous minute glands, imbedded in the substance [A portion of intestine, showing its external surface or serous of the membrane. As serous membrane forms a shut coat.)
sack, completely excluding the air, mucous membrane, three cavities, it affords a covering. By its external on the contrary, lines the various cavities which are exsurface it is united to the wall of the cavity or the posed to the air, such as the mouth, the nostrils, the substance of the organ it invests ; by its internal sur-wind-pipe, the gullet, the stomach, the intestines, the face it is free and unattached ; whence this surface urinary organs, and the uterine system. Its internal is in contact only with itself, forming a close cavity surface, or that by which it is attached to the passages or shut sack, having no communication with the exter- it lines, is smooth and dense, its external surface, or that nal air. Smooth and polished, as seen above it is which is exposed to the contact of the air, is soft and rendered moist by a fluid which is supposed to be pulpy, like the pile of velvet. It bears a great resem exhaled in a gaseous state from the serum of the Iblance to the external surface of the rind of a ripe peach
Urte nup? M! 1997 balls pour fon West Indies.
try it gradually spread through the islands of the 1170780759 d90108 FEBBO 11
The sugar-cane varies exceedingly in its growth depending upon the nature of the soil. In new and ?M?
moist land it sometimes attains the height of twenty
feet. It is always propagated from cuttings. The 5. Boy
hoeing of a cane-field is a most laborious operation when performed, as it must be, under the rays of a tropical sun. Formerly this task was always effected by hand labour, but, of late years, where the nature of the ground will admit of the employment of a plough, that instrument has been substituted, to the mutual advantage of the planter and his labourers. The planting of canes does not require to be renew.
ed annually; in such a case, the utmost number of 227 | labourers now employed on a sugar plantation would
be wholly inadequate to its performance.
When the canes are fully ripe they are cut close to the ground, and being then divided into conve
nient lengths, are tied up in bundles, and conveyed to For the mill. The canes, on being passed twice between the cylinders of this mill,
have all their juice expressed. This is collected in a cistern, and must 70 । be immediately placed under process by heat to pre
vent its becoming acid. A certain quantity of lime tot in powder, or of lime-water, is added at this time to
promote the separation of the grosser matters conSUGAR-CANE.
iained in the juice; and these being as far as possible
removed at a heat just sufficient to cause the impuriThe Sugar-cane must be considered as a native ties to collect together on the surface, the cane-liquor of China, since it has been pretty accurately shown is then subjected to a very rapid boiling, in order to that its cultivation was prosecuted in that empire for evaporate the watery particles, and bring the syrup two thousand years before sugar was even known in to such a consistency that it will granulate on cool. Europe, and for a very long period before other east- ing. Upon an average, every five gallons, imperial ern nations became acquainted with its use. For measure, of cane-juice, will yield six pounds of cryssome time after this substance, in its crystalline tallized sugar, and will be obtained from about one form, had found its way to the westward, through hundred and ten well grown canes. India and Arabia, a singular degree of ignorance When the sugar is sufficiently cooled in shallow prevailed in regard to its nature, and the mode of its trays, it is put into the hogsheads in which it is production ; and there is reason for believing that shipped to Europe. These casks have their bottoms ihe Chinese, who have always evinced an uncon- pierced with holes, and are placed upright over a querable repugnance to foreign intercourse, purpose- large cistern into which the molasses which is the ly threw a vail of inystery over the subject. "Pero portion of saccharine matter that will not crystallize, sons have not been wanting, even in modern times, drains away, leaving the raw sugar in the state who have approved of this anti-social spirit, as be- wherein we see it in our grocers' shops ; the casks ing the perfection of political wisdom; but is it not are then filled up, headed down, and shipped. a complete answer to their opinion, that every na- The molasses which have drained from the sugar tion which has cultivated commercial relations has together with all the scummings of the coppers, are been steadily advancing in civilization, and adding collected, and, being first fermented, are distilled for most importantly to the sum of its comforts and con- the production of rum. veniences? while the inhabitants of China, although possessed of the greatest natural advantages, arising from variety of soil and climate, by which advantages they had so long ago placed themselves in ad
THE TEAZLE vance of other people, have remained altogether stationary?
The teazle (dipsacus fullonum) is a plant of conA knowledge of the origin of cane sugar was cor. siderable importance to our woolen manufacturers. rectly revealed in the middle of the thirteenth centu- It is cultivated to some extent in the United States ry, by the celebrated traveller Marco Polo; though for the sake of its head. It is raised in hills, and it was partially known much earlier. The plant throws up its heads in July and August ; and these was soon conveyed to Arabia, Nubia, Egypt, and are cut from the plant by hand, with a knife pocuEthiopia, where it became extensively cultivated. liarly formed, and then fastened to poles for drying Early in the fifteenth century the sugar-cane first the terminating heads are ready first, and are called appeared in Europe. Sicily took the lead in its cul- “ kings ;” they are larger and coarser than the othtivation; thence it passed to Spain, Madeira, and ers, and fitted only for the strongest kinds of alock, the Canary Islands ; and shortly after the discovery and are about half the value of the best. The coin of the New World by Columbus, this plant was con- lateral heads then succeed, and receive the namo os voyed to Hayti and Brazil, from which latter coun- )“ middlings," and are the prime teazles. Should the