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acquires the black shrivelled appearand presents to us. That fruit which is pe ture when gathered will shrivel the least; Loo soon, before the berry has attained a gree of hardness, it will in the course

time, and by its removal from place to pla 113 mere dust. It appears to be a great ab 5 bounty of nature, that so much of this us

should be lost by the custom of gathering bunch at once ; but so great is the care 1 the culture of the pepper-vine, that even i where there are plenty of hands to wo grounds, the labour of gathering each b rately would be so great, as not perhaps t pensated by the increase of quantity. berries are perfectly dry, they are clear process which resembles winnowing ; quality is ascertained by rubbing them bet hands; when, if the fruit be sound, little on will be produced; but if the berries have 1 ered too young, or suffered to lie too long ground in moist weather, they are easily r dust.

The pepper-vine requires a rich, moist overflowed by water, and not exposed to sun ; spots which have been covered by o whose rotting trunks, and falling leaves si place of manure, are generally chosen se plantations. These spots are likewise sel the industrious natives for their rice plantati being cultivated for this grain one year,

generally deserted for fresh ground, and 11 Morato offer very eligible spots for the growth of PEPPER.

the fertility of the soil not being exhausted, The most common and most useful of all spices young wood which springs up being adva - pepper, is divided into two kinds, white and black, as a means of shade. The ground is mark which were formerly supposed to be the produce of regular squares of six feet, the intended di two different sorts of trees, but it is now known that the plants, and the next business is to the variation in colour and quality arises from the chinkareens. These are cuttings of a quick manner in which the berry is prepared for exporta- ing tree of the same name, which are plan tion. Pepper is the seed of a climbing plant called eral months before the pepper-vine, in order Piper nigrum, which is extensively cultivated in as props to the latter. Sometimes they are Sumatra, and on the coast of Malabar; it is common so long as six feet, but it is more common t also in most of the East India islands. The stem small cuttings, as they are found less liable is of hard wood, covered with a smooth bark; it is with crooked stems than the older plants also knotted or jointed, and from each knot it will, sorts of this plant are used: the prickly chir is allowed to run along the ground, put forth roots. which bears a white flower, and is arm The leaves are placed singly at the joints of the thorns or small spines, by the help of wh branches; they are of an oval form, but having a pepper-vine is enabled the more casily to as sharp point; extremely smooth upon the surface; of and the bitter chinkareen, which has a brow a dusky-green on the upper side, and paler under-blossom, and a smooth stem. Many planter neath. They are marked by seven nerves or ribs the latter, althought it is more diflicult to ti running lengthwise through them. The flowers pepper-vine to it, because the elephant, ofte grow in branches resembling those of the currant-structive enemy to the gardens, will not tou tree, but longer and less pliable; the corolla is small, account of its bitter taste; while he is not white, and monopetalous. This is succeeded by the by the spines from devouring the other berries, which are at first green, but turn to a bril- | When the chinkareens have been planted liant red when ripe, and if not gathered at the prop- months, the most promising perpendicular s er period they soon fall. As all the berries on a reserved for growth, and the rest are taken o cluster do not ripen at the same time, a part of them when they have attained the height requin would be lost in waiting for the perfection of the heads are cut off. later ones, to prevent which sacrifice, it is custom- It has been said that the growth of the ary to gather the whole bunch as soon as its earli- plant is retarded by the loss of that nouri est fruit is ripe, these being probably the finest ber- which the chinkareen absorbs; and in conse ries; as is the case with our currants, the black of this opinion, the vine in Borneo, and some sort especially. Being spread out upon mats, or of the Eastern islands, is supported by poles spots of hard, clean ground, for seven or eight days, do not vegetate, In the Circars, on the weste the berry dries, and, losing its brilliancy of teint, I of the Bay of Bengal, poles formed of the m wood tree, and of the Erythrina corallodendron, are by different names. In the Rejang country these used. But it appears that the evils attendant upon kinds are termed Lado Cawoor, Lado Mannd, and this plan counterbalance its advantages; as

the Lado Jambee. The Lado Cawoor, or Lampoon pepe poles must be renewed at least every two years, and per, is the strongest plant, and bears the largest the plants are liable to severe injury in removing and leaf and fruit; it is slow in coming to perfection, replacing them; besides, they do not enjoy that but is of long duration. The leaf and fruit of Lado shelter from the burning sun, which is afforded to Manna are smaller; it bears soon, and in large them by the heads of the chinkareens. Also, if it quantities, but seldom beyond the third or fourth be correct that trees act as sipłions, attracting from year's crop. The Jambee is alınost discarded, being the clouds, and transmitting to the earth, a part of very short-lived, and with difficulty trained to the the nourishment which they draw from it, the use of chinkareen. the chiokareens has a further advantage. Great White pepper is thus prepared. The soundest care is taken to keep the pepper-grounds free from and best grains being carefully selected, they are weeds and shrubs ; but in the months of June, July, steeped for a fortnight in water, either in pits dug and August, the earth is suffered to remain covered purposely on the banks of rivers, or in swamps or with long grass, which mitigates the effects of the stagnant pools; till, by swelling, they burst, their violent heat, and preserves the dews to the plants. skins, from which they are afterward carefully sep

The pepper-plants are mostly taken from the shoots arated by drying in the sun, and rubbing between which spring from the foot of an old vine, these run the hands. The outer husk removed by this process along the ground, and from almost every joint strike has an aromatick flavour, perfectly distinct from that roots into the earth, sending up perpendicularly a of the heart ; and for this reason black pepper is by single shoot; one of these is sufficient to forin a many persons preferred; but the white pepper has plant. Two vines are generally planted to one this superiority, that it can be made only of those chinkareen. For three years they require but little grains which are perfectly sound, and were gathered attention; at the end of that period, they ought to exactly at the time of maturity. The white pepper have attained the height of eight or ten feet, and custs considerably more than the black, on account then the operation of turning down is practised upon of the process of bleaching; and still more from the them in the following manner: Being cut off at difficulty experienced in making the planters attend about three feet from the ground, and carefully loos- to the suggestions of strangers. ened from the props, they are bent into the earth, in The pepper-vines generally produce two crops in such a manner as to bring the upper end of the stem the year; one, called the greater crop, about the to the roots, thus forming a kind of circle. By this month of September ; and the other, called the lesprocess, fresh vigour is given to the plants, which, if ser, or half crop, in March. But these seasons are allowed to run up without cutting, would exhaust subject to great uncertainty, as the monsoons in themselves in leaves, and produce but little fruit. Sumatra are not so strictly periodical as on the The vines are turned down at the season when the western side of India. Sometimes in particular disclusters begin to ripen, and grcat nicety is required tricts, pepper may be gathered in small quantities to choose the exact time, as, if it be done too soon, during the whole year, while in others the produce the vines will not bear for two or three years after- is confined to one crop. Long-continued droughts ward, and if it be delayed until the fruit be gathered, iujure the plants, and retard the fruit. The natives the produce is likewise retarded. Sometimes two in this case strip off the leaves, and by thus direct. or three of the strongest shoots from a vine are laid ing all the nourishment which the plant obtains to in the ground for a short distance, and springing up, more important services, blossoms are soon produare still brought back to the same chinkareen ; by ced in abundance. this means extracting nourishment from a greater The

pepper

is brought down from the country on extent of soil.

rafts composed of rough timbers or large bamboos, The vines generally begin to bear in three years the cargo being carefully protected from moisture. from the time of planting, but their produce is retard- Much strength and skill is exerted in- the difficult ed for one or two years, by the custom of turning navigation of the Sumatran rivers; but not withstanddown. From this time, the plants become gradually ing the great dexterity of the natives, the rafts are more prolifick, till they have attained their seventh often overset, and sometimes dashed to pieces by or eight year, when the garden is esteemed in its the rocks and trunks of trees which obstruct their prime; thus it remains for two or three years,

when

The pepper is conveyed from the coast to the plants begin gradually to decline, until they are vessels lying at anchor to receive it, in open boats, too old to bear. Fruit has been gathered from plants which are hauled up on the beach, and there loaded; of twenty years old, but this is very uncommon. A they are then pushed off through the surf, which is man and woman may with ease attend to a garden extremely violent, and before the boat reaches the of a thousand vines, and may subsist upon the prod- ship the pepper has generally been completely imuce of their labour. A plan often pursued is, in mersed in sea-water; a circumstance which it is the first season to raise a crop of grain upon the said does not detract from the excellence of the ground. When cleared the chinkareens are planted, spice. and the paddy or other grain sown; and by the time It is remarkable that pepper, which is to us a nethis is reaped and its refuse cleared away, the props cessary ingredient in our dishes, is not mixed by are of sufficient size to receive the pepper-vines. the Sumatrans in their food, because they consider Thus a maintenance is obtained for the first season it heating to the blood ; they flavour their rice upon at least.

which they chiefly subsist, with Chili or Cayenne The natives of Sumatra divide the pepper into pepper, which they say is not heating; and with three species, which are called at different places Itumerick, lemon-grass, and the pulp of the cocoanut,

course.

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(A Chinese Wedding.) A CHINESE WEDDING.

curious articles, composed of various coloured sweets Singapore, November 28th, 1835. Having been meats, fruits, &c., fixed on long sticks of wood and informed that a daughter of one of the principal wire ; and between them a still more curious object, Chinese merchants was about to be married, I so- which it would be difficult to describe. The body licited an invitation to attend and witness the cere- of it was composed of green leaves, several of mony. On arriving at the house of the bride's fa- which were rolled together, and then the rolls ther, I was politely received by hiin, and invited to stitched together in the form of a pyramid. Into a seat in a room adjoining thai in which the cere- each roll of leaves was inserted a slender stick, monies were 10 take place, there to await the arrival some of which were covered with sweetmeats and of the bridegroom. As he did not arrive till nearly dried fruits, and others with leaves and flowers. In half an hour hád elapsed, I improved my time, in the top of the pyramid of leaves, was a stick with examining with the father, the room where the numerous branches covered with leaves and Powers daughter was to be married.

and sparkling tinsel. These were but a part of the Before the door which led into the street was a curious and gaudy ornaments on the altar. Between screen. On the right hand of the door, in front of this altar and the carpet mentioned above, were set a window, stood a narrow table, elevated on a bench seven chairs, with cloth embroidered with goldand some old bricks, and covered with fruits and thread spread over them. One of these stood with sweetmeats, having two or three small wax candles its back toward the family god, and the others on the ourning on each end of it. Beyond this, toward the right and left in front of it. A table stood in the interiour of the house, was a mat spread upon the middle. The walls of the room were hung with brick floor, and still another smaller mat

, of a finer papers bearing various inscriptions, some of which quality, and colours. On the side of the room op- were expressive of good wishes toward the couple posite to the window and table above mentioned, about to be married. was the family god, a large picture of a deified hero, W’hen I entered, there were several men in the and under it ihe family altar. This was fitted up room preparing for the wedding. At length, tho for the occasion with a variety of showy ornaments, word was given,“ coming ;" on which a young friend and sacrificial articles. Next to the wall was a of the parties put on a long light-coloured silk gar. screen about two feet square, formed of small square ment over his usual dress, and the father asked if all pieces of marble, each having some painting upon was ready. Soon it was proclaimed again, “comit set in a wooden frame. At each end of this stood ing;" and the young man put on a longer and large & waxen candle about three feet high, and three in- garment of figured light green satin, reaching to his ches in diameter at the lower end ; these were al- feet. Again they said “coming,” and he comready lighted. Near each of them were several | pleted bis dress by putting on a dark, purple robe of

VOL. V.-2

figured satin, and a pyramidal cap with red hair groom to see the conclusion of the wedding. The fixed in the apex, and descending on all sides near- arrangement of the room where the ceremonies were ly to the rim. This person was the “receiver of to be performed, was very similar to those at the guests.”

house of the bride's father. On a table standing beThe sound of musick was now heard, and they fore the family altar, were placed at one end more prepared " to meet the bridegroom.” He came in than twenty female garments, and a pair of shoes ; a procession preceded by musick, dressed like the on the other end, slips of red paper enclosing dollars "receiver of guests,” and attended by six compan- with names written upon them; and on the middle, ions, each bearing an immense umbrella, and other a waiter on which was laid a belt, said to be wholly persons bearing poles of bamboo with branches and of gold, and to have cost two hundred dollars, a green leaves upon them, and sustaining between splendid large buckle for it, a handsome bosom-pin, each pair a piece of red cloth about three yards and several rings. All these were presents to the long. On his arrival near the door, a kind of paper bride from several relatives and friends. The names basket filled with Chinese crackers was carried out, on the papers were the names of the donors, who and the crackers burned with great uproar. The re- gave as many dollars as their abilities allowed, or ceiver of guests met him at the door and performed disposition prompted them to do. The table was the usual ceremony.

As he entered the door, a covered with a red velvet cloth, embroidered with nephew of the bride, splendidly dressed in em- gold thread; and at each end of it stood a chair broidered satin with much tinsel and a little gold, with a similar cloth upon it. advanced and presented him an orange. The re- While I was waiting the arrival of the procession, ceiver of guests then conducted the bridegroom to two coolies came in, bearing between them a stout the carpet already described, and placing him at one pole covered with cajang, (a kind of long leaf like end, and himself at the other, they bowed to each flag-leaves,) stitched together, under the cover of other, and then by three measured long steps they which was something more substantial ; I soon asexchanged places and bowed again ; and then at certained that it was a lady, who was brought in this last he conducted the bridegroom to his seat at the style to the wedding. The carriage consisted head of the table, and pretended to arrange the cloth merely of the cajang with a cloth, the ends of which for him. They here bowed to each other over it, were tied to the pole, and the middle, hanging down then he went to receive others, leaving the bride- two or three feet and spread out, afforded a seat for groom standing, and performed the same ceremonies the lady. Several others were brought in the same with each of the six friends of the bridegroom; they way; and as the carriages seemed to have been then took their places, bowed, and sat down. thoroughly used, I conclude this is the method in

Tea was then brought, three cups in succession, which they are usually conveyed from place to place. and finally betel-nut. Soon after these were re- A more uncomfortable and degrading method could moved, my attention was drawn toward the interiour scarcely be imagined. But Chinese, custom and of the house, where the bride made her appearance opinion do not allow them to be seen, and they are splendidly dressed and veiled, and attended by sev. not considered worthy of a better carriage. eral females. She advanced with downcast eyes, The report being made that the procession was and a very slow step, designed doubtless to imitate near, a man in the dress of ceremony like that worn that of the little-footed ladies of China. On coming the other day by the receiver of guests, began to to the threshold of the room, she paused, and waited bow and worship: first toward the altar at the winwithout the motion of a muscle, or any expression dow, to the gods, to whom he bowed ten or twelve of sentiment in her face, the coming of her future times with his head to the floor; then toward the companion. As for him when he knew she had family altar, to the family relatives, to whom he come in sight, he cast an eager eye sidewise to bowed four times. Before commencing this, he catch a glimpse of her as soon as possible. He lighted several incense-sticks, and bowed slightly very soon left his chair, walked round before his with them in his hands, and set them in a dish of companions to the door where the bride stood, and ashes upon the altar toward which he bowed; and they bowed to each other, she raising her hands also burnt incense enough to fill the room with slowly to the level of her shoulders, and letting smoke. The procession was like that of the former them fall as slowly, and with the same immoveable, occasion, but less numerous, and the bridegroom and inane countenance as before ; and then turned and the bride came in palanquins; he, attended by the walked away. He bowed less deliberately, then little boy who presented him the orange on the 28th, turned to his companions with a smile of satisfac- and she, by three little girls of the same age, splention playing on his countenance, gave them a slight didly set off with embroidered silk of very brilliant bow, and followed the bride.

colours, and gaudy head-dresses. Thus ended the ceremony for to-day. It is to be The bride was assisted to descend from her carrenewed again after two days, and at the house of riage by her attendants, and on coming near the door the bridegroom, whither the bride is to be conducted. was presented with an orange by a little girl dressed When the ceremony was over, I conversed a little like those just mentioned. At the door, the bride with one of the bridegroom's friends who had acted and bridegroom bowed to each other, and took their the part of negociator for the parties, (i. e, for the places on a mat between the two altars, first facing fathers of the bridegroom and the bride,) before the that near the window, towards which they both wedding. He told me the bride had been in the kneeled, and he bowing with his head to the ground, inner apartments for eignt or ten years; and that the while she performed an equivalent ceremony by set-. bridegroom had never seen her before. He said ting back upon her feet in a very graceful manner. also that she could not read.

They then rose, and knelt again, repeating the cer 30th November. Went to the house of the bride- emony several times, and ther turning toward the

family altar did the same. Her attendants carefully NATURAL HISTORY.
arranged the skirts of her long garments as she
knelt, that they might not receive injury, nor en-

THE PELICAN.-Pelecanus Onocrotalus. LINN. tangle her feet. Her eyes were downcast, her face uncovered, and her features as immoveable as if made The family of swimming birds to which the peliof marble. He appeared rather careless and im- cans give name, is distinguished from all the other patient to be done with the ceremonies.

subdivisions of that order by the extension of the After their worship in this room, they went into membrane connecting the three anterior toes in such the interiour of the house, and performed similar a manner as to include the posterior also, which is prostrations there. They then returned 10 the outer thus brought forward as it were into the same series room, and their relatives began to come forward to with the rest. The birds of this family consequently receive their reverence. They both knelt before offer the most perfect examples of a completely webeach of them, First came three or four men, then bed foot. They were all regarded by Ray as formas many women, each of whom on going out touched ing a single genus, from which Linnæus subsequentthe hand of the bride ; then came an old man, an ly withdrew the tropick-bird and the anhinga, as the elder brother of the bridegroom's father, who showed types of two new generick forms. Brisson and later much kindness in his manner toward the bride, and naturalists have with great propriety carried still farhelped her to rise from her knees; then followed ther the principle of subdivision adopted by Linneseveral women, some of whom were dragged into us; and the genus Pelecanus of the latter has been the room by force, as they manifested much reluc- dismembered into four parts, of which the cormotance from real or pretended bashfulness. The rant, the pelican, the gannet, and the frigate-bird, bridegroom frequently went into the inner room to each distinguished by essential modifications both call for these persons, and the poor bride stood mo- of structure and habits, form the respective types. tionless in her place awaiting his return, till some of In the true pelicans, the bill is of great length, the bystanders pitying her weariness, brought her a broad in proportion, flattened from above downward, chair in which she sat when at leisure.

and perfectly straight, with the exception of a slight During the intervals between these ceremonies, I hook at the middle point of the upper mandible ; the had opportunity to observe the appearance of the edges of both mandibles are entire, being perfectly bride. She was about eighteen years old, of the free from denticulations; and the lower is formed of middling stature of females here, though shorter two long slender flexible branches, united together than European ladies generally are. Her face was only at the tip, and having the intermediate space pretty enough, but rather too wide, and destitute of occupied by a widely dilatable membranous pouch, expression. Her beautiful black hair was tastefully which extends for some distance down the fore part done up, and ornamented with white and artificial of the neck. The middle part of the yellow flowers, and encompassed by a tiara of black ble forms a slight projection, bounded on either side velvet, on which were eight little yellow images of by a narrow groove, in which, near the base of the “pa seen,” or eight genii, which they would nave bill, are situated the almost imperceptible nostrils , people think were gold. Her dress was embroider- the eyes are surrounded by a naked space continued satin of different colours, red, yellow, white, and ous with the base of the bill; the neck is rather green; she wore fine white stockings, and a pair of long; the body large; the legs short, and naked Chinese shoes, the fore part only of which being above the knee; and the wings of moderate length, seen when she walked, they made a very clumsy with the first quill-feathers the longest. The tongue appearance. When the ceremonies were ended, is so short as to have been entirely overlooked by they both went into the interiour apartments, and the earliest writers. took tea and other refreshments. While there, I The white or common pelican is, as the first of saw for the first time some movements besides those these names implies, almost entirely white when in required by the rules of ceremony. After a few its adult state. The quill-feathers, however, which minutes they came out and took their palanquins to are scarcely visible when the wings are closed, return to her father's, bowing at the door. The are black; and the whole plumage, as the bird carriage of the bride moved fast, preceded by ser- advances in age, exhibits a slight tinge of fleshvants bearing the presents of clothes, &c., noticed colour, which is sometimes mixed with a shade of above. The din of musick continued during the ligit yellow. The bill is at this period of a dull movement of the procession, as well as during all lead-colour on the sides of the lower mandible and the ceremonies of this and the former day, and was along the middle line of the upper, which is yellowquite insufferable. On reaching the father's house, ish in the intermediate part and reddish at the edges, they bowed at the door, and proceeded to the upper the hooked tip especially becoming of a bright red.

She soon returned, and took out the upper The iris is deep brown; the naked part of the cheeks stick of the leaf-made pyramid with its flowers and flesh-coloured; the pouch of a light straw-colour ; spangles, and bore it away; thus signifying the the legs and web dingy-yellow, with somewhat of a completion of her wedding, and the change from her leaden cast; and the claw black. On the greater former to her present relations. The bridegroom part of the head and neck the plumage is nothing soon made his appearance again, and seated by the more than a short close even down, gradually pass. receiver of guests, as on the 28th, and joined by five ing into feathers, and forming on the back of the head or six relatives, each seated with the same formal- a kind of tuft which falls downward over the hinder ities, who partook with him of the same refresh- part of the neck. ments which were brought forward. This conclu- When fully grown the common pelican is almost ded the ceremonies of the day, and the wedding was the largest bird of its order, measuring from five to considered as completed. Chinese Repo i'ory,

six feet from the extremity of is long bill to the tip

upper mandi

rooms.

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