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Long and deep reflection, with all the helps of way without a person in it, or, if any vehicle was science, can oniy reach an approximation to the ex- seen, it was a curtained bier, hiding the death-struck act truth, so n.any are the avenues to the coutts of visage of some patient for the hospital ; if you, at death It is with pride the friends of Dr. Francis such a time, crossed into narrow streets, you might review his testimony given in difficult cases. His see the subject of this ske!ch, and a few other hu. opinion was always clear and decided, for he al- mane physicians, with a moral bravery that far surways gave the subject a thorough examination.
passes animal courage, entering into the abodes of His fondness for science has not led him to nego cholera, to extend the power of the healing art, and lect polite literature. His biographical writings are to combat Death in the most furious form in which quite extensive-not confined to those of his own he ever strode the earth. And, for the honour of profession—but in that department they are more human nature, it should be known that, in their numerous than have come from the pen of any other wake, and directed to the same abodes of anguish, physician in the country, if we except that of Dr. holy men were seen, carrying the consolations of Thacher, of Massachusetts. These biographical religion to the dying: a Schroeder, a Wainwright, a notices are drawn with a free and manly hand, with Power, and a few other kindred spirits, when half great faithfulness and discrimination, and will hold their brethren had fled from the contagion, were as à permanent place in the standard biographical works constantly exposed as the physicians themselves, in our country. Among the most valuable of these, During the period of ten weeks, Dr. Francis had we may mention, his account of Cadwallader Col- hardly an hour's respite, day nor night, so incessant den, one of the earliest pracóitioners in the state of were the calls for his professional services The New York, that of the late Edward Miller, Benja- history of that period should be written, and credit min Rush, and Archibald Bruce, that of his prede- given to those who deserve it. Nearly five thoucessor in the chair of juridical medicine, Dr. String- sand fell victims to the pestilence. In the midst of ham, and that of the eminent philanthropist Thom- these labours, Dr. Francis took notes of the most as Eddy. His sketch of the distinguished philoso- prominent cases of the cholera, and gave his obserpher, Dr. Samuel L. Mitcbill, with whom he was vations to the press, which have spread far and wide long associated in collegiate labours, is an honoura- and formed a guide for that part of the faculty who ble testimony to the memory of that remarkable man, have not been conversant with disease. In France whose genius and character will grow more lumi- they excited the attention of the learned; and the nous the longer his merits are contemplated. authorities at Havana, when the cholera was there,
The occasional addresses of Dr. Francis are writ- had the work translated into the Spanish language, ten with taste and spirit, and evince, like his other and widely distributed throughout the island of Cuba. writings, great research. His address to the New Dr. Francis is an honourable practitioner; he has York Horticultural Societ is a specimen of his style no petty disputes with his professional brethren. He and manner flowing, swet, and unaffected. The gives his views of a case with openness and candour, oration before the literary societies of Columbia col- but avoids all collision, by leaving the field to those lege, in May, 1831, presents an intrepid and mas- who are pertinacious in a difference of opinion. He terly outline of the life and services of that distin- indulges in no envious feelings at the success of guished patriot, the late Chancellor Livingston. The others, and takes no airs at his own. Free to ad. venerable President Madison could not withhold a vise, he is surrounded by the junior members of the letter of approbation to the author, for the service he faculty, who consult him when any difficulty is found had done biography, by his interesting account of in the course of their practice. He unites courtesy the revolutionary patriot. His discourse at the to independence, and inflexibility to determination. opening of the new Hall of the Lyceum of Natural Mature in judgment, firm in heath, and accustomed History is perhaps his most elaborate and extensive to incessant labour, he finds a field sufficiently large production; it was delivered in December last, and for vigorous action and liberal inquiry :-that he its object was to recommend the cultivation of the may long live to cultivate it, is the earnest wish of natural sciences, and to bring together the most stri- all who know him.
New England Mag. king and interesting facts yet made known concerning the natural history and physical resources of the New World. Dr. Francis is a member of many societies, and
POETRY. a liberal friend to all; his intellect and purse are devoted to their prosperity, and some of them owe
DRINKING SONG. their continuance to his great exertions. A liberal physician is taxed severely for the poor;
DRINK friends, drink deep—the noon is nigh; his property is assessed for them the same as that Drink, and forget your care;. of other men, and, in addition, his time and profes
The sultry summer suns are highsional skill are at their service. In the latter visita
Drink, and your strength repair :
The deer, that from the hunter flies, tions of the yellow fever, Dr. Francis was at his The warriour red with slaughter, post, and in constant attendance on the sick. Hav- The ca nel 'neath the burning skies,
Quatsdeep the crystal water! ing suffered severely from an attack of this disease, at an earlier period, he seems to have deemed him- Our father, Sun, the example's given,, self less liable to the recurrence of it, In 1832,
Our mother, Earth, also;
He, jocund, drinks above the clouds, while the cholera was raging in the city of New She blushing, drinks below; York, and the citizens were flying into the coun- Pledge high, pledge long the friends you love,
To absent wife and daughter, try, and many physicians and divines with them;
Or blooming maid who rules your heart, when one at noon-day, might see a mile of Broad- Drink deep-but only wator!
BY MRS. SIGOURNEY.
LITERARY REVIEW. An Historical Account of the Circumnavigation of the Globe, and of the Progress of Discovery in the Pacifick Ocean, from the Voyage of Magellan to the to the Death of Cook. Illustrated by numerous en. gravings. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1837.
This interesting and attractive book forms the eighty-second number [the last published] of the Family Library, a series of books extremely valuable to persons in every rank and condition of life, and which deserves to be widely circulated. The object of this book, the title of which is at the head of this article, is to give a brief and comprehensive account of the different voyages around the world. Particular attention has been paid also to the numerous islands which abound in the Pacifick ocean; islands, which on account of their importance to commerce, have attracted great notice, and which in a few years will be of still more consequence, for in few regions of the earth does nature present a more fascinating aspect, or lavish her gists with more bountiful profusion. “Favoured by mild and serene skies, the fertile
[Man of Sandwich Islands in a Mask.] soil of these insular territories produces the most luxuriant vegetation, which, with its many rich and vari- their island was ascertained to be Atooi or Tauai; ed hues, clothes the whole land, from the margin of they were of a brown complexion, and a considerathe sea to the summits of the loftiest mountains. ble diversity was observable in their features, some As the voyager sails along their picturesque shores, of which were not very different from those of Euhe is refreshed by perfumes borne on the breeze, ropeans. The greater number had their hair, whịch from woods which at the same time display the bud, was naturally black, but died of a brown colour, the blossom, and the mature fruit. Nor is the char- cropped short ; others permitted it to flow unconfinacter of their inhabitants less calculated to inspire ed in loose tresses; and a few wore it tied in a interest. In countries where the bread-tree affords bunch on the crown of the head. In general they the unreaped harvest of unfurrowed fields,' where had beards ; no ornaments were observed on their the people neither plough nor sow, nor do any work, persons ; nor were their ears bored; some showed their first visiters believed that they had at length punctures on their hands or near the groin ; and the discovered the hippy region with which poets adorn-pieces of cloth worn by them were curiously stained ed the golden age. To later explorers, as has been of various hues. On certain rare occasions they remarked by Humboldt, the state of half-civilization wore a kind of mask, made of a large gourd, with a in which these islands are found gives a peculiar perforation for the eyes and nose; the top, was charm to the description of their manners. Here a adorned with small green twigs, and from the lower king followed by a numerous suite comes and pre-part hung strips of cloth. sents the productions of his orchard ; there the fu
No anchorage being found here, the vessels bore neral-festival imbrowns the shade of the lofty forest. away to loeward, when the canoes departed ; but as Such pictures have more attraction than those which the discoverers sailed along the coast others sucportray the solemn gravity of the inhabitants of the ceeded, bringing roasting pigs and some fine potaMissouri or the Maranon.'”
toes, which the owners readily exchanged for whatAs specimens of the book, and of the numerous ever was offered to them. Several villages were cuts with which it is illustrated, we present the seen, some on the margin of the sea, others in the following extracts. Speaking of Cook's third voy- interiour of the country; and the inhabitants were age:
perceived thronging to the shore for the purpose of “The voyagers weighed anchor on the 20 January, viewing the ships, which passed the night standing 1778, and resumed their course towards the north, off and on. In the morning, as they were moving favoured by serene skies and gentle breezes. On towards the land, several canoes approached, and reacbing the latitude of 10° 30' N., various birds some of the natives had the courage to come on and turtles were seen every day, and regarded as board. Never before, in the course of his voyages, indications of the vicinity of land. None, however, had our navigator beheld such astonishment as these was discovered till the morning of the 18th, when savages displayed. Their eyes wandered from one an island appeared, bearing northeast by east; soon object to another in restless amazement; they en, after another was seen bearing north ; and on the deavoured to seize every thing they came near ; and 19th a third in a west northwest direction. Doubts the wildness of their looks and actions prove them were entertained whether the second, which lay most to be totally unused to European visitors, and ig. convenient for approach, had any inhabitants, till norant of all their commodities-iron alone excepted: some canoes came off, having in each from three to and of this it was evident they had merely heard six men, who, to the agreeable surprise of our navi- or obtained a small quantity at a distant period. gators, spoke the language of Otaheite. Though When asked what it was, they replied, “ We do easily prevailed on to come alongside, they could not not know; we only understand it as toe or hamaite" be persuaded to venture on board. The name of the former signifying a hachet, and the latter,
probably referring to some native instrument, in the seventh revealed the anxiously expected coast of construction of which iron might be advantageously New Albion, in latitude 44° 33' N., longitude 235° substituted for stone or bone. When beads were 20' E. It was richly wooded, of moderate height, shown to them, they inquired" whether they should and diversified with hills and valleys. To its northeat them.” When their use was explained, they were ern extremity Cook gave the name of Cape Foulgiven back as of no value, and a lookiny-glass was weather, from the gales which he experienced in regarded with equal indifference. Plates of earth- its vicinity, and which obliged him to tack off and enware and china cops were so new to their eyes, on several days. At length, after various hazards, that they asked if they were made of wood. a large opening was observed on the twenty-ninth,
About three o'clock the vessels succeeded in an- in latitude 49° 15' N., longitude 2330 20' E., and choring, and Cook rowed to the land with three from its promising appearance received the title of armed boats and a party of marines. “The very Hope bay. Into this inlet he sailed four miles, instant,” he says I leaped on shore, the collected when the night closing in, he came to anchor in body of the natives all fell flat upon their faces, and deep water, within a hawser's length of the shore. remained in that very humble posture till by express- It was certain that the country was inhabited; a ive signs I prevailed upon them to risé. They then village was observed on the western side of the brought a great many small pigs, which they pre- sound; and three canoes shaped like Norway yawls sented to me, with plantain-trees, using much the came off
. When they drew near, a native rose same ceremonies that we had seen practised on and made a long oration, apparently inviting the such occasions at the Society and other islands ; strangers to land, and at the same time he continued and a long prayer being spoken by a single person, strewing feathers towards them, while some of his in which others of the assembly sometimes joined. companions scattered handfuls of red powder. The I expressed my acceptance of their proffered friend speaker, who was dressed in the skin of an animal, ship, by giving them in return such presents as I held in each hand a kind of rattle ; and when he had brought with me from the ship for that purpose.” sat down, another began to declaim in his turn, in a The same deferential obeisance was afterward paid language wholly unintelligible to their visiters. They to him during an excursion which he made through then quietly conversed among themselves, betraying the country; and he believed it to be the mode in neither distrust nor surprise ; some of them occawhich the natives manifested respect to their own sionally stood up and made harangues ; and one chiefs. The people assisted his men in rolling sang a very pleasant air, with a softness quite unexcasks to and from the watering-place, readily per- pected. formed whatever was required of them, and merited The next day the vessels were removed to a safer the commendations of their visiters by fair dealing ; anchorage, amid a great concourse of the inhabitants. there having been no attempt to cheat or to steal 'Their disposition was quiet and friendly, and they after the first interview.
willingly supplied the voyagers with such provisions On the morning of the twenty-third a breeze as they possessed, though their refusal to accept sprung up at northeast, when, to avoid being driven any thing but metal in exchange gave rise to some on shore, it became necessary to stand out to procure perplexity. They preferred brass to iron ; and we searoom; and the adverse winds and currents having are told that, to gratify their demands, “whole suits drifted the vessels far from the harbour, after sever- of clothes were stripped of every button, bureaux of al unsuccessful attempts to regain it, they anchored their furniture, and copper kettles, tin canisters, canoff the neighbouring island of Oneeheow or Ni-Hau. dlesticks, and the like, all went to wreck.” The Here the captain deposited some goats, pigs of the name of the sound was Nootka ; and the natives are English breed, and various useful seeds, which he described as being under the common size, with full had intended for Atooi. The provisions obtained at round visages and small black eyes. In many indithese islands were reckoned sufficient for nearly viduals the ears were perforated in two or three four weeks' consumption ; and, having thus recruit- places, for the purpose of suspending bits of bone, ed his stores, on the second of February he made quills fixed on a thong of leather, shells, bunches of sail with a gentle breeze, to the north ward. “Of woollen tassels, or pieces of thin copper.
Ornawhat number," he says, " this newly discovered ar- ments of iron, brass, or copper, shaped like a horse's chipelago consists, must be left for future investiga- shoe, were frequently introduced into the septum of tion." Besides those visited, three others were the nose, from which they dangled over the upper. seen, Woahoo or Oahu, Oreehoua, Tahoora or Tau- lip. The sexes so nearly resembled each other in
This group, lying between the latitude of 21° dress and stature, that it was difficult to distinguish 30', and 22° 15' N., and 1990 20', and 201° 30' east them; the females, it is said,
possess no natural longitude, received, in honour of the first lord of the delicacies sufficient to render their persons agreeaAdmiralty, the name of the Sandwich islands. ble.”. Nearly a month was passed in uninterrupted
On the seventh the wind, having veered to south- friendship among these savages; and when the east, enabled the vogagers to steer northeast and ships weighed anchor, they followed the strangers east till the twelfth, when another change induced to the mouth of the sound, importuning them to rethem to stand to the northward. About à fortnight peat their visit, and promising an ample supply of after, when proceeding more towards the east, they skins. met with rockweed or sea-leek, and now and then The voyagers reached the open sea on the twena piece of wood floated past. During the whole of ty-sixth of April ; but scarcely had they cleared the this course, scarely a bird or living creature was land, when a storm coming on, accompanied with seen; but on the sixth of March two large fowls such darkness that they could not see beyond the settled near the ships. The next day two seals and ship's length, they were obliged to stand out from several whales were observed ; and the dawn of the the shore with all the sail which the vessels could
carry. They did not regain the coast till the first, versally adopted, and the sailor who first noticed it of May, in the parallel of 55° 20'; on the fourth called out that the man had two mouths.
The ears, they saw Mount St. Elias, in latitude 58° 52', and however, were generally pierced, and bunches of nine days after came to anchor in an inlet two de- beads suspended from them; while the nose was grees towards the north, on which they bestowed ornamented by thrusting through the septum a quill the name of Prince William's sound. The natives of three or four inches in length. They wore high were strong chested, with thick stout necks, and truncated caps of straw or wood, like those observed heads disproportionately large; their hair was black at Nootka. The females allowed their hair to grow and straight, and their beards, which were gener- long, and the majority tied a small lock of it on the ally thin, were in many altogether wanting. “Acrown. In some the lower lip was bored in several mark,” says Admiral Burney, " which distinguished places, to admit the introduction of strings of shells these people from every other known, was their un- or beads of such length as occasionally to hang beder lips being perforated or slit through in a line low the point of the chin. parallel to the mouth, and about three quarters of an The commander sailed hence on the twentieth, inch lower, through which they wore pieces of carv- and pursued his course along the coast, which now ed bone; and sometimes, which had a hideous ef- trended to the southward. On the twenty-third he fect, they would remove the bone-ornament, and reached an opening to the north, into which he thrust as much as they could of their tongue through steered the ships in the expectation of finding the the opening.” This incision, indeed, was not uni- | desired termination of the American continent. It
was, however, soon discovered to be only an inletternal surface of the body may be said therefore to or an arm of the sea leading to the mouths of two be covered by a continuous membrane, possessing rapid streams : no name was bestowed on it at the essentially the same organization, and almost identime, but the Earl of Sandwich afterward directed tically the same chymical composition. The skin that it should be called Cook's river. Eleven days is an organ which performs exceedingly varied and were spent in its examination, and the vessels did important functions in the economy, to the undernot clear its entrance before the sixth of June. standing of which it is necessary to have a clear They now sailed southwestward along the great conception of its structure ; some farther account of promontory of Alaska, passing several islands in it will therefore be required; but this will be more iheir course, till the nineteenth, when some natives advantageously given when the offices it serves are came off and delivered a wooden box, containing a explained. note written in Russian characters. Unfortunately Such is the structure, and such are the properties, these were unintelligible to the voyagers, but they of the first distinct form of organized matter. The deciphered the dates 1776 and 1778; and the cap- second primary tissue, termed the CARTILAGINOUS tain was of opinion that it was a paper left by Rus- is a substance intermediate between membrane ard sian traders to be delivered to any of their countrymen who should next visit these regions. On the twenty-sixth the vessels reached a large island, which was found to be one of the Aleoutian or Fox Archipelago, called Nowan Alsacha or Oonalaska ; and two days after they came to an anchor in the small bay of Samgonoodha, on its southeastern shore.
On tre second of July they again made sail, and, doubling Cape Oonamak, coasted the northern side of the peninsula till they arrived at a large bay, which received the name of Bristol, while its northpoint was called Cape Newenham ”
THE HUMAN BODY-No. III.
(Portions of cartilage, seen in section.) bone. The nature of its organization is not clearly ascertained. By some anatomists, it is regarded as a uniform and homogeneous substance, like firm jelly, without fibres, plates, or cells; others state that they have been able to detect in it longitudinal fibres, interlaced by other fibres in an oblique and transverse direction, but without determinate order. All are agreed that it is without visible vessels or nerves: not that it is supposed to be destitute of
them, but that they are so minute as to elude obser[A portion of the stomach, showing its internal surface or
vation. Its manifest properties are wholly mechanmucous coat.)
ical. It is dense, strong, inextensible, flexible, and
highly elastick. It is chiefly by its property of elasUNLIKE all the other tissues of this class, the ticity that it accomplishes the various purposes it mucous membranes are the immediate seat of some serves in the economy. It is placed at the extremof the most important functions of the economy; in ities of bones, especially about the joints, where, by the lung, of respiration ; in the stomach, of diges- its smooth surface, it facilitates motion, and, by its tion; in one part of the intestine, of chylification; yielding nature, prevents the shock or jar which in another, of excretion; while in the mouth and would be produced were the same kind and degree nose, they are the seat of the animal functions of of motion effected by a rigid and inflexible subtaste and smell; and they are highly organized in stance. Where a certain degree of strength with a accordance with the importance of the functions considerable degree of flexibility is required, it supthey perform.
plies the place of bone, as in the spinal column, the The last form of membrane which it is necessary ribs and the larynx. to our present purpose to particularize, is that which The third distinct form of organized matter is constitutes the external covering of the body, and termed the osseous tissue. Bone is composed of which is called the skin. The skin is every where two distinct substances, an animal and an earthy directly continuous with the mucous membranes matter : the former organick, the latter inorganick. that line the internal passages, and its structure is The animal or organick matter is analogous both in perfectly analogous. Both the external and the in- its nature and in its arrangement to cellular tissue '.