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utter absurdity of an idea which involves the sup- it here, the very nature of this article forbidding us position of ignition everlasting and rapidly going on to speak except in general terms on any of the planwithout diminution of substance, we are enabled, by ets--the first thing we have to remark of it is, its the excellence which the manufacture of astro- double motion. Every day it revolves on its own nomical instruments has been brought, to discern axis, and every year it performs its circuit round the certain maculæ (or dark spots) upon his surface, sun.. To illustrate this motion, the reader has only which, of course, could not be there, were the opin- to suppose an orange turning round on a pivot, and ion of the ancients correct.

both pivot and orange turning once round a fixed Dr. Herschel, that eminent astronomer, whose point in the time taken by the orange to turn upon unwearied industry. and admirable telescopes have the pivot three hundred and sixty-five times.

a diurnal sun appears to be nothing other than a very large motion of the heavenly bodies from east to west, and lucid planet, evidently the first or rather only and the changes of season to which our earth owes primary one, in our system; all the rest being truly most of its comforts and almost all its delights; and secondary to it. Its similarity to other globes of to these and its spheroidal shape are owing the clithe solar system, with regard to its solidity, its at- matal changes of different ponions of the earth. But mosphere, and its diversified surface, leads us to our limits will not allow us further to speak of our suppose that it is most probably also inhabited, like own planet. them, by beings whose organs are adapted to the Our engraving represents the relative size of the peculiar circumstances of that vast globe."

planets. 1. Saturn. 2. Jupiter. 3. Mars. . 4. The Earth and Moon. 5. Venus. 6. Mercury. .

THE MOON.

The moon, that mild and beautiful luminary of the night is more completely subjected to the reverent and anxious scrutiny of the lover of science than

THE BUTTERFLY. any other of the heavenly bodies.

Viewed with the naked eye she has the appear- A butterfly of the colour of brick was reposing ance of being a circular plane ; but viewed by the with expanded wings on a tuft of grass.

On being help of that fine triumph of human ingenuity, the approached he flew off, and alighted at some paces telescope, she is obviously protuberant in the mid-distance on the ground, which, at that place, was of dle-or in other words, her shape is really globular. the same colour with himself. On being approached The spots on the moon, which are partially visible a second time, he again took flight, and perched even to the naked eye, are seen both more obviously again on a similar stripe of earth. In a word,

it and in greater number, when viewed through the was found impossible to compel him to alight on the telescope ; and astronomers have long noticed that grass, though frequent attempts were made to that some of these spots are dark on the side opposite to effect; and though the spaces of earth, which sepathe sun, and light on the side next; while others rated the turfy soil, were narrow and few in number. are dark on the side nearest to him, and light This wonderful instinct is likewise conspicuous in on that furthest from hiin. From these facts, so the chameleon, who can assume all colours except analogous to what we may observe to take place red; the power of reflecting which, nature seems to when the sun is shining on our earth, they infer— have withheld from this creature, because it could and no good reason has ever been given why the only serve to render him perceptible at a greater disinference is not correct--that these dark spots are, tance, and further, because this colour is that of the in fact, produced by the lunar inequalities of surface; ground of no species of earth, or of vegetable, on in other words, by high hills and deep valleys. which he is designed to pass his life. But, in the This opinion is adopted by the poet of the seasons, age of weakness and inexperience, nature confounds Thomson

the colour of the harmless animals with that of the

ground, on which they inhabit, without committing * Where mountains rise, umbrageous descend, And caverns deep, as optick tube descries."

to them the power of choice. The young of pig

eons, and of most granivorous fowls, are clothed Being, like our earth, an opaque body, the moon with a greenish shaggy coat, resembling the mosses nas no native, no inherent light; but reflects to us of the nest. Caterpillars are blind, and have the light which she herself receives from the sun. And complexion of the foliage, and of the barks, which on this account it is that she disappears when she they devour. Nay, the young, fruits, before they comes between us and the sun: that side which is then come to be armed with prickles or inclosed in cases, turned towards us being also turned from the sun. in bitter pulps, or in hard shells, to protect their

seeds, are, during their expansion, green as the

leaves which surround them. Some embryos, it is *Our position in the solar system is very truly af- true, such as those of certain pears, are ruddy or firmed by astronomers to be an extremely favoura- brown, but they are then of the colour of the bark of

Less distant from the sun than Saturn, the tree to which they belong. When these fruits Mars, or Jupiter, and yet, unlike Venus and Mercu- have inclosed their seeds in kernels or nuts, so as ry, not so near as to feel his power too violently ex- to be in no farther danger, they then change colour, erted--the earth seems to be peculiarly selected as, and severally become yellow, blue, gold coloured, and fitted for, the residence of man during his state red, or black, and give to their respective trees their of probation.

natural contrasts. And here we have to remark a Speaking of it merely as a planet, and it is only and surprising striking circumstance, that every fruit as a planet that our limits will allow us to speak of which changes colour, has seed in a state of maturity.

THE EARTH.

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PRESIDENTS.

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PRESIDENTS.

OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES.

1817. Isaac Shelby, of Kentucky, (did not accept The following list of the principal officers of the 1817. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina.

the appointment.) general government, from its commencement under

1825. James Barbour, of Virginia. the constitution until the present time, is one likely. 1828. Peter B. Porter, of New York. to be interesting to many, and generally useful as

1829. John H. Eaton, of Tennessee. matter of reference :

1831. Lewis Cass, of Ohio.

1837. Joel R. Poinsett, of South Carolina. 1789. George Washington, of Virginia.

SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY. 1797. John Adams, of Massachusetts.

1798. George Cabot, of Massachusetts. 1801. Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia.

1798. Benjamin Stoddard, of Maryland. 1809. James Madison, of Virginia.

1802. Robert Smith, of Marylan 1. 1817 James Monroe, of Virginia.

1805. Jacob Crowninshield, of Massachusetts. 1825 John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts.

1809. Paul Hamilton, of South Carolina. 1829. Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee.

1812. William Jones, of Pennsylvania. 1837. Martin Van Buren, of New York.

1814. Benjamin W. Crowninshield, of Massachu1941 mm Horiet LATESTLER

setts.

1818. Smith Thompson, of New York. 1789. John Adams, of Massachusetts.

1823. Samuel L. Southard, of New Jersey. 1797. Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia.

1829. John Branch, of North Carolina. 1801. Aaron Burr, of New York.

1831. Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire. 1805. George Clinton, of New York.

1834. Mahlon Dickerson, of New Jersey. 1813. Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts. 1817. Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York.

POSTMASTERS-GENERAL. 1825. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina.

1789. Samuel Osgood, of Massachusetts. 1833. Martin Van Buren, of New York.

1791. Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania. 1837. Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky.

1795. Joseph Habersham, of Georgia. SECRETARIES OF STATE.

1802. Gideon Granger, of New York.

1814. Return J. Meigs Jr., of Ohio. 1789. Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia. 1794. Edmund Randolph, of Virginia.

1823. John MeLean, of Ohio.

1829. William T. Barry, of Kentucky. 1795. Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania.

1835. Amos Kendall, of Kentucky. 1800. John Marshall, of Virginia. 1801. James Madison, of Virginia. 1809. Robert Smith, of Maryland. 1811. James Monroe, of Virginia.

1789. John Jay, of New York.

1796. William Cushing, of Massachusetts. 1817. John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts.

1796. Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut. 1825. Henry Clay, of Kentucky.

1800. John Jay, of New York. 1829. Martin Van Buren, of New York.

1801. John Marshall, of Virginia. 1831. Edward Livingston, of Louisiana.

1836. Roger B. Taney, of Maryland.
1833. Louis McLane, of Delaware.
1835. John Forsyth, of Georgia.

ATTORNEYS-GENERAL,
SECRETARIES OF THE TREASURY.

1789. Edmund Randolph, of Virginia.

1794. William Bradford, of Pennsylvania. 1789. Alexander Hamilton, of New York.

1795. Charles Lee, of Virginia. 1795. Samuel Dexter, of Massachusetts.

1801. Levi Lincoln, of Massachusetts. 1801. Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut.

1805. Robert Smith, of Maryland. 1802. Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania.

1806. John Breckenridge, of Kentucky 1814. George W. Campbell, of Tennessee. 1814. Alexander J. Dallas, of Pennsylvania.

1807. Cæsar A. Rodney, of Delaware. 1817. William H. Crawford, of Georgia.

1811. William Pinkney, of Maryland, 1825. Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania.

1814. Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania.

1817. William Wirt, of Virginia. 1829. Samuel D. Ingham, of Pennsylvania.

1829. John McPhersoni Berrien, of Georgia. 1831. Louis McLane, of Delaware. 1833. William J. Duane, of Pennsylvania.

1831. Roger. B. Taney, of Maryland. 1833. Roger B. Taney, of Maryland.

1834. Benjamin F. Butler, of New York.

Cincinnatti Gazette. 1834. Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire. SECRETARIES OF WAR.

The raven may be said to be of a social dispo1789. Henry Knox, of Massachusetts.

sition, for, after the breeding season, flocks of forty, 1795. Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvan.a. fifty, or more, may sometimes be seen, as is observed 1796. James McHenry, of Maryland.

on the coast of Labrador, and on the Missouri. 1800. Samuel Dexter, of Massachusetts.

When domesticated, and treated with kindness, it 1801. Roger Griswold, of Connecticut.

becomes attached to its owner, and will follow him 1801. Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts.

about with all the familiarity of a confiding friend. 1809. William Eustis, of Massachusetts.

It is capable of imitating the human voice, so that 1813. John Armstrong, of New York.

individuals have sometimes been taught to enun1815. William H. Crawford, of Georgia.

ciate a few words with great distinctness.

CHIEF JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT.

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PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF THE FIRST SEPTENNIAD.

POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS.

This can only refer to the common wear and tear [The following article forms the second chapter of Dr. John- of body, and the lights of age and experience—but, son's " Economy of Health," just published by the Harpers, even in this point of view, I doubt the dogma of the from the English edition. The author divides the life of man into ten epochs or periods, of seven years each-denominating bard, and apprehend that the said lights would shine each one, a Septenniad.]

full as well through the proper windows of the THE FIRST SEPTINNIAD.

"soul's dark cottage,” as through those cracks and

rents that are effected by time and infirmity. One to seven years.

I have alluded to the Spartan custom of leaving For some time after man's entrance into the world, the youth, during the first seven years, under the his existence is merely animal, or physical. He guidance of the parents, who permitted the physical cries, feeds, and sleeps. His intellectual functions powers of their offspring to develop themselves withare nearly null; while those of the little bodily fab-out control. What is the case with us ? During a rick are in a state of the most intense activity: considerable portion of that period the youth“ is got Gradually the senses awake, and the avenues of out of the way," and imprisoned in a scholastick hotcommunication between the surrounding world and bed or nursery, where the “young ideas," instead of the living microcosm are opened. External impres- being left to shoot out slowly, are forced out rapidly, sions are conveyed to the censorium or organ of the to the great detriment of the intellectual soil, thus mind, and there produce sensations, which become exhausted by too early and too frequent crops. progressively more distinct, and, by frequent reiter- It has been shown that the organ of the mind, in ation, lay the foundation of memory and association. the first stages of our existence, is exclusively occuDuring the first septennary period, REFLECTIon can pied with its animal functions. It soon, however, is hardly be said to take place. Nature is busily em- able to allot a portion of its power to the operations ployed in building up the corporeal structure—and of the immaterial tenant. If this power were more the mind is occupied, almost exclusively, in storing gradually and gently exercised than it now is, we up those materials for future thought, which the vivid would have stronger frames and sounder minds. We senses are incessantly pouring in on the sensory of might unite, in a considerable degree, the strength the soul.

of the savage with the wisdom of the sage. As edThese few facts (and they might be multiplied to ucation, in this as well as in the two succeeding any extent) may furnish important hints to the pa. Septenniads, is both physical and moral, we shall rent, the pedagogue, and the philanthropist. It is du- adopt this division of the subject. ring the first and second Septenniads that the foundations of health and happiness, of physical force, intellectual acquirements, and moral rectitude, are 1. Food. It is fortunate for man that nature furall laid! Yet the arch enemy of mankind would have nishes him with sustenance during the first nine found it difficult to devise a system or mode of educa- months of his existence. The milk of a healthy tion for body and mind, better calculated to mar each nurse is a more salutary and scientifick compound of and every of the above objects, than that which is animal and vegetable nutriment than he ever afteradopted by the wise men of the earth at this moment. ward imbibes. He has hardly left his mother's boThe first and second Septenniads are probably the som, however, before the work of mischief commenmost important to the interests of the individual and ces, which seldom ceases till he approaches a secof society, of the whole ten. It is while the wax is ond childhood, or has suffered severely by the imductile that the model is easily formed. In the early prudence of his parents and the early indulgence of part of childhood, and even of youth, every fibre is his own appetites ! Nature furnishes teeth, as solid so full-so exuberant of vitality, that the rest is pain, food becomes necessary; and the transition from and motion is pleasure. In infancy the ORGAN of milk to meat should not be too abrupt. The teeth the mind presides over, and furnishes energy to, ev- are protruded slowly and successively; and, during ery other

organ and function in the body. At this this period, milk and farinaceous food should preperiod, be it remembered, these organs and functions ponderate over that which is purely animal. are in the greatest degree of growth and activity ;

But errours of diet, in the first Septenpiad, do not and therefore the brain (or organ of the mind) re-consist so much in the quantity of food as in the quires to be at liberty to direct its undivided influ- | provocative variety with which the infantile and unence to their support. If it were possible to bring sophisticated palate is daily stimulated. The rapid intellectual operations into play in the mind of the growth of infancy requires an abundant supply of infant, the brain could not supply the proper nervous plain nutritious aliment; but it is at this early period power for digestion, assimilation, and nutrition ; and that simplicity in kind, and regularity in the periods the whole machine would languish or decay. Now of meals, would establish the foundation for order these facts apply, more or less, to a great part of the and punctuality in many other things, and thus confirst SEPTENNIAD-or even of the second--and here duce to health and happiness through life. we have the true physiological cause and explana- As the first nutriment which nature furnishes is a tion of the havock which is produced in youthful compound of animal and vegetable matters, so should frames by premature exertion of the intellectual fac- it be for ever afterward. In youth, and especially ulties ! Nor is it the body exclusively that suffers during the first Septenniad, milk and farinaceous from precocious culture of the mind. The material substances should form the major part of the diet, tenement of the soul can not be shattered without with tender animal food once a day. As the teeth injury to its spiritual tenant. It may be true, in multiply, the proportions of the two kinds of sustesome figurative sense, that

nance ought gradually and progressively to vary.

2. CLOTHING.-Because we come naked into the "The soul's dark cottage, batter'd and decay'd, Admits new lights through chinks which time has made.” | world, it does not follow that we should remain so.

Nature supplies animals with coats, because the paced in this country, where it would prove extremely rents of animals have no manufactories of linen and salutary. Excepting in infancy, there is no occasion woollen. The dress with which-nature clothes the for the CALIDO-FRIGID application to the whole body, young animal is nearly uniform over the whole body; by means of immersion or sponging : at all periods but not so that which man, or rather woman, con- of life afterward, the mere sponging of the upper structs for the infant. Some parts are covered five- parts of the body, already mentioned, (to which I fold—somo left naked. In many of the most civili- would add the feet,) first with hot, and then immedized countries of the world, the child is placed in ately with cold water, will be quite sufficient to pre“durance vile”-in bondage—or at least in bandage vent a multitude of ills, a host of infirmities-and, the moinent it sees the light! This practice, which let me add, a number of deformities to which desh commences in ignorance, is continued by fashion, is heir, without this precaution. till it ends in disease, and entails misery and suffer- As to clothing during the first Septenniad, I shall ings on the individual and the offspring, from gener- say little more than that it should be warm, light, ation to generation. But more of this hereafter. and loose. It will be time enough-alas ! too soon

If many of our disorders are produced through the —to imitate the Egyptian mummy, when girls beagency of improper food or deleterious substances come belles, and boys beaux. I beg, for the first on the internal organs, so a great number of maladies and second Septenniads at least, full liberty for the are induced through the medium of atinospherick lungs to take air, the stomach food, and the limbs impressions and vicissitudes on the external surface exercise, before they are “cribb’d, cabin'd, and conof the body. These cannot be counteracted or ren- fined,” by those destructive operatives, the milliner, dered harmless by either very warm or very light the tailor, and the bootmaker, cum multis aliis, who clothing. The great antidote to alternations of cli- rank high, among the purveyors or jackalls to the mate consists in early and habitual exposure to tran- doctor and the undertaker! sitions of temperature, drought, humidity, &c. This Much stress has been laid upon the use of flannel may be safely effected at all periods of life, from in- in all periods of our life. If the preservative against fancy to old age ; and the practice, which is both vicissitudes of climate to which I have alluded be easy and pleasant in operation, would save annually employed, flannel will seldom be necessary, except an immense waste of life, and a prodigious amount where the constitution is very infirm, or the disposiof sufferings in this country. It is simply the alter- tion to glandular affections prominent. At all events nate application of warm and cold water (by immer-it should be very light, and worn outside of the linen, sion or sponging) during the first year or two to the in this tender age. WHOLE BODY, and afterward to the face, neck, and upper parts of the chest every morning. The appli

3. EXERCISE.--During the first Septenniad, exerčation of cold water alone will not be sufficient. cise may be left almost entirely to the impulses of There must be the sudden and rapid succession of Nature. The great modern errour is the prevention heat and cold-which I would term the CALIDO-FRI- of bodily exercise by too carly and prolonged culture GID FORTIFIER, or prophylactick.

This process not

of the mind. In the first years of life, exercise only imitates and obviates the atmospherick vicissi- should be play, and play should be exercise. Totudes of our own climate, but is, in itself

, salutary in wards the end of the first Septenniad, some degree any climate. The hot water excites the surface to of order or method may be introduced into playful which it is applied, and fills the capillary vessels exercise, because it will be essential to health in the with blood. The cold water braces the vessels thus second and third epochs. Even in this first epoch, distended, without repelling the fluid too forcibly to- exercise in the open air should be enjoined, as much wards the interiour, or producing a chill-since the as the season and other circumstances will permit. heat and excitement of the surface secure us against The windows of the nursery ought to be open during a sudden retrocession.

the greater part of the day, and nursery-maids and It may

be asked, “How does this protect us from mistresses who cannot bear the air are very unfit the introduction of cold air into the lungs ?" I

an- for the physical education of children. swer, that Nature provides against this daily and

MORAL EDUCATION OF THE FIRST SEPTENNIAD. hourly contingency. The temperature of the atmospherick air is brought to a par with that of the body The first seven years of life must not be given up white passing down through the air-tubes, and before entirely to the physical development of the constituit reaches the air-cells of the lungs. For one cold tion; though that is a most important part of the

pathat is caught by inhaling cold air, one hundred colds rent's duty. A great deal of moral culture may be are induced by the agency of cold and moisture on effected in this period; but I apprehend that it ought the surface of the body. CALIDO-FRIGID LAVATION

to be very different in kind, in mode, and in degree, or sponging, abovementioned, secures us effectually from what it is at present. During several years from faceaches, earaches, toothaches, and head of this first Septenniad, the children of the lower,

besides rendering us insusceptible of colds, and even of the middle classes, are cooped up in a coughs—and, in 110 small number of instances--of crowded and unwholesome schoolroom, for many CONSUMPTION itself. The practice is common in hours in the day, to the great detriment of their Russia and some other countries ; and the principle health and morals, and with very little benefit to is well understood by the profession in all countries; their intellecual faculties. Among the higher clasbut the adoption of the practice is exceedingly limit- ses it is not so bad; yet there the children are 100

much drilled by tutor or gorerness, and by far too * The mouth should be rinsed with hot water and then imme- little exercised in body. diately with cold, every morning throughout the year. If this were regularly done from infancy, the dentist might shut up

The principle which I advocate is this : that duo shop.

ring the first and even during the second Septenniad,

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the amount of elementary learning required should to enforce, with all their energy, the most rigid sysbe less, and the daily periods of study shorter:—that tem of ORDER, REGULARITY, and PUNCTUALITY, from sport and exercise should be the regular and unfail- the very earliest period of infancy up to the age of ing premium on prompt and punctual acquisition of discretion. Half, and more than half of our miserthe lessons prescribed-in short, that elementary ies, crimes, and misfortunes, in after life, are attribeducation should be acquired "cito, tuté, ac jucunde” utable to the misplaced indulgence or culpable neg. -instead of being a wearisome task, irksome to the ligence of our parents. Spare the rod and spoil mind, and injurious to the body.

the child,” is a maxim that was founded in experience, But if I declare myself adverse to the system of though it has been nearly exploded by speculative precocious exercise of the intellect, I am an advo- philanthropists not deeply versed in the knowledge cate for early moral culture of the mind. It is du- of man. The rod, in most cases, may be spared ; ring the first years of our existence that the founda- but, if order and obedience cannot be enforced by tion of habits and manners is laid ; and these will be other means, the rod should be applied. good or bad afterward, according to their foundations. The whole material world, and, as far as we can ORDER is truly said to be “Heaven's first law"- judge, the whole universe, are subjected to, and govand so it should be the first injunction on childhood. erned by, certain laws of periodicity, which preserve The brightest talents are often rendered useless by order and harmony every where. Our mental and the want of order and system in our amusements, corporeal constitutions are controlled by similar laws studies, and avocations. The best temper or the of periodicity, and we should subject all our actions, purest intention will not compensate for want of passions, pleasures, and labours of laws, in imitation regularity, industry, and punctuality. Habit is the of those which Nature has established. Thus, in result of impression, rather than of reflection ; and infancy and youth, the sleep, exercise, play, mealsyouth is the age for receiving impressions, rather every thing, in short, which is done, should be done than for exercising the judgment. ORDER may be at regular and stated periods, and the habit of reguinstilled into the juvenile mind long before that mind larity, thus early established, would become a secis capable of perceiving the utility of the discipline; ond nature, and prove a real blessing through life. in the same way that the rules of grammar are learn- There is not a single office, profession, or avocaed before the application of these rules can be even tion, from the high duties of the monarch down to imagined by the pupil. From long study, and, per- the vile drudgery of the dustman, that does not haos, a considerable knowledge of human nature, I owe half its honours, respectability, and success to would earnestly exhort parents, guardians and tutors, PUNCTUALITY.

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THE MARINER'S COMPASS.

the property of attracting iron, and of communicating The mariner's compass was invented about the the same property to rods of iron ; and that it posyear 1302. It had been ascertained that a fossil, a sessed the still more remarkable property of spontaspecies of iron ore, denominated the loadstone, had neously pointing north and south, when properly

Yol. V.--20

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