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suspended, and of giving a polarity to a rod or nee- N. to W., and from $. to W., are each eight points. dle of iron, so that, when suspended on a pivot, and Next to N., S., E., and W., the points N. W., S. ' nicely balanced, so as to turn easily, one end of it W., N. E., and S. E., are the principal. would always point to the north pole, and the other to the south pole. This tendency of the magnetick needle is called its polarity. Having a compass,
MANNERS OF THE CHINESE. fitted up with such a needle, the navigator is always able to tell which direction is north, and what course
The Chinese are a very singular and peculiar he is sailing, in the darkest night, as well as in day- people. They are of a common height, and their light. A mass of iron in the immediate vicinity of complexion is a clear brown. They dress themthe needle, would draw it from its natural position, selves in long robes with wide sleeves, and flowing and prevent it from always pointing to the north, silk girdles. Furs are every where seen among and should therefore, not be suffered to remain in them in winter, varying in quality from sheepskin such a situation.
to ermine. The mariner's compass consists of a card or fly, The Chinese wear a small, funnel-shaped hat, on which the points of the compass are marked, to which varies with the rank of the wearer, and is which the needle is attached in the direction of the mounted with a large button of coral, crystal, or gold. north and south points, nicely balanced on a pivot The materials of which this button is made, and its in the centre of a circular box, so as to turn freely. colour, mark the distinction of the individual. The The box is covered with glass, to protect the needle general dress is simple and uniform. The only from accident; and is so hung as to maintain a uni- article which distinguishes, the emperour himself formly horizontal position, whatever may be the from his courtiers, is a large pearl with which his rolling of the vessel.
head is adorned. The card of which the foregoing diagram is an Some of the principal officers among the Chinese example, is divided into thirty-two points of the com- are called mandarins. The power of the mandarin pass, the names of which are signified by the ini- is very great: On entering a city, he can order any iial letters in the margin, as, N. for north; N. b. E. person, whom he chooses to have arrested, to be put for north by east ; the small b. signifying by, &c. to death, and no one can venture to defend him. The naming of these points of compass in their or- The mandarin is preceded by a hundred executionder, beginning at north, and proceeding toward the ers, who, with a sort of yell, announce his approach. east, and so on round the card to north again, and Should any one forget to retire to the side of a wall, returning in a reversed order, is called by sailors, he is severely whipped. The mandarin himself boxing the compass ; and to be able to do it, is not however, is not secure from punishment: for th only useful to seamen, but to children, who have slightest fault, the emperour will order him a sound occasion to use maps. They cannot tell, accurate-beating. ly, what direction one place is from another, unless The government of China is very despotick. The they are familiarly acquainted with the points of the emperour is styled the sacred son of heaven, sole compass The four points, north, south, east, and ruler of the earth, and great father of his people. west, are called cardinal points. _'The card is thus Offerings are made to his image, and to his throne. divided into four equal parts. From N. to E. are His person is adored. When he goes abroad, all eiglit points : from S. to E. are eight points: from the Chinese are obliged to shut themselves up in
Τ THE FAMILY MAGAZINE.
their houses. Whoever is found in his way is ex- eagerness, and found him employed in pointing some posed to instant death, unless he turns his back, or stakes at the door of his hut. He cast a zvok on. lies flat with his face on the ground. All the shops wards me, which was cold enough, and continund by which the emperour is to pass must be shut, and his work; but the moment I addressed him in French, this prince never goes out without being preceded he started at the recollection of his country, and by two thousand officers carrying chains, axes, and the big tear stood in his eye. These well-known various other instruments of cruelty.
accents suddenly roused in the heart of the old man, The shoes of a Chinese lady are about four inch- all the sensations of his înfancy. In youth we liule es in length, and two in breadth.' In infancy the regret the pleasures of our first years ; but the surfeet are so closely bound and confined, that they ther we advance into life, the more interesting to us cease to grow. Owing 10 this barbarous practice, becomes the recollection of them; for then, every it is often with difficulty that a Chinese female man- one of our days supplies a sad subject for compariages to walk.
son. Philip entreateu de to enter his dwelling, and The manner of building in China, is like that of I followed him. He had considerable difficulty in no other nation. 'The houses have a light and flim- expressing what he meant. I saw him labour to resy appearance. They are generally of wood, and gain the ancient ideas of civilized man, and I watchof but one story in height. The whole building is ed him most closely: For instance, I had an opporsurrounded by a wall six or seven feet high. tunity of observing that there were two kinds of rel
The Chinese are not remarkable for their honour ative things absolutely effaced from his mind, viz., or regard for truth. Little dependance can be placed that of any superfluity being proper, and that of anupon their word, and they will often cheat you, if noying others without an absolute necessity for it. they can find a chance. Over some of the shops I did not choose to put my grand question, till after may be seen the following words :-"They do not some hours of conversation had restored to him a cheat here”—a piece of intelligence, for which the sufficiency of words and ideas. At last I said to purchaser cannot be too grateful.
him: “ Philip, are you happy ?” He knew not at The Chinese laws are very severe with respect first how to reply. -" Happy," said he, reflectingto the obedience of a child towards his parent." happy! Yes; but happy only since I became a sarThey give to the parents too much authority to leave age.”—“ And how do you pass your life ?" asked I. space for affection. The parents have the right to - He laughed—“I understand you,” continued I. destroy or mutilate their children, thousands of whom “You think such a question unworthy of an answer. are yearly exposed to perish in the rivers. A fa- But should you not like to resume your former mode ther, during his life, has an unlimited command over of living, and return to your country ?"_" My counhis son, who is liable for all the paternal debts, but try! France! If I were not so old, I should like to those contracted by gaming.
see it again.”—“And you would not remain there ?" The discovery of the art of making paper from added I.–The motion of Philip's head answered straw is of very ancient date in China. Straw, and my question sufficiently." But what induced you,” even the bark of trees, and various plants and shrubs, continued I, “ to become what you call a savage ?" are employed in the paper manufactories of China, "I don't know," said he,-“ instinct.” This exwhere sheets are prepared of such dimensions, that pression put an end to my doubts and questions. a single one may be had to cover the side of a mod- I remained two days with Philip, in order to observe erate-sized room. Many old persons and children, him, and never saw him swerve for a single moment earn a livelihood by washing the ink from paper from the assertion he had made. His soul, free already written over, which is manufactured into from the conflict of social passions, appeared to me, new sheets : and so economical are the Chinese, in the language of the savages with whom he dwelt, that they separate the old ink from the water for calm as the field of battle, after the warriours had future use.
smoked together the calumet of peace. Chateaubriand. The inventions of printing and gunpowder, were known in China long before they were known in Europe, though improvement stopped with the mere invention. A knowledge of the compass is also said
THE MAHRATTA CHIEF. to have been general, some years before its discovery in Europe.
The engraving on the opposite page, represents a Hindoo warriour by the name of Mahadajee Scindia. His father, who was a distinguished prince of
Mahratta, died about the year 1750, and the son, a ANECDOTE OF A FRENCHMAN WHO DWELT AMONG few years afterward, succeeded him. Before this, THE INDIANS.
however, he had been much distinguished in war, PHILIP DE Cocq, who was born in a little village and had received a wound in his right knee, which of Pitou, went to Canada in his infancy, served deprived him of the use of it for life. there as a soldier, at the age of twenty years, during The countenance of this warriour was expressive the war of 1754, and after the battle of Quebec, of good sense, and good humour, but his complexion retired to the country of the Five Nations, where, was dark, and his person inclining to corpulency. having married an Indian woman, he renounced the His habits were simple, his manners kind and frank; customs of his native land to adopt the manners of though sometimes coarse and blustering. He was the savages. When I was travelling through the beloved by those who depended on him, and somewilds of America, I was not a little surprised to hear times liberal, especially to his troops. Generally, that I had a countryman established as a resident, however, he was penurious; and as anxious to gain at some distance in the woods. I visited him with noney as to conquer provinces. He could writo,
[Mabadajee Scindia.) and keep accounts, which is not common among caste upon his nose and forehead. It consists of one the Mahrattas. His disposition was not cruel, ex- circular spot between two lines. The marks are cept when under the influence of anger, or a desire made with a pigment of yellow ochre and oil, which for revenge ;-then he was cruel, and sometimes is washed off
, and renewed every morning. terrible.
Great, therefore, as Mahadajee was in war, and It is much to his credit, however, that, in a coun- in the art of governing others, he could not govern try where warriours are not expected to be very himself. He indulged 10 excess in betel; which scrupulous in their conduct, he was generally very probably shortened i., life, for though he possessed humane; and though much of his life was spent in a frame that might have lasted longer, he died, worn making conquests, he caused but little bloodshed. out, in 1794. When he had gained a territory, he was wise and skilful to keep it; and what he once gained, he seldom lost. There was a time when he was one of INDIANA.— It is a remarkable fact, that the farmthe bravest, most powerful, and most successful ers in fifty-eight counties in Indiana, can transport princes in all India ; and he was feared very much their productions from their own doors by water, in both by his fellow-countrymen, and by his British flat boats-to market. Sixteen are bounded or interfoes.
sected by the Wabash-ien by the north branch of But, alas! he had his failings; and great failings White river--twenty by the south and its forks they were too. He was so fond of the areca and fourteen by the Ohio, and its little tributaries—five betel-out, and so lazy when not employed in war, by Lake Michigan and St. Joseph's, and others by that he kept a person constantly near him, to supply other
branches and creeks. From all parts of the him with thar luxury. This person's whole employ- state, farmers and mechanicks can prepare their ment was to put the betel into his mouth, when he freight, and in the winter season float off to New wanted a fresh supply. 'He also kept a Bramin, Orleans or other markets, and returu in season for whose daily business it was to put the marks of his another year's labour.
INDIAN ATTACK UPON WHEELING, IN 1777. The scheme was too successful, as indeed such At this time the principal fortifications of the ambuscades have ever been, in the conflicts of IndiWestern country, if even they might well be termed ans with their civilized antagonists ; not a little to such, were the forts at Wheeling, Redstore, Point the disgrace of the tacticks employed against the Pleasant
, and Fort Pitt, all in Virginia. The three children of the forest. Indeed, the facility of artful latter were manned by regular state garrisons, but concealment possessed by the Indians, and directed not in such numbers as to permit detachments of any bids the arts of civilization defiance, without the most
by their unrivalled knowledge of the ground, almost force; the former, though supplied with ammunition by the state, was otherwise left to the resources of daring and powerful reconnoitring. the settlers. In addition to these garrisons, many
On the morning of the second, quite early, two men blockhouses or stations were scattered through the went into the field for some horses ; passed' the front country, as far as Boonsborough and Harrodsburgh,
line next to the town, and came in sight of the decoy in the county of Kentucky. Often these forts were
guard. The white men now set out to run back, resorted to, in periods of alarm alone ; while the fam- when one was immediately shot down; the other ilies would risk much to enjoy independence and pri.
was allowed to escape as bait for the trap, and to vacy on their farms. The confinement of the crowd-bring on a pursuit. This was instantly adopted by ed stations was so perpetually annoying, that many Captain Mason, at the head of fourteen men, suppreferred to hazard their lives rather than endure posing there were but six Indians, as seen by the
fugitive. their constant vexations.
The party took the route indicated to Among the disastrous visitations of the savages, the fatal lines, which they perceived too late. At
them, until they likewise had got enclosed between so common to the times, the attack upon Wheeling in the fall of 1777, is marked by more than usual suf teinpting an escape, the men were instantly cut to ferings.
pieces with tomahawks. The captain and a serIn August, Gen. Hand, commanding for Virginia, geant attempted to ascend the hill toward the fort, at Fort Pitt, was informed by some friendly Indians followed by the enemy. The sergeant was so sefrom the Moravian towns on the Muskingum, that a verely wounded as to compel him to drop and sublarge body of warriours, too formidable to be opposed mit to his fate ; and as his captain was passing, in in open battle, had arrived at their towns, on a war
a crippled condition, the wounded man handed him party against the Americans. Favonred by this after killing one of his pursuers, who had followed
his Mason could flee but little farther ; yet
; friendly warning, the inhabitants on the Ohio gener- him close, he pushed another down the descending ally repaired to their block houses ; or withdrew to the interiour parts of Virginia, more remote from such ground, while the uplifted tomahawk fell at his feet. barbarous dangers. Wheeling had most rapidly
The captain concealed himself by the side of a large gathered a flourishing settlement of twenty or thirty log, until the Indians avandoned the siege. The houses, under the protection of its fort and the
screams of Mason's men brought Captain Ogal with
twelve gy of the Zanes. Relying upon the
more men to their assistance. scouts, who
warned by their unfortunate fate, this party, as if constantly kept abroad, and the power of retiring in10 the fort
, whenever danger should press them, the led by some fascination, fell into the same snare inhabitants of this place put off their retreat into their alone happened to be left out of the Indian circle
with their unhappy predecessors.
The captain fortifications, until the enemy appeared in the midst of them.
that closed upon his men and destroyed them : he On the night of the first of September, 1777, Capt. ped the fate that befell his followers. Thus, of twen
threw himself into a bunch of briers, and thus escaOgal returned with twelve men, who had been on a scouting party, and brought information that no
ty-six men, in a thin population, when white men enemy. was upon the border ; but, as if to mock were less numerous than red ones, only three esthe most prudent precautions of our countrymen, a
caped with their lives, and of these, two were sebody of three hundred and eighty-nine painted war
verely wounded. riours burst that night into the settlement, headed by
While this tragedy was performing just below the the degenerate Simon Girty.* Seeing several lights their valuables into Wheeling fort. The attack had
town, the inhabitants were removing themselves and in the fort, the enemy, with their characteristick wariness, thought they could effect more, by lying in full force before the fort by sunrise, just as the gates wait for the whites, than by an open attack upon of the fort were shut. The hurry, the distress and them. The Indians then arranged themselves in confusion of such a scene, can scarcely be conceivtwo lines, at some distance apart, extending from the river across the point between it and the creek, below ed, and certainly not described.
Before the assault was made, the renegade, Girty, the present town. This point seems to have been covered with Indian corn, itself in that soil a most
addressed the people of the fort from a window of luxuriant crop, and well fitted for concealing an ene- them to accept the protection of the British. He
one of the houses in the town, in order to induce my. In the middle of the field, between the ambushed lines, near a road which led from the fort expatiated upon the number and ferocity of his Ininto the field, six Indians were placed as a decoy. ilton of Detroit, offering safety to all who would
dian force, and read the proclamation of Gov. Ham
abandon the rebellious colonies and join the British. * This.man and his brother, are represented to have joined On the other hand, if they persisted in their obstinthe Indians and British, owing to a disgust at being passed over in some military prowess in Pennsylvania. The information is acy and fired one gun in their defence, Girty threatnot very authentick as to the causes of the abandonment of his ened the inhabitants with all the extremities of sav. native countrymen ; but the ferocity of Simon, his excesses, beyond even Indian barbarity. were signalized from Wheeling age cruelty: He gave the garrison fifteen minutes to the
to deliberate upon his proposals. Short as the time
was, it was more than this gallant body of men re- itous manner, and finding that the enemy had in quired, though it was but thirty-three in number, reality departed, the officers rejoined their compan. opposed to hundreds of Indians. Col. Zane replied ions at the river, and the whole repaired to the fort
. to the summons in the following terms :-* We But after such destructive surprises as the garrison have consulted our wives and children, and they are had experienced, it required the best concerted all resolved to perish sooner than place themselves means to renonnoitre the whole ground. For this under the protection of a savage army with you at purpose, two active men were directed to go ont of its head ; or to abjure the cause of liberty and of the fort with apparent carelessness, but real caution, the colonies."
and examine the cornfield adjacent to the pallisades Girty still persisted in urging his insidious pro- of the fort. Finding no appearance of an enemy posals and diabolical threats, until a shot drove him remaining, Col. Zane, with a party of twenty men, from his parleying station. The assault now began completed the reconnoisance. In a short time, Maj in deep and dreadful earnest, and raged with every McCullough arrived with a reinforcement of fortypossible violence on both sides, for three-and-twenty five men; the united troops then ventured to survey hours. This was no struggle for the mere honours the field of slaughter and destruction. Here there of war; it was a contest for life and safety from were the bodies of the two white parties, cut into savage torments; it was a battle for the scalps and pieces with the tomahawk; cattle, horses, and hogs, lives of women and children. Tlius nerved, who lay weltering about ; and lastly, the habitations of that were men, would not have fought? The brave the people were a pile of ruins. It was long indeed, garrison did its duty against their barbarian foes; before the settlement recovered from the devastation till despairing of capturing the fort, and apprehen- of this siege. A vivid and natural picture of such sive of a reinforcement, the Indians retired; burning desolation is drawn by our gisted Cooper, in the all the houses of the town, and slaughtering all the description of the fort of Heathcote in the valley of cattle, hogs, and horses, they could find about the the Wish-ton-wish.
Mann Butler fort. By these hostilities, the people were left in_a condition little less distressful, than if they had fallen victims to the Indians. Life and hope made the only difference ; for their provisions, their clothing ANCIENT MEXICAN COTTON MANUFACTURE. and their bedding, had generally perished in the The cotton mauusacture was found existing in ashes of their houses.' So hurried had been the considerable perfection in America, in the discqvery retreat, that many escaped in the apparel of the of that continent by the Spaniards. Cotton forined night alone. It was indeed a desolate scene ; yet the principal article of clothing among the Mexiwell and nobly endured for the bustling commerce cans, as they had neither wool, hemp, nor silk; nor and ingenious arts, which have raised the modern did they use the flax which they possessed for purtown of Wheeling to its present high prosperity in
poses of clothing ; and their only materials for mawestern Virginia.
king cloth, besides cotton, were feathers, the wool The failure of this siege is to be added to the nu- of rabbits and hares, (known in commerce as coney's merous instances in the history of the western coun- wool,) and the fibrous plant called the maguei. We try, of the superiority of a slight fortification of logs to are informed by the Abbe Clavigero, that “of cotall the military arts of the Indians. It almost defies ton, the Mexicans made large webs, and as delicate belief, that this superiority should be so decisive, as and fine as those of Holland, which were with much to enable thirty odd determined men, under its cov
reason highly esteemed in Europe. They wove er, successfully to defy a numerical difference of their cloths in different figures and colours, repremore than three hundred and fifty choice and exas. senting different animals and flowers. Of feathers perated warriours.
interwoven with cotton they made mantles and bedShortly after the beginning of the siege, informa- curtains, carpets, and other things, not less great 'tion was conveyed to some neighbouring forts of the than beautiful. With cotton also they interwove allạck; and exertions were immediately made among the finest hair of the belly of rabbits and hares, after the generous and gallant spirits of the times, to re- having made and spun it into thread ; of this they lieve the beleaguered Wheeling fort. Open battle was made most beautiful cloths, and in particular winter not within the power of the sparse and scanty pop-waistcoats for the lords." Among the presents sent ulation ; but Col. Andrew Swearingen set off with by Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, to Charles V., fourteen men, (to the no little dread of those he left
cotton mantles, some all white, others mixed behind, for their own safety, as well as that of the with white and black, or red, green, yellow, and bold detachment,) for the purpose of throwing him- blue; waistcoats, handherchiefs, counterpanes, tapself into the besieged place. The party descended estries, and carpets of cotton; and the colours of
! the river in a large canoe, paddling all night; but the cotton were extremely fine," as the Mexicans owing to a heavy fog, they were much impeded on had both indigo and cochineal among their native the way. At length, fearing they might pass the dies. They also used cotton in making a species town in the night, they suffered the canoe to float of paper ; one of their kinds of money consisted in down the stream, till they descried the light of the small cloths and cotton ; and their warriours wore burning houses of Wheeling. They now apprehend-cuirases, of cotton, covering the body from the neck ed that the fort, as well as the town, might have to the waist. been destroyed. To ascertain the condition of things,
Baine's History of the Cotton Manufactures. Col. Swearingen, Capt. Beldenback, and William Bashears, landed above the fort, and safely reached The skins of sheep and goats were very early it. Still apprehending that the enemy might be ly- used instead of paper. The finest material of thus ing in wait, a view was cautiously taken in a circu- sort is called vellum.