Page images

again silent. Presently the crackling of flames was had taken possession of a steep narrow ridge and heard, accompanied by a triumphant yell from the seemed desirous of magnifying their numbers in the Indians, announcing thất they had set fire to that di- eyes of the whites, as they ran rapidly from tree to vision of the house which had been occupied by the tree, and maintained a steady yell in their most apdaughters, and of which they held undisputed pos- palling tones. The pursuers, however, were too session. The fire was quickly communicated to experienced to be deceived by so common an artithe rest of the buiiding, and it became necessary to fice, and being satisfied that ihe number of the enabandon it or perish in the flames. In the one case, emy must be inferiour to their own, they dismountthere was a possibility that some might escape ; in ed, tied their horses, and flanking out in such a the other, their fate would be equally certain and manner as to inclose the enemy, ascended the ridge terrible. The rapid approach of the flames cut as rapidly as was consistent with a due regard to short their momentary suspense.

The door was the shelter of their persons. The firing quickly thrown open, and the old lady, supported by her commenced, and now for the first time they discoveldest son, attempted to cross the fence at one point, ered that only two Indians were opposed to them. while her daughter carrying her child in her arms, They had voluntarily sacrificed themselves for the and attended by the younger of the brothers, ran in safety of the main body, and had succeeded in dea different direction. The blazing roof shed a light laying pursuit until their friends could reach the over the yard but little inferiour to that of day, and mountains. One of them was instantly shot dead, the savages were distinctly seen awaiting the ap- and the other was badly wounded, as was' evident proach of their victims. The old lady was permit- from the blood upon his blanket, as well as that led to reach the style unmolested, but in the act of which filled his tracks in the snow for a consideracrossing, received several balls in her breast and ble distance. The pursuit was recommenced, and fell dead. Her son, providentially, remained un- urged keenly until night, when the trail entered a hurt, and by extraordinary agility, effected his es- running stream and was lost. On the following "cape. The other party succeeded also in reaching morning the snow had melted, and every trace of the fen: e nhurt, but in the act of crossing, were the enemy was obliterated. This affair must be revigorously assailed by several Indians, who throwing garded as highly honourable to the skill, address, down their guns, rushed upon them with their toma- and activity of the Indians, and the self-devotion of hawks. The young man defended his sister gal- the rear-guard, is a lively instance of that magnanlantly, firing upon the enemy as they approached, imity of which they are at times capable, and which and then wielding the butt of his rifle with a fury is more remarkable in them, from the extreme that drew their whole attention upon himself, and caution, and tender regard for their own lives, which gave his sister an opportunity of effecting her es- usually distinguishes their warriours”. cape. He quickly fell, however, under the tomahawk of his enemies, and was found at daylight, scalped and mangled in a shocking manner. Of the whole family, consisting of eight persons, when the attack commenced, only three escaped. Four were killed upon the spot, and one (the second NATURAL HISTORY. daughter) carried off as a prisoner. The neighbourhood was quickly alarmed, and by

THE ARABIAN CAMEL. daylight, about thirty men were assembled under the command of Colonel Edwards. A light snow Of the group of animals figured in the cut achad fallen during the latter part of the night, and companying this article, the Syrian ox and the the Indian trail could be pursued at a gallop. It led camel, are the most useful and important. The directly into the mountainous country bordering upon Syrian ox takes the place in the eastern countries Licking, and afforded evidences of great hurry and of our common ox. The camel family is extenprecipitation on the part of the fugitives. Unfortu- sive and embraces the camel, dromedary, lama, nately, a hound had been permiited to accompany guanaco and alpaca. Of these the Arabian camel the whites, and as the trail became fresh and the may be considered as the camel par excellence; as scent warm, she followed it with eagerness, baying it is the one which is best known and employed on loudly, and giving the alarm to the Indians. The the most diflicult, and therefore the most important consequences of this imprudence were soon dis- journeys. To the Arab in the desert, especially played. The enemy finding the pursuit keen, and those parts.of it in which neither sheep nor goats perceiving that the strength of the prisoner began to can be kept, the camel is an exceedingly valuable fail

, instantly sunk their tomahawks in her head and animal; and in this respect approaches nearer to the left her, still warm and bleeding upon the snow. ox, where kept for drauglit and burden, as well as As the whites came up, she retained strength enough for food, than perhaps any other animal. The flesh to wave her hand in token of recognition, and ap- of the camel is eaten ; and the milk is applied to peared desirous of giving them some information, all the common domestick purposes. Their hair is with regard to the enemy, but her strength was too manufactured into clothing, and also covering for far gone. Her brother sprung from his horse and tents. The hide, which is very thick and strong, is knelt by her side, endeavouring to stop the effusion used for making sandals, saddles, pitchers, shields of blood, but in vain. She gave him her hand, mul- and various other articles. The owner, with his tered some inarticulate words, and expired within family, and all their little appointments, are carried two minutes after the arrival of the party. The from place to place on the backs of the camels. pursuit was renewed with additional ardour, and in When the camel kneels down for repose during the twenty minutes the enemy was within view. They night, his side forms a pillow; and when the sand

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][merged small]

drives before the storm in the desert, the rider takes they are not properly at home any where except on shelter in the lee of the kneeling camel. Upon oc- surfaces of dry sand or mud; on hard ground their casion, the camels are sometimes ranged round the feet get beaten, on rocks they get cut, and on both encampment, forining both a shelter, and at least a kinds of surfaces the pluring of the feet shakes temporary means of defence in cases of attack them violently, and they run some risk of dislocating during the night; and those countries which are the joints of their legs; their manner of walking, separated from each other by wide extents of des- and also the convex forin of the soles of their feet, ert, could have no communication with each other render a surface which yields partially to the tread but by means of the camel. The camel and the necessary to their walking with comfort; and when desert thus appear to be made for each other; and one sees a camel led about Tor show in paved streets, though the appellation of "the Ship of the Desert”. the animal seems to walk in great pain, and looks no doubt partakes of little of the high hyperbole of sickly from the constant jolting of its weighty body, eastern speech, yet that animal is the only ship by and the tendency which its feet have to slide, espe. means of which the desert can be navigated either cially if the pavement is wet, or glazed by the trafwith certainty or with safety.

fick of carriages in dry weather. An Arabian camel can carry a load of between Camels are sometimes used in war, and small seven and eight hundred pounds, and travel with it pieces of ordnance are occasionally mounted on at the rate of about two miles and a half in the iheir backs; but the principal use of them is for hour. When less heavily laden it can travel faster, more pacifick purposes. When a horde of those no. though not above three miles in the hour; and in madick tribes, which depend much on their camels, the deserts it is not customary to load the animals remain stationary in any locality, they let their very heavily, or drive them more than about eight camels pasture together in considerable focks; but hours in the day. Though the eye of the camel is the males and females are kept in separate pastures, heavy, his senses, especially that of smelling, are by which means they all remain tractable, except very acuie: and though there is some trouble as during the ruiting season, and then the males often well as some skill necessary in breaking a young fight desperately with each other by biting, striking, camel, yet when properly broken they are docile; and kicking, in the course of which they endeavour with proper treatment they last much longer than to throw each other down, and the one which goes the horse, being serviceable to the age of forty or to the ground is sure to be trampled under foot by. forty-five years; but in India, where they are heav- the other. They are even exhibited in combat ily laden, and not so well treated as in the countries among the coarse spectacles of the place. This is to the westward, they do not last above half that not, however, very common. time,

As is the case among horses, and indeed among Camels have been partially introduced into some all animals which have been long in a state of doof the warmer parts of the south of Europe ; but Imestication, there appears to be considerable " difforonces of blood” among camels. Those which are of that country toward the mountains of Armenia ; used in common caravan travelling, with heavy and that of the two species of camel, the one is a leads, and at a slow rate, bear nearly the same rela- native of the country immediately to the south of tion to the smaller, lighter, and fleeter breeds, which those mountains which range from the Himalaya to are used in reconnoitering or on swift journeys, that the shores of the Archipelago, and that the other our heavy dray and cart-horses bear to roadsters, is a native of the northern slopes of the same moun hunters, and racers. It is to this small and fleet tains. breed that the name dromedary, or mahairy, properly That this mountain-ridge is the natural boundary applies. By means of these, no doubt with relays of the localities of the two species or varieties may at the different stages, a journey at the rate of more readily he admitted, because the hair of the Bacthan four miles an hour may be kept up night and trian camel follows the general law of that of all day for several days. It has sometimes been al- animals of Central Asia northward of the line of leged that this difference of speed in different in the Himalaya. Toward the winter it grows very dividuals should be considered as arising from a long, as if to serve as a thatch against at least ocdifference of species, and there have not been want- casional snow-storms; and when summer sets in, ing, attempts to show that these different species this winter coat of long hair is shed, so that during originated in different parts of the country, but there the summer, which is very hot and dry in those is little reason to suppose that either the one or the places, as compared with the winter, the animal is other of those suppositions have the slightest foun- nearly naked. In the Arabian camel, on the other dation in truth; though there is no doubt that hand, there is no such seasonal change in the hair. camels, like all other animals, are affected by differ- No doubt it is longer in winter than in summer, and ences of climate, pasture, and treatment. And, as the coat is annually changed as well as that of the the swifter ones are said to be more in the hands of other; but the change is gradual in comparison, and the wandering Bedouins than of those who have the difference in the winter and summer appearance comparatively fixed abodes, it is highly probable of the animal is not nearly so great. In this rethat the farther into the desert, the camel is the spect, however, there is a considerable differenco fleeter, and the smaller in size. This accords with between the camels of the northern and the southern what is observed of animals in our own country; parts of their range, or more strictly speaking, beand as is the case with these, it seems to be in har-tween those that inhabit countries which are subject dihood and power of endurance more than in abso- to periodical rain and drought, and those which in. lutely greater speed, for a short time that the maha- habit where the climate is habitually dry, and with ries are superiour to the larger camels which are the exception of difference of heat (which is not employed io carry loads at slower rates and at very great,) the weather may be said to be nearly shorter distances.

the same all the year round. This is very much The Arabian camel is, in the largest breeds, the case on the borders of the western or rather about seven feet in height; but the smaller and the central deserts of Africa, and it is partially also swifter ones are lower. The legs are long and the case in some of the northern parts of Arabia. slender, and what are considered “clean made.” These are the places where the smallest and fleetIt is very much drawn in at the flanks, but the abdo- est camels are bred, and also where their hair is men is rather too large, and the length of the intes- shortest and most uniform in length throughout the tinal canal and size of the stomachs, rendered ne- year. cessary by the coarse nature of the animal's food, There is thus a wonderful accommodation to clirequire that it should be so. There is but one hump, mate in the camel, as well as in all the other rumiwhich is nearly in the middle of the back, broad nantia, which are so very serviceable to man in a and rather flat in the upper part; and it does not domestick state; and froin this we may infer that, waste so much in the ruling season as the hump of in so far as its general health is concerned, the camel the Bactrian camel. Independently of the different might in course of time be domésticated, and thrive breeds which are reared for different purposes in in a domestick state, in any latitude, from Lapland the domestick economy of those people who use to the equator. There is something very remarkacamels, there are considerable differences arising ble in this universal adaptation of those animals which from the characters of the countries in which they are the most serviceable to the human race, so reare bred. In this respect they follow the law of all markable that it is impossible not to see that God domesticated animals which find their food in the has created those animals for a double purpose. fields; that is, the richer the pasture is the breed First, for their general use in wild nature, in which runs the larger, and the breed gradually diminishes they agree with all other natural productions; and as the pasture becomes bare and dry. So that if secondly, in their peculiar use to man in all stages large camels are wanted in Arabia or in the African and degrees of civilization. And we may remark deserts, the breed has to be obtained, or kept up by that the very same law holds good in the vegetable periodical crossing, from Turkey; and on the other kingdom. All those plants which are more emhand, if light and fleet camels are wanted in the inently necessary for human food can, with

proper richer places, they have to be obtained by means of management, be grown in perfection over a vast the breeds of the deserts. Independently however range of surface. Wheat, which is probably though of this, there appears to be some difference of size the fact is one which cannot be ascertained with connected with difference of latitude, as they are certainty) a native of Northern Africa, can be profitsmaller in proportion as they are bred in places ably reared in the north of Scotland; and the potanearer the equator. From this it has sometimes to, which is originally from Central America, forms been argued that the Arabian camel is not a native a large proportion of the vegetable food even of of Arabia, but of Syria, and even the northern part Northern Europe, and is much better there than in

[ocr errors]

any part of that continent of which it is a na-

Animals and vegetables which are not serviceable to man, or of which the possession partakes more of the character of a luxury than that of a necessary life, do not so readily accommodate themselves to different climates; and in order to have them in places which are not native to them, a good deal of art must be practised, and a good deal of expense incurred. But though the valuable animals accommodate themselves to different climates, there is still one part of their organization which keeps them to that peculiar kind of surface on which food most nearly resembling that of their native places is to be found; and, as the camel is a native of very peculiar kinds of surface, the camel is a very remarkable instance of this. These animals use their feet only as organs of motion, and except in kicking or striking in their own defence, they use them for no other purpose ; and, therefore, the structures of their feet keep them more to their proper localities than those of any other animals, as for instance, the buffalo to the swamp, the ox to the meadow, the sheep to the hillside, the goat to the rocks, and the camel to the desert. Therefore, though it is possible to rear any one of those animals over a very wide extent of latitude, there is still some one bet

The Fig.-(F. carica.) ter fitted for every particular place than any of the others are ; and thus, though nature has been ex- No tree is more easily increased than the comceedingly bountiful to man in the valuable qualities mon fig; suckers which the tree produces in plenty, in those animals, the advantage is not given to him make good trees; it also strikes root readily from as an ignorant and indolent savage, but as a means either layers or cuttings. Planted against walls, of rational study and wholesome labour. Hence, they are usually trained with branches diverging every department of nature, as well as every difficul- from the root like a fan; but they may be trained in uy and distress by which man is overtaken on his any form. Standards in the open ground are trained progress through life, impresses upon him the ne- in the round bush form. cessity of being intelligent and industrious-pro- The best soil for figs is a strongish hazel loam claims to him, in language not to be mistaken, that on a dry bottom, but they thrive in any good gardenif he would avoid being wretched and miserable he soil. must learn to know and to do, and continue steady Much depends on pruning: the young shoots proin the practice of both, during the whole period of duced in the spring do not ripen fruit, but if these his life.

shoots be stopped by breaking off the point as soon as they are from four to six inches long, they will produce other shoots which will bear plentifully,

and ripen fruit in the autumn of the next year. So FIGS.

that keeping the tree free from old branches and

stopping the spring shoots every year, about midThe annexed cut is an excellent representation summer, will keep a constant supply of bearing of the leaves of the fig, an extensive genus of lofty wood to be depended on. Large fig-trees on walls trees only one species of which bears edible fruit. managed in this manner, are well worth defending This is the one generally cultivated in hot-houses from frost by woollen netting, or some other tempoat the northern, and in the gardens of the southern rary curtain, to be let down or put up when necesparts of the United States. In the south of Europe sary. All the fruit produced on the spring-shoots, figs are one of their most esteemed and valuable and which never ripen, should be pulled off the tree fruits, not only from their forming an article of diet in September, causing very frequently other young. in the season, but from their being an important fruit to come forth on one or both sides of the place article for exportation to other countries.

where the first grew. This second birth are sure The fig-tree is remarkable for yielding, in its na- to ripen in the following summer. tive country, two crops of ripe fruit in the course of twelve months. The young fruit which make their appearance in the autumn of one year, ripen in the beginning of summer in the next; and the fruit to the

4 which show themselves in the spring, ripen in the

THE THORN. following autumn. In this country the spring-pro- In rambling around the country observing the cuduced fruit rarely or never ripen in the open air; riosities of nature, nothing is more attractive than but the autumn-fruit, if they escape the frosts of the thom, a cut of which will be found on the next winter, ripen perfectly, as well on standards as on page. walls.

On the sharp thorny branches of this tree, it is


colouring. The tender, the pathetick and devout, were the characters in which he peculiarly excelled, and are those which not only distinguish him from every other painter, but almost give him precedence of all. In expressing the different parts of the body, he had a remarkable peculiarity, for he usually designed the eyes of his figures large, the nostrils somewhat close, the mouth small, the toes rather too much joined, and without any great variety. His heads are accounted little inferiour to Raffaell's, either in correctness of design or engaging propriety of expression; and it has been justly observed, that the merit of Guido consisted in that moving and persuasive beauty, which does not so much proceed from a regularity of features, as from the lovely air which he gave to the mouth, and the modesty which he placed in the eye. Yet there is somewhat theatrical in his attitudes, whence it seems that he confined all his power to the expression of the countenance. His draperies are always disposed with large folds, in a grand style, and with singular judgement they are contrived to fill up the void spaces, free from stiffness or affectation, yet noble and elegant. Though he understood not the chiarooscuro, he sometimes practised it, by the force of

genius. His pencil was light, and his touch free, [The Thorn.)

but delicate ; and though he laboured his pictures

highly, he generally gave some bold strokes to his frequently remarked, that one and sometimes two or work, in order to conceal the toil and time he had three grass-hoppers, and other insects are found bestowed upon it. His colouring is generally very impaled by a bird called the nine-killer,

clear and pure ; but latterly, his pictures had a Tradition relates that this bird has a practice of grayish cast, which changed into a livid colour, and catching and sticking up nine grass-hoppers a day, his shadows partook of the green. Many of his which it does not devour, but places them in order latter performances are not to be placed in competito decoy the smaller birds which feed on insects, tion with those which he painted before he fell into and thus render them his prey. But what is still distressed circumstances, by an inordinate passion more remarkable, each of these grass-hoppers is for gaming ; when, as his necessities compelled him stuck up regularly and in the same position as when to work for immediate subsistence, he contracted on the ground.

the habit of painting in a slight and negligent als bo manner, without any attention to his honour or fame.

lored mene In the church of St. Philip Neri, at Fano, is a grand atome xla.or written per altar-piece by Guido, representing Christ delivering ARTS AND ARTISTS. the keys to St. Peter. The head of our Saviour is

exceedingly fine, that of St. John admirable, and The cut opposite, represents the flight of Lot and the other apostles are in a grand style, full of elehis daughters, and is engraved from a celebrated pic-gance, with a strong expression, and the whole well ture by Guido Reni.

preserved. In the archiepiscopal gallery at Milan This memorable artist was born at Bologna in is a St. John, wonderfully tender in the colouring, 1574, and when very young became the scholar of and the graces diffused throughout the design excite Denis Calvart, but he afterwards entered the school the admiration of every beholder. At Bologna, in of the Caracci, being considered as the principal the Palazzo Tanaro, is a most beautiful picture of disciple of that celebrated seminary, with the ex- the Virgin, the Infant Jesus, and St. John; in which ception of Domenichino. His masters, we are con- the heads are exquisitely graceful, and the draperies fidently told, were so jealous of his extraordinary in a grand style. But in the Palazzo Zampieri is talents and uncommon progress, that Lodovico at-preserved one of the most capital paintings of Guido. tempted to keep down his aspiring genius, by set-The subject is, the Penitence of St. Peter, with ting Guercino against him as a rival; while Anni- one of the apostles seeming to comfort him. The bale, in the same ungenerous spirit, censured Albano figures are as large as life, and the whole of an as for bringing Guido among them. Notwithstanding tonishing beauty; the painter having shown, in that this, the young artist pursued his course with unre- single performance, the art of painting carried to its mitting ardour; nor did he adopt the style of the highest perfection. The heads are nobly designed; Caracci, but examined for himself the several excel- the colouring is clear and precious; and the expreslencies of other great painters, with the view ofsion inimitably just and natural. There was also in profiting by them all, and thus forming a manner of the collection of the marquis of Hastings, but afterhis own. He at one time appeared to imitate Pas- wards of Mr. West, a fine head by Guido, represerotti, and at another Caravaggio ; but he took care senting Christ crowned with thorns, painted in a oid their defects, and whatever he found good style nearly approaching to perfection, blending in

improved, both in expression and I the expression all that can possibly be imagined of

to a.

in eithers,

« PreviousContinue »