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[The Flight of Lot with his Daughters.-Guido Reni. pious resignation and sublimity of character. This only vessel necessary for a wax lamp, the wax being exquisite picture has been admirably engraved by cut to pieces and pressed into it: when a wick is Sharpe. Great were the rewards and honours consumed it is only necessary to pierce the wax which this accomplished artist received from popes with a large pin down to the burner, and introduce and princes, as well as froin cardinals and nobles of a fresh piece of waxed cotton. various countries; notwithstanding this, he aban- If the wax lamp is required to have a thicker doned himself to gaming so entirely as to be reduced wick, as for experiments with the blow-pipe, the to poverty, which brought on a dejection of spirits, wick may be made in two pieces, as for the oiland a languishing disorder, of which he died at Bo- lamp, and only the detached end will want occalogna in 1642. Guido was so extremely handsome sional renewal. in his person that Lodovico Caracci, in painting his The best manner of extinguishing wax lamps, so angels, always look him for his model. Arpino, as to preserve the wick for re-lighting, is to overwhen asked by the pope his opinion of Guido's per- charge it with wax by holding a piece so that as the formances in ihe Capella Quirinale, replied, “our wax melts it may fall on the wick, and lessen the pictures are the work of men's hands, but these are flame, when a gentle puff will extinguish it at once made by hands divine.”

without any ill smell.

These wax lamps have a superiority over wax candles in that the flame being always at the same height, it admits a vessel of water being supported

over it ready to be used for shaving in the morning; BURNING WAX

or coffee may be kept warm over it, to the great conWax is sometimes substituted for oil in lamps. venience of travellers; while, at the same time, the The great secret on which the burning of wax wax will congeal so quickly on the putting out of lamps depends is the affording a supply of melted the flame that it is ready to be packed up among wax to the wick immediately upon its being lighted; the baggage, or clapped into the night-bag, before for this purpose, care should be taken that bits of the traveller has finished his dressing. wax should be heaped up in contact with the wick, 80 that the flame may melt it instantly.

Cure for the Toothache.

Fasten a strong piece The wicks of Mr. Smithson's wax lamps are of twine to the tooth that is to be drawn, and attach made of a single cotton thread, waxed by drawing the other end of the twine to a heavy stone. Then them through melted wax: it is supported by å if the tooth be in the upper jaw, stand on a fence and burner made of a small bit of tinned plate ; which let the stone drop down suddenly—if the tooth be in has two slits cut at each end, and the middle parts the under jaw, stand at the botton of the fence and raised up to form a wicker-holder. A cup is the throw the stone over.

Boston Post. VOL. V.-22

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PYROTECHNY.

secured by means of running knots made one above The Chinese appear to have been the first scien- the other." tifick inanufacturers of fire-works; they employed Besides the roller, a rod is used, which being emthem at all their great festivals, and combined them with ployed to load the cartridge must be somewhat smalltransparent lanterns so as to produce very pleasing er than the roller, in order that it may be easily in and picturesque effects. In the present article we troduced into the cartridge. The rod is pierced purpose pointing out the most convenient mode of lengthwise, to a sufficient depth to receive the piercinaking some of the most striking of these fire-works. er, which must enter into the mould, and unite with

Rockets may be regarded as the grand basis of all it exactly at its lower part. The piercer, which pyrotechnical exhibitions, which are little more than decreases in size, is introduced into the cartridge modifications of their form, and of the materials of through the part where it has been choked, and which they usually consist. A rocket is a cartridge serves to preserve a cavity within it. Its length, or case made of stiff paper, which being filled in besides the nipple or button, must be equal to about part with gunpowder, saltpetre, and charcoal, rises two thirds that of the mould. Lastly, if the thickof itself into the air when fire is applied to it. ness of the base be a fourth part of the caliber of

There are three sorts of rockets : small ones, the the mould, the point must be made equal to a sixth caliber of which does not exceed a pound bullet; of the caliber. It is evident there must be at least that is to say, the orifice of them is equal to the three rods, pierced in proportion to the diminution diameter of a leaden bullet which weighs only a of the piercer, in order that the powder which is pound ; (for the calibers or orifices of the moulds or rammed in by means of a mallet may be uniformly the models used in making rockets are measured by packed throughout the whole length of the rocket. the diameters of leaden bullets,) middle sized rock- After the cartridge is placed in the mould, pour ets, equal to the size of a ball of from one to three gradually into it the prepared composition, taking pounds; and large rockets, equal to a ball of from care to pour only two spoonfuls at a time, and to ihree to one hundred pounds.

ram it immediately down with the rod. When the To give the cartridges the same length and thick- cartridge is about half filled, separate with a bodkin ness, in order that any number of rockets may be the half of the folds of the paper which remains, and prepared of the same size and force, they are put having turned them back on the composition, press into a hollow cylinder of strong wood, called a mould. them down with the rod and a few strokes of the This mould is sometimes of metal, but at any rate mallet, in order to compress the paper on the comit onght to be made of some very hard wood. This position. Then pierce three or four holes in the mould must not be confounded with another piece folded paper by means of a piercer, which must be of wood called the former or roller, around which is made to penetrate to the composition of the rocket. rolled the thick paper employed to make the car. These holes serve to form a communication between tridge. If the caliber of the mould be divided into the body of the rocket and the vacuity at the excight equal parts, the diameter of the roller must be tremity of the cartridge, or that part which has been equal to five of these parts. The vacuity between left empty. the roller and the interiour surface of the mould, that In small rockets this is filled with granulated powis to say, three eighths of the caliber of the mould, der, which serves to let them off; they are then will be exactly filled by the cartridge.

covered with paper, and pinched in the same manFor making the cartridges large stiff paper is em- ner as at the other extremity. But in other rockets ployed. This paper is wrapped round the roller the pot containing stars, serpents, and running rockand then cemented by nieans of common paste. The ets, is adapted to it. A little of the composition of thickness of the paper, when rolled up in this man- the rocket must be put into these holes, that the fire ner, ought to be about one eighth and a half of the may be communicated to it. caliber of the mould, according to the proportion Care must be taken, in placing the rockets when given to the diameter of the roller. But, if the di- they are to be fired, to give them a vertical direction ameter of the roller be made equal to three fourths at their first setting out, which may be managed the caliber of the mould, the thickness of the car- thus : have two rails of wood, of any length, supa tridge must be a twelfth and a half of that caliber. ported at each end by a , perpendicular leg, so that When the cartridge is formed the roller is drawn the rails be horizontal, and let the distance from one out, by turning it round, until it is distant from the to the other be almost equal to the length of the edge of the cartridge the length of its diameter. A sticks of the rockets intended to be fired; then in piece of cord is then made to pass twice round the the front of the top rail drive square hooks at eight cartridge at the extremity of the roller, and into the inches distance, with their points turning sidewise, vacuity left in the cartridge another roller is intro- so that when the rockets are hung on them the points duced, so as to leave some space between the two. will be before the sticks and keep them from falling One end of the pack thread must be fastened to or being blown off by the wind : in the front of the something fixed, and the other to a stick conveyed rail at bottom must be staples, driven perpendicularly between the legs, and placed in such a manner as under the hooks at top: through these staples put the to be behind the person who chokes the cartridge. small ends of the rocket-sticks. Rockets are fired The cord is then to be stretched by retiring back- by applying a lighted pori-fire to their mouths. ward, and the cartridge must be pinched until there The girandole chests for flights of rockets are remains only an aperture capable of admitting the generally composed of four sides, of equal dimenpiercer. The cord employed for pinching it is then sions, but may be made of any diameter, according removed, and its place is supplied by a piece of pack- to the number of rockets designated to be fired; the threart, which must be drawn very tight, passing it height of the chest must be in proportion to the several times round the cartridge, after which it is rockets, but must always be a little higher than the

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rockets with their sticks. When the sides are join-stick and the other facing the neck of the rockets ; ed the top must be fixed as far down the chest as the distance between these notches may easily be the length of one of the rockets with its cap on. In known, for the top of the stick should always touch this top should be as many square or round holes, to the head of the rocket. receive the rocket-sticks, as the pyrotechnist intends The following charges for the preparation of rockto have rockets; but he must let the distance be- ets are the result of actual experiments ;--For rocko , tween them be sufficient for the rockets to stand ets of four ounces-meal-powder one pour.d four without touching one another ; then from one hole ounces, saltpetre four ounces, and charcoal two ounto another must be cut a groove large enough for a ces. Rockets of eight ounces require meal-powquick-match to lie in; the top being thus fixed, the der one pound, saltpetre four ounces, brimstone three bottom must be placed at about a foot and a half dis- ounces, and charcoal one ounce and a half ; and tance from the bottom of the chest; in this bottom those of one pound require meal-powder two pounds, must be as many holes as in the top, and all to cor- saltpetre eight ounces, brimstone four ounces, charrespond, but these holes need not be so large as coal two ounces, and steel filings one ounce and a those in the top.

half. To make several sky-rockets rise in the same Signal sky-rockets without reports are only skydirection, and equally distant from each other, take rockets closed and capped : these are very light, and six or any number of sky-rockets, of any required therefore do not require such heavy sticks as those size ; then cut some strong packthread into pieces with loaded heads. Signal rockets, with reports, of three or four yards long, and tie each end of these are fired in small flights; and often both these and pieces to a rocket in the following manner: having those without reports are used for a signal to begin tied one end of the packthread round the body of one firing a collection of fire-works. rocket, and the other end to another, take a second. The method of fixing a sky-rocket with its stick piece of packthread and make one end of it fast to on the top of another is as follows :-Having filled one of the rockets already tied, and the other end to a two-pounder, which must contain only half a diama third rocket, so that all the rockets, except the eter above the piercer, and its head not more than two outside, will be fastened to two pieces of pack- ten or twelve stars ; the stick of this rocket must be thread; the length of thread from one rocket to the made rather thicker than common; and, when made, other may be what the maker pleases; but the rock-cut in half the flat way, and in each half a groove, ets must be all of a size, and their heads filled with so that when the two halves are joined the hollow the same weight of stars, or other ornamental fires. made by the grooves may be large enough to hold

The prime being fired, all the rockets will mount the stick of a half pound rocket, which must be at the same time and divide as far as the strings will made and headed as usual. Put the stick of this allow, which division they will keep, provided they rocket into the hollow of the large one, so far that are all rammed alike and well made. They are its mouth may rest on the head of the two-pounder, , called by some pyrotechnists chained rockets. from whose head carry a leader into the mouth of

The dimensions and proper mode of poising rock- the small rocket. This combination et-sticks will next engage our attention. These brilliant effect. points may be best illustrated by the accompanying If two, three, or six sky-rockets, be fixed on one tabular view :

stick, and fired together, the tails of all will seem

but as one of an immense size, and the breaking of Weight

so many heads at once will resemble the bursting of: Length of Thickness Breadth Square at the point of an air-balloon.

The management of this device requires a skilful hand; but if the following instruc

tions be well observed, even by those who have not 6 0 14 0 1.5 1.85 0.75 4 1.5 made a great progress in this art, there will be no 40 12 10 1.25 1.40 0.625 3 9 doubt of the rockets having the desired effect. 20 9 4 1.125

0.525 2 9 When one sky-rocket is fixed on the top of anoth8 2 0.725 0.80 0.375 2 1 er, they are called towering rockets, on account of 8 6 6

0.5

0.70 0.25 1 10.5 the great elevation which they attain. They are: 4 5 3 0.3750 0.55 0.35 1 8.5 constructed as follows:- Fix on a pound rocket a 2 4 1 0.3

0.45 0.15 1 3 head without a collar; then take a four ounce rocket 1 3 6 0.25 0.35 0.10 11 0 of another kind, and rub the mouth of it with meal2 4 0.125 0.20 0.16

0 powder wetted with spirits of wine: when done, 1 101 | 0.1 0.15 0.5 5. 0.5 put it in the head of the large rocket with its mouth

downward; but previously place a piece of quickThe last column on the right, in the above table, match in the hole of the clay of the pound rocket. expresses the distance from the top of the cone, which match should be long enough to go a little where the stick, when tied on, should balance the way up the bore of the small rocket, to fire it when rocket, so as to stand in an equilibrium on a point or the large one is burnt out; the four ounce rocket the edge of a knife. The best wood for the sticks being too small to fill the head of the other, roll is dry deal, made thus :-When they are cut and round it as much tow as will make it stand upright planed according to the dimensions given in the in the centre of the head: the rocket being thus table, cut, on one

of the flat sides at the top, a groove fixed, paste a single paper round the opening of the the length of the rocket, and as broad as the stick top of the head of the large rocket." The large will allow; then on the opposite flat side cut two rocket must have only half a diameter of charge notches for the cord which ties on the rocket to lie rammed above the piercer; for, if filled to the usual in; one of these notches must be near the top of the height, it would turn before the small one takes fire

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and entirely destroy the intended effect. When one Horizontal wheels are best when their felloes are rocket is headed with another, there will be no oc- made circular; in the middle of the top of the nave casion for any blowing-powder; for the force with must be a pivot turned out of the same piece as the which it sets off will be sufficient to disengage it nave, two inches long, and equal in diameter to tho from the head of the first fired rocket. The sticks bore of one of the cases of the wheel : there must for these rockets must be a little longer than for be a hole bored up the centre of the nave. The those beaded with stars, rains, &c.

wheel being made, a piece of wood should be nailed Caduceus rockets, in rising, form two spiral lines, at the end of each spoke, (of which there should be from their being placed obliquely one opposite the six or eight,) with a groove cut in it to receive the other, and their counterpoise in their centre, which case. These pieces should be fixed in such a man causes them to rise in a vertical direction. Rockets ner that half the cases may incline upward and half for this purpose must have their ends choked close, downward, and that, when they are tied on, their without either head or report, for a weight at top heads and tails may come very near together; from would be a great obstruction to their mounting. the tail of one case to the mouth of the other should

The sticks to which these rockets are fixed must be carried a leader, secured with pasted paper. Behave all their sides alike, and equal to the breadth sides these pipes, it will be necessary to put a little of a stick proper for a sky-rocket of the same weight meal-powder inside the pasted paper, to blow off the as those intended to bo used, and to taper downward pipe, that there may be no obstruction to the fire as usual, long enough to balance them, one length from the cases. By means of these pipes the of a rocket from the cross stick; which must be will successively take fire, burning one upward and placed from the large stick six diameters of one of the other downward. the rockets, and its length seven diameters ; so that Horizontal wheels are often fired two at a time, each rocket, when tied on, may form with the large and made to keep time like vertical wheels, only stick an angle of sixty degrees. In tying on the they are made without any slow or dead fire; ten or rockets, place their heads on the opposite sides of twelve inches will be enough for the diameter of the cross stick, and their ends on the opposite sides wheels with six spokes.

Dotato rises, of the long stick; then carry a leader from the mouth Plural wheels are made to turn horizontally, and of one into that of the other. When these rockets to consist of three sets of spokes, placed six at top, are to be tired, suspend them between two hooks or six at bottom, and four in the middle, which must

then burn the leader through the middle, and be a little shorter than the rest: let the diameter both will take fire at the same time.

of the wheel be ten inches; the cases must be tied Honorary rockets are the same as sky-rockets, on the ends of the spokes in grooves cut to receive except that they carry no head nor report, but are them, or in pieces of wood nailed on the ends of the closed at the top, on which is fixed a cone. On the spokes, with grooves cut in them as usual: in clothcase, close to the top of the stick, tie on a two ounce ing these wheels, make the upper set of cases play: case, about five or six inches long, filled with a obliquely downward, the bottom set obliquely upstrong charge, and pinched close at both ends ; then ward, and the middle set horizontally. 9 in the reverse sides, at each end, bore a hole simi- To make an illuminated spiral wheel, the pyrolar to those in tourbillons ; from each hole carry a technist must first have a circular horizontal wheel leader into the top of the rocket. When the rocket made two feet diameter, with a hole quite through is fired, and arrived at its proper height, it will give the nave; and then take four thin pieces of deal, fire to the case at top, which will cause both rocket three feet long each, and three quarters of an inch and stick to revolve very fast in their descent, and broad each: one end of each of these pieces is to represent a worm of fire descending to the ground. be nailed to the felloe of the wheel, at an equal dis

There is another method of placing the small case, tance from one another, and the other end nailed to. which is by letting the stick rise a little above the a block with a hole in its bottom, which must be top of the rocket, and tying the case to it so as to perpendicular with that in the block of the wheel, A rest on the rocket : these rockets have no cones. but not so large the wheel being thus made,

A third mode of constructing them is as follows: In the top of a rocket fix a piece of wood, in which drive a small iron spindle; then make a hole in the middle of the small case, through which put the spindle; then fix on the top of it a nut to keep the case from falling off; when this is done the case will revolve rapidly without the rocket.

Revolving wheels form an interesting feature in pyrotechnical exhibitions. The simple Catherine wheel is well known, and may be constructed by

之 any person capable of manufacturing a common

:52914 squib. It is little more than a tube charged with an

,;..[1 active fire wound round a piece of wood, which acts like the nave of a wheol. Vertical wheels are made from ten inches to three feet diameter, and the size of the cases must differ accordingly ; four ounce cases will do for wheels of fourteen or sixteen inch

it Bulagante es diameter, which is the proportion generally used. 'The best wood for wheels of all sorts is a light and| dry beach.

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hoop planed down very thin must be nailed to the ces of meal-powder, four of saltpetre, and six each felloe of the wheel, and wound round the four sticks of sulphur and zinc. in a spiral line from the wheel to the block at top: Another blue fire, for calibers of half an inch and on the top of this block a case of Chinese fire must upward.— Eight ounces of saltpetre, four each of be fixed, and on the wheel any number of cases, meal-powder and sulphur, and seventeen of zinc. which must incline downward, and burn two at a The cases charged with these compositions are time. The axis for this wheel must be a little long- only employed for furnishing the centre of some or than the cone, and made very smooth at top, on pieces, the movement of which depends on other which the upper block is to turn, and the whole cases; as these, having no projectile force, would weight of the wheel to rest. · The entire framing of not produce motion. the wheel, with its connecting tubes, is shown in Blue fire, for any caliber.-Sixteen ounces of the accompanying figure.

meal-powder, two of saltpetre, and eight of sulphur. With regard to the preparations of Chinese fire Radiant fire, for any caliber.-Sixteen ounces of prepared in this country, which are said to surpass meal-powder, and three of pin-dust. even those of the Chinese, the following are the Green fire, for any caliber.--Sixteen ounces of most perfect :

meal-powder, and three and one eighth of filings of Composition of Chinese fire for calibers under ten copper. twelfths of an inch.--Sixteen ounces each of meal- Aurora fire, for any caliber.--Sixteen ounces of powder and saltpetre, four each of sulphur and char- meal-powder, and three and one eighth of brass powcoal, and fourteen of cast-iron finely pulverized.

der. Another.-Sixteen ounces of meal-powder, three Italian roses, or fixed stars.-Two ounces of meal. each of sulphur and charcoal, and seven of cast-iron. powder, four of saltpetre, and one of sulphur.

Another, for palm-trees and cascades.—Twelve Another for the same.--Twelve ounces of mealounces of saltpetre, sixteen of meal-powder, eight of powder, sixteen of saltpetre, ten of sulphur, and one sulphur, four of charcoal, and ten of cast-iron. of crude antimony.

Another, white fire, for calibers of eight twelfths The forms which may be given to the flame of and ten twelfths of an inch.-Eight ounces of sul- gunpowder, or to the substances which compose it, phur, sixteen each of meal-powder and saltpetre, and either by increasing or retarding its combustion, or twelve of cast-iron.

by changing the appearance of the flame, giving it Another, for gerbes of ten and eleven twefths and the form of jets, stars, rain, &c., are so numerous one inch caliber.-One ounce each of seltpetre, sul- that a knowledge of these changes and variations, is phur, and charcoal, eight each of meal-powder and considered highly important to the practical firecast-iron.

worker. For instance, in the composition of fireWhat are denominated fire-jets, or fire-spouts, are works, oak-charcoal, and pit-coal, will give the pecases charged solid with particular compositions. culiar appearance of rain. These jets have a caliber of one third of an inch to The following is one of the formula :-Eight ounone inch and a third in interiour diameter. They ces of saltpetre, four of sulphur, sixteen of meal. are seven or eight diameters in length, and are charg- powder, two ounces and a half each of oak-charcoal ed with the particular composition, driving each and pit-coal. charge with twenty blows of a mallet. The first Another composition intended for the same purcharge is the ordinary fire composition. Fire-jets pose is similar to the Chinese fire, but contains a are calculated for turning as well as for fixed pieces. larger proportion of powdered cast-iron.

Common fire for calibers of one third of an inch. In the spúr-fire, so called from its spark resem-Sixteen ounces of meal-powder, and three of char- bling the round of a spur, used principally in theacoal.

tres, the particular appearance which distinguishes Common fire for calibers of five twelfths to half it from other fires is imparted to it simply by lampan inch.—Sixteen ounces of meal-powder, and three black. and a quarter of charcoal.

The composition is :-Four pounds eight ounces Common fire for calibers above half an inch.- of saltpetre, two of sulphur, and one pound eight Sixteen ounces of meal-powder and four of charcoal. ounces of lampblack.

Brilliant fire, for ordinary calibers.-Sixteen oun- The red fire used for theatrical purposes is made cés of meal-powder and four of filings of iron. from forty parts of dry nitrate of strontian, thirteen

Another, more beautiful.—Sixteen ounces of meal- parts of finely-powdered sulphur, five parts of chlopowder, and four of filings of steel.

rate or oxymuriate of potash, and four parts of sulAnother, more brilliant, for any caliber. Eigh- phuret of antimony, mixed intimately in a mortar ; teen ounces of meal-powder, two of saltpetre, and but the chlorate of potash must be powdered sepafive of filings of steel.

rately. A little orpiment is sometimes added, and Brilliant fire, very clear, for any caliber.—Sixteen if the fire should burn dim a small quantity of powounces of meal-powder, and three of filings of dered charcoal is added. needles.

Other compositions are made, as serpents, crackSmall jessamine, for any caliber.-Sixteen ounces ers, stars, Roman candles, rocket-stars, variouslyof meal-powder, one each of saltpetre and sulphur, coloured fire-rains, white, blue, and yellow illumi. and five of filings of steel.

nation, port-fires, &c., which show that the colour White fire, for any caliber.-Sixteen ounces of and appearance of flame may be modified with almeal-powder, eight of saltpetre, and two of sulphur. most as many variations as the mixture of pigments

White fire, for any caliber.--Sixteen ounces of employed by the painters. meal-powder, and three of sulphur.

Bengal lights, although in some recipes orpiment Blue fire, for parasols and cascades -Eight oun- is added, owe their particular characteristic to the

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