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presence of antimony. The preparation was kept the same way as the cases on the wheel; all these secret for some time.
port-fires must be fired with the second cases of the The true formula is the following :-Three pounds wheel. Let there be a series of wooden spokes all of saltpetre, thirteen ounces of sulphur, and seven of made to screw into a block in the centre. When the sulphuret of antimony.
large wheel begins to discharge the fire-work, the The composition is not used in cases, but is put spiral will of course revolve and produce a very into earthen vessels, usually shallow, and as broad beautiful illuminated helix. as they are high. A small quantity of meal-powder Illuminated works are much admired by the Ita.is scattered over the surface, and a match is inserted. ians, and in a grand exhibition an illuminated piece Pots thus prepared are covered with paper or parch- should be fired after every two or three wheels, or ment, to prevent the access of moisture, which is fixed pieces of common and brilliant fires ; and likeremoved before the composition is inflamed. wise illuminated works may be made cheap, quick
Blue lights, or blue fire, is a preparation in which and easy. zinc and sulphur, or sulphur alone, are used. The To make an illuminated chandelier, the pyrotechparticular colour is communicated by the zinc and nist must first have a frame made of thin wood sulphur.
This being accomplished, bore in the front of the The most perfect blue light is made as follows: branches, and in the body, and also in the plane al Four parts of meal-powder, two of saltpetre, three top, as many holes as can be placed at three inches of sulphur, and three of zinc filings.
distance from each other: in these holes put illumiThe representation of cascades and parasols is nations filled with white, blue, or brilliant charge. made with the above, or similar compositions, but Having fixed in the port-fires, clothe them with the ordinary blue light used sometimes for signals, leaders, so that the chandelier and crown may light and adapted to any caliber of a case, is composed of together. sixteen parts of meal-powder, two parts of saltpetre, To prepare a brilliant and eight parts of sulphur.
yew-tree, a frame a c d e,
al Brass is added in the sparkling and green fire, must be firmly attached to to prepare which about three parts of brass filings the ground. When the are mixed with sixteen parts meal-powder.
branches are fixed, place ilThe amber lights are constituted of amber and luminating port-fires on the meal-powder, in the proportion of three of the for- top of each, as many as is mer to nine of the latter.
convenient ; behind the top Verdigris and antimony are frequently joined to of the stem fasten a gerbe produce a green colour.
or white fountain, which For the green match for cyphers, devices, and must be fired at the begindecorations, one pound of sulphur is melted; one ning of the illuminations on ounce of powdered verdigris and half an ounce of the tree. A series of these, crude antimony are then added; cotton loosely varying in the angular di. twisted is soaked in the mixture when melted. When rections taken by the boughs, produce a very fine used it is fastened to a wire, and the wire is bent effect. into the shape required. It is primed with a mix- Before quitting this part of our subject, it may be ture of meal-powder and spirits of wine, and a quick- proper to notice those pyrotechnick compositions match is tied along the whole length, so that the fire which are employed for military purposes. The fole: may communicate to overy part at the same time. lowing compositions are much used in warfare :
A strong decoction of jujubes, treated with sul- Fusees for shells.—Three pounds four ounces of phur, imparts to cotton the property of burning with saltpetre, one of sulphur, and two pounds twelve a violet-coloured flame.
ounces of meal-gunpowder, well mixed, and closely Sulphur alone, or zinc and sulphur, give a blue rammed in the fusee. device.
Cotton quick-match.-One pound twelve ounces If the pyrotechnist wish to prepare a grand volute of cotton, one pound eight ounces of salepetre, ten illuminated with a revolving
of isingglass gelly, ten of meal-powder, two quarts of wheel, the first step is to pro
spirits of wine, and three of water. cure a large circular wheel, h
Worsted quick-match.-Ten ounces of worsted, and on its rim tie as many
ten of meal-powder, three pints each of spirits of wine four ounce cases as will com
and water, and half a pint of isingglass gelly: plete the circle, only allow
“ Kitt,” to rub over carcases, being a kind of ing a sufficient distance boy
Greek fire.-Nine pounds resin, six each of pitch tween the cases that the fire
and beeswax, and one of tallow; or twenty-one may pass freely, which may
pounds of pitch, fourteen each of resin and beeswax, be done by cutting the upper
and one of tallow; or four pounds of pitch, two each part of the end of each a little
of tallow, beeswax, and chopped flax. shelving; on each spoke fix
Composition to fill carcases.—Ten pounds five a four ounce case about three
ounces of corned powder, four poundss two ounces inches from the rim of the
of pitch, two pounds one ounce of salpetre, one wheel; these cases
pound of tallow. burn one at a time. On the
Port-fire, to fire great guns.-Six pounds of saltfront of the wheel form a spi-'
petre, two of sulphur, one of meal-powder, well mix. ral line with strong wire, on which tie port-fires, ed, and closely rammed in the cases. placing them on a slant, with their mouths to face Stopped port-fire.--Four pounds of saltpetre, one
pound eight ounces of sulphur, and two pounds eight in the war of the American revolution, was Col. ounces of meal-powder, to be moistened with linseed Isaac Hayne, of South Carolina; a man who, by oil, and stopped in the case with a wooden drift. his amiability of character and high sentiments of
Composition for quick-match.-Six pounds six honour and uprightness, had secured the good will ounces of saltpetre, eight pounds of meal-powder, and affection of all who knew him. He had a wife one gallon each of vinegar and spirits of wine, and and six children, the eldest a boy thirteen years of four of water.
age. His wife, to whom he was tenderly attached Trunk fire, for fire-ships.-Eight pounds of meal- fell a victim of disease : an event hastened not impowder, four of saltpetre, and two of sulphur. probably by the inconveniences and sufferings inci
Greek fire, for dipping stores in a tire-ship.--dent to a state of war, in which the whole army Forty pounds of pitch, thirty each of resin and sul- largely participated. Col. Hayne himself was taken phur, ten of tallow, and two gallons of tar.
prisoner by the English forces, and in a short time Smoke balls, to drive men from between decks, was executed on the gallows under circumstances or hollow casemates.-Melt four pounds of pitch and calculated to excite the deepest commiseration. A one of tallow, in a pan set in a copper of boiling, great number of persons, both English and Ameriwater, and add ten pounds of corned powder and cans, interceded for his life ; the ladies of Charlesone of saltpetre. Fill the shell a quarter full with ton signed a petition in his behalf; his motherless this composition; then
put in a little of a mixture of children were on their bended knees humble suitors two pounds of sulphur with three of pit-coal; pro- for their beloved father, but all in vain. · ceed to fill the shell half full, and then put in more “During the imprisonment of the father, his eldest of the sulphur and pit-coal ; and the same when the son was permitted to stay with him in the prison. shell is three quarters filled.
Beholding his only surviving parent, for whom he Dr. Mac Culloch, in an excellent paper on the felt the deepest affection, loaded with irons and conGreek fire, attempts to show that there were two demned to die, he was overwhelmed with consternakinds of it, one of which contained saltpetre, and tion and sorrow. The wretched father endeavoured was analogous to the modern rocket, except that it to console him, by reminding him that the unavailhad no projectile force, and required to be thrown ing grief of his son tended only to increase his own by artillery, either mechanical or chymical, like the misery; that he came into this world merely to premodern squibs. The other kind of Greek fire was pare for a better; that he himself was prepared to a resinous composition, in which naphtha formed a die, and could even rejoice that his troubles were so principal ingredient.
To-morrow,' said he, I set out for The modern carcase is a combination of the two, immortality: you will aecompany me to the place the nitrous composition being used to fill the body, of my execution, and when I am dead, take my body while its outside is payed over with the resinous and bury it by the side of your poor mother. The composition or kitt; the approach to the carcase to youth fell upon his father's neck, crying, 'Oh, my extinguish it, is rendered dangerous by the loaded father, my father, I die with you! Col. Hayne, as pistol-barrels which are inserted in the charge, and he was loaded with irons, could not return the emdirected different ways.
brace of his son, and merely said, in reply, Live, Dr. Mac Culloch seems to think that an oil like my son ; live, to honour God by a good life, live to naphtha could not be advantageously used in com- take care of your brother and little sisters.' bination with powder or saltpetre. It appears, how- “ The next morning, proceeds the narrator of ever, from the Military Discipline of Gerat Barry, an these distressing events, Col. Hayne was conducted Irish captain in the Spanish service that for entering to the place of execution. His son accompanied breaches or ships, or to break into an array of pike- him. Soon as they came in sight of the gallows, men in ships, or to break in a narrow place, they the father strengthened himself and said, “ Tom, my used fire trunks, for which he gives this receipt :- son, show yourself a man! that tree is the boundary
Six parts of musket powder, four of sulphur, three of my life and all my life's sorrow. Beyond that of saltpetre, one each of sal ammoniac, pounded the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are glass, and of camphor, two of resin, and a half part at rest. Don't lay too much at heart our separation, of quicksilver, well mixed together, and then beaten it will be short. ”T was but lately your mother died up with oil of juniper-berries, or oil of petroleum -to-day I die. And you, my son, though but young (by which naphtha is no doubt meant) and spirits of must shortly follow. Yes, my father,' replied the wine. The trunks or wooden cases, bound round broken hearted, youth, 'I shall shortly follow you, with marline; were charged in alternate layers with for indeed I feel that I cannot live long. And this this composition and gunpowder ; and the quantity melancholy anticipation was fulfilled in a manner of three musket charges of powder was placed at more dreadful than is implied in the mere extinction the bottom of the trunk, which was fastened 10 a of life. On seeing his father in the hands of the pike-staff. He says that the flame of these trunks executioner, and then struggling in the halter, he reaches full twelve feet.
stood like one transfixed and motionless with horrour. Till then, proceeds the narration, he had wept incessantly--but as he saw that—the fountain
of his tears was staunched, and he never wept more. AN ANECDOTE OF WAR.
He died insane ; and in his last moments often callThe following thrilling account of the executioned on his father, in terms that brought tears from the of Col. Hayne, of South Carolina, during the war of hardest heart”. the American revolution, was related by the Rev. M. Beckwith, in a discourse “On the evils of War.? We only become moral men when we accustom
. Among the distinguished men who fell victims our affections and talents to be directed by reason.
GENEVA MEDICAL COLLEGE.
ber of its pupils, New York will have reason to be The above cut represents the Medical Institution proud of its usefulness, and our western youth to conof Geneva College ; an institution which promises gratulate themselves on the advantages thus offered ere long to be one of the most important of which the to them for the acquisition of learning at so pure a state of New York can boast. It is beautifully situ.
fountain. ated on the banks of the Seneca Lake, and we believe. there are few villages in the world which can compare with it, in the picturesque beauty of its surrounding scenery, as well as in the associations
THE HORSE-SWAP. which it brings to mind of an interesting race of inhabitants who have disappeared entirely before the From a work entitled " Georgia Scenes, Charac march of civilization. The location for a medical ters, Incidents, &c., in the first half century of the college, is admirably adapted to the wants of the republick," we have selected the following amusing great west, and the moral and highly intellectual story, which is well told by a native Georgian : character of the inhabitants of Geneva, render it pe- " During the session of the Superiour court, in the culiarly fitted for elevating the standard of medical village of when a number of people were education in the western portion of the United States. collected in the principal street of the village, I ob
The respective chairs are all well filled—that of served a young man riding up and down the street, Chymistry, by the venerable and talented Dr. Ed- as I supposed, in a violent passion. He galloped ward Cutbush; of the Principles and Practice of this way, then that, and then the other. Spurred Medicine, by Thomas Spencer; who is considered his horse to one group of citizens, then to another. by far the strongest man in that particular branch in Then dashed off at half speed, as if fleeing from the state ; Materia Medica and Obstetrics, by Dr. danger; and suddenly checking his horse, returned C.B. Coventry, of Utica; and Anatomy and Surgery, -first in a pace, then in a trot, and then in a canter. by Dr. J. Webster, of New York, the favourite pupil While he was performing these various evolutions, and the successor of the late distinguished Dr. God he cursed, swore, whooped, screamed, and tossed
himself in every attitude which man could assume The classical department has at its head the Rev. on horseback. In short, he cavorted most magnanBenjamin Hale, D. D., President; and in Mathemat- imously, (a term which, in our tongue, expresses all icks and Natural Philosophy, Horace Webster, A. M.; that I have described, and a little more) and seemed Chymistry, E. Cuthbert, M. D.; Civil Engineering to be setting all creation at defiance. As I like to and Statisticks, Gen. J. G. Swift ; Latin and Greek see all that is passing, I determined to take a posi. Languages and Literature, D. Prentice, A. M.; His- tion a little nearer to him, and to ascertain if possitory, Belies Lettres, and Modern Languages, Theo-ble, what it was that affected him so sensibly. Ac. dore Irving, Esq.
cordingly I approached a crowd before which he had We are happy to announce that in all its depart- stopped for a moment, and examined it with the ments, Geneva College is in a highly flattering con- strictest scrutiny. But I could see nothing in it, dition, and that by the continued increase in the num- that seemed to have any thing to do with the ca
rotter. Every man appeared to be in a good hu- first direction; and then mounted suddenly upward mour, and all minding their own business. Not one like a cypress knee to a perpendicular of about two 80 much as noticed the principal figure. Still he and a half inches. The whole had a careless and went on. After a semicolon pause, which my ap- bewitching inclination to the right. Bullet obviously pearance seemed to produce, (for he eyed me close- knew where his beauty lay, and took all occasions ly as I approached) he fetched a whoop, and swore to display it to the best advantage. If a stick that “ be could out-swap any live man, woman or cracked, or if any one moved suddenly about him, child, that ever walked these hills, or that ever or coughed, or hawked, or spoke a little louder than straddled borse-flesh since the days of old daddy common, up went Bullet's tail like lightning; and if Adam." “ Stranger," said he to me, “ did you ever the going up did not please, the coming down must see the Yallow Blossom from Jasper ?”
of necessity, for it was as different from the other “No," said 'I, “but I have often heard of him." movement, as was its direction. The first, was a
“ I'm the boy," continued he ; “perhaps a leetle-bold and rapid flight upward; usually to an angle jist a leetle of the best man, at a horse-swap, that of forty-five degrees. In this position he kept his ever trod shoe-leather."
interesting appendage, until he satisfied himself that I began to feel my situation a little awkward, nothing in particular was to be done ; when he comwhen I was relieved by a man somewhat advanced menced dropping it by half inches, in second beats in years, who stept up and began to survey the then in triple time—then faster and shorter, and “ Yallow Blossom's" horse with much apparent inte- faster and shorter still; until it finally died away
This drew the rider's attention, and he turned imperceptibly into its natural position. If I might the conversation from me to the stranger.
compare sights to sounds, I should say, its settling, .." Well,
my old coon,” said he,“ do you want to was more like the note of a locust than any thing swap hosses?"
else in nature. "Why, I dont know," replied the stranger; "I Either from native sprightliness of disposition, believe I've got a beast I'd trade with you for that from uncontrolable activity, or from an unconqueraone, if
ble habit of removing flies by the stamping of the • Well, fetch up your nag, my old cock; you're feet, Bullet never stood still ; but always kept up a jist the lark I wanted to get hold of. I am perhaps gentle fly-scaring movement of his limbs, which was a leetle, jist a leetle, of the best man at a horse-swap, peculiarly interesting: that ever stole' cracklins out of his mammy's fat “I tell you, man,” proceeded the Yellow Blog: gourd. Where's your hoss ?”
som, “ he's the best live hoss that ever trod the grt “I'll bring him presently; but I want to examine of Georgia. Bob Smart knows the hoss. Como your horse a little.”
here, Bob, and mount this boss and show Bullet's “Oh! look at him," said the Blossom, alighting motions." Here Bullet bristled up, and looked as if and hitting him a cut-"look at him. He's the best he had been hunting for Bob all day long, and had piece of hoss-flesh in the thirteen united universal just found him. Bob sprang on his back.
« Booworlds. There's no sort o' mistake in little Bullet. 00-00!" said Bob, with a fluttering noise of the lips ; He can pick up miles on his feet and fling 'em be- and away went Bullet, as if in a quarter race, with hind him as fast as the next man's hoss, I don't care all his beauties spread in handsome style. where he comes from. And he can keep at it as “Now fetch him back," said Blossom. Bullet long as the sun can shine without resting."
turned and came in pretty much as he went out. During this barangue, little Bullet looked as if he “ Now trot him by.” Bullet reduced his tail to understood it all, believed it, and was ready at any " customary"-sidled to the right and left airily, and moment 10 verify it. He was a horse of goodly exhibited at least three varieties of trot, in the short countenance, rather expressive of vigilance than space of fifty yards. fire ; though an unnatural appearance of fierceness “Make him pace!” Bob commenced twitching was thrown into it, by the loss of his ears, which the bridle and kicking at the same time. These inhad been cropt pretty close to his head. Nature consistent movements obviously (and most naturally) had done but little for Bullet's head and neck; but disconcerted Bullet; for it was impossible for him he managed, in a great measure, to hide their de- to learn, from them, whether he was to proceed or fects, by bowing perpetually. He had obviously stand still. He started to trot and was told that suffered severely for corn; but if his ribs and hip wouldn't do. He attempted a canter—and was bones had not disclosed the fact, he never would checked again. He stopped—and was urged to go have done it; for he was in all respects, as cheerful on. Bullet now rushed into the wide field of exand happy, as if he commanded all the corn-cribs periment, and struck out a gait of his own, that comand fodder-stacks in Georgia. His height was pletely turned the tables upon his rider, and certains about twelve hands; but as his shape partook some- ly deserved a patent. It seemed to have derived what of that of the giraffe, his haunches stood much its elements from the jig, the minuet and the cotil. lower. They were short, strait, peaked and con- lion. If it was not a pace, it certainly had pace in
Bullei's tail, however, made amends for all it; and no man would venture to call it any thing his defects. All that the artist could do to beautify else; so it passed off to the satisfaction of the it, had been done; and all that horse could do to owner. compliment the artist, Bullet did. His tail was “Walk him!” Bullet was now at home again ; nicked in superiour style, and exhibited the line of and he walked as if money was staked on him. beauty in so many directions, that it could not fail The stranger, whose name I afterwards learned to hit the most fastidious taste in some of them. was Peter Ketch, having examined Bullet to his From the root it dropped into a graceful festoon; heart's ontent ordered his son Neddy to go and then rose in a handsome curve; then resumed its bring up Kit. Neddy soon appeared upon Kit ; &
Vol. V, -23
well formed sorrel of the middle size, and in good "Oh certainly; say fifty, and my saddle and briorder. His tout ensemble threw Bullet entirely in dle in. Here, Neddy, my son, take away daddy's the shade ; though a glance was sufficient to satisfy horse." any one, that Bullet had the decided advantage of Well,” said Blossom, “ I've made my pass; now him in point of intellect.
you make yours.” “Why man," said Blossom, "do you bring such " I'm for short talk in a horse-swap; and therea hoss as that to trade for Bullet? Oh, I see you're fore always tell a gentleman, at once, what I mean no notion of trading."
to do. You must give me ten dollars." “Ride him off, Neddy!" said Peter. Kit put off
Blossom swore absolutely, roundly and profanely, at a handsome lope.
that he never would give boot. " Trot him back!” Kit came in at a long, sweep- Well,” said Peter, “ I didn't care about trading; ing trut, and stopt suddenly at the crowd.
but you cut such high shines, that I thought I'd like Well,” said Blossom, “let me look at him; to back you out; and I've done it. Gentlemen, you may be he'll do to plough.”
see I've brought him to a hack." “ Examine him!” said Peter, taking hold of the “ Come, old man,” said Blossom, « I've been bridle close to the mouth ; "he's nothing but a joking with you. I begin to think you do want to tacky. He an't as pretty a horse as Bullet, I know; trade; therefore, give me five dollars and lake Bulbut he'll do. Start 'em together for a hundred and let. I'd rather lose ten dollars, any time, than not fifty mile; and if Kit an't twenty mile ahead of him make a trade; though I hate to fing away a good at the coming out, any man may take Kit for no- hoss.” thing. But he's a monstrous mean horse, gentle- Well,” said Peter, “ I'll be as clever as you are. men; any man may see that. He's the scariest Just put the five dollars on Bullet's back and hand horse, too, you ever saw. He won't do to hunt on, him over, it's a trade. no how. Stranger, will you let Neddy have your Blossom swore again, as roundly as before, that rifle to shoot off him? Lay the rifle between his he would not give boot; "and,” said he, “ Bullet ears, Neddy, and shoot at the blaze in that stump. wouldn't hold five dollars on his back, no how. But Tell me when his head is high enough.”.
as I bantered you, if
you say an even swap, here's Ned fired, and hit the blaze ; and kit did not at you.” move a hair's breadth.
** I told you,” said Peter, “I'd be as clever as “Neddy, take a couple of sticks and beat on that you ; therefore, here goes two dollars more, just for hogshead at Kit's tail."
irade sake. Give me three dollars, and it's a barNed made a tremendous rattling ; at which Bul- gain.” let took fright, broke his bridle and dashed off in Blossom repeated his former assertion; and here grand style; and would have stopped all farther ne- the parties stood for a long time, and the by-standgotiations, by going home in disgust, had not a trav- ers (for many were now collected.) began to taunt eller arrested him and brought him back; but Kit both parties. After some time, however, it was did not move.
pretty unanimously decided that the old man had “I tell you, gentlemen," continued Peter," he's backed Blossom out. the scariest horse you ever saw.
He an't as gentle At length Blossom swore he "never would be as Bullet; but he won't do any harm if you watch backed out, for three dollars, after bantering a man;" him. Shall I put him in a cart, gig, or wagon for and accordingly they closed the trade. you, stranger ? He'll cut the same capers there he “ Now,” said Blossom, as he handed Peter the does here. He's a monstrous mean horse." three dollars, “ I'm a man, that when he makes a
During all this time, Blossom was examining him bad trade, makes the most of it until he can make with the nicest scrutiny. Having examined his a better. I'm for no rues and after-claps.” frame and limbs, he now looked at his eyes.
“ That's just my way," said Peter; “I never goes “He's got a curious look out of his eyes," said to law to mend my bargains.” Blossom.
“Ah, you're the kind of boy I love to trade with. “Oh yes, sir,” said Peter, “just as blind as a bat. Here's your hoss, old man. Take the saddle and Blind horses always have clear eyes. Make a bridle off him, and I'll strip yours; but lift up
the motion at his eyes, if you please, sir.”
blanket easy from Bullet's back, för he's a mighty Blossom did
his head rather tenderbacked hoss." as if something pricked him under the chin, than as The old man removed the saddle, but the blanket if fearing a blow. Blossom repeated the experiment, stuck fast. He attempted to raise it, and Bullet and Kit jerked back in considerable astonishment. bowed himself, switched his tail, danced a little, and
“Stone blind, you see, gentlemen," proceeded gave signs of biting. Peter; “but he's just as good to travel of a dark " Don't hurt him, old man,” said Blossom archly; night as if he had eyes."
"take it off easy. I am, perhaps, a leetle of the “Blame my buttons,” said Blossom, "if I like best man at a horse-swap that ever catched a coon."
Peter continued to pull at the blanket more and • No,” said Peter, "nor I neither. I'd rather more roughly; and Bullet became more and more have 'em made of diamonds; but they'll do, if they cavortish: insomuch, that when the blanket came don't show as much white as Bullet's."
off, he had reached the kicking point in good ear. Well,” said Blossom,“ make a pass at me." nest.
No,” said Peter; "you made the banter ; now The removal of the blanket, disclosed a sore on make your pass.”
Bullet's backbone, that seemed to have defied all "Well I'm never afraid to price my hosses. You medical skill. It measured six full inches in length, must give me twenty-five dollars boot."
and four in breadth ; and had as many features as