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Bullet had motions. My heart sickened at the ened for the means of subsistence, they would supsight; and I felt that the brute who had been riding ply their wants by depredations on the property of him in that situation, deserved the halter.
the frontier population, which would lead to bloody The prevailing feeling, however, was that of collisions between them. During and since the hosmirth. The laugh became lond and general, at the tilities with the Creek Indians, an apprehension of old man's expense; and rustick witticisms were lib- a different character has been expressed ; that, goaderally bestowed upon him and his late purchase. ed by a sense of injuries, and exasperated by defeat, These, Blossom continued to provoke by various re- these Indians would not readily accommodate themmarks. He asked the old man, “if he thought Bul- selves to the new circumstances in which they were let would let five dollars lie on his back.” He de- placed, but would be the first to stimulate or join any clared most seriously, that he had owned that horse hostile movements against our people. . And the imthree months, and had never discovered before, that pression seems to have been very general
, that a war he had a sore back, or he never should have in that region was, to say the least, exceedingly thought of trading him," &c. &c.
probable ; and that, in this war, all the emigrated The old man bore it all with the most philoso- tribes would as readily take part, as the wildest and phick composure. He evinced no astonishment at fiercest of the yet untamed bands that range over the his late discovery, and made no replies. But his great western prairie to the Rocky Mountains. Bon, Neddy, had not disciplined his feelings quite so It gives us pleasure to say, that none of these well. His eyes opened, wider and wider, from the apprehensions have been realized. Predatory incurfirst to the last pull of the blanket; and when the sions of the Prarie Indians there have indeed been, whole sore burst upon his view, astonishment and in which the new Indian settlers have lost their catfright seemed to contend for the mastery of his tle or their provisions; and these incursions have countenance. As the blanket disappeared, he stuck irritated the latter, and elicited threats of severe rehis hands in his breeches pockets, heaved a deep taliation. But in every instance, it is believed—cer sigh, and lapsed into a profound reverie : from which tainly, in every instance in which a tribe has acted he was only roused by the cuts at his father. He as such--retaliation has been made to wait the issue bore them as long as he conld; and when he could of an appeal to the government of the United States. contain himself no longer, he began, with a certain The emigrants have quickly adapted themselves to wildness of expression, which gave a peculiar in their new condition, and in hunting, but more geneterest to what he uttered : “ His back's mighty bad rally in agriculture, have acquired far more than they off ; but dod drot my soul, if he's put it to daddy as required for their own subsistence. The Creeks, bad as he thinks he has, for old Kit's both blind and who were removed the last year, in a state of angry deef, I'll be dod drot if he eint.”
and exasperated feeling, have almost literally " turn“The devil he is,” said Blossom. “Yes, dod ed their swords into ploughshares, and their spears drot
my soul if he eint. You walk him and see if into pruning-hooks." And with all the tribes that he eint. His eyes don't look like it; but he jist as have emigrated, and now uccupy the extensive and live go agin the house with you, or in a ditch, as fertile region south-west of the Missouri, we have any how. Now you go try him.” The laugh was the surest guaranties of enduring peaceable relations, now turned on Blossom ; and many rushed to test in their advanced state of improvement, in the large the fidelity of the little boy's report. A few exper- property actually acquired by them, and in the ceriments established its truth, beyond controversy. tain prospects before them of illimitable progress in
Neddy” said the old man, “you oughtn't to try knowledge and wealth. and make people discontented with their things.' We make these remarks introductory to an extract Stranger, don't mind what the little boy says. If from a communication from Capt. Jacob Brown, of you can only get Kit rid of them litile fáilings, the United States Army, with which we have been you'll find him all sorts of a horse. You are a leetle furnished by the proper authorities for publication. the best man, at a horse-swap, that ever I got hold Take the picture he presents of the condition of the of ; but don't fool away Kit. Come, Neddy, my Choctaws, and add to it a few features selected from son, let's be moving ; the stranger seems to be get- the last aunual report of the Commissioner of Indian ting snappish."
Affairs, their coinmon schools, academies, and churches; their council house, constitution, laws, administration; and where will be found an instanco of inore rapid progress, within five years of the first
settlement in a region of which the soil was unbroken, THE EMIGRATED INDIANS.
and the resources of which were unknown. This The condition of the tribes who have removed information was elicited by a series of questions profrom their birth-places east, to new homes west of pounded to the several superintendants and others, the Mississippi river, has recently been the subject proving the anxiety felt, and constant attention beof frequent notice in the publick prints. It very nat- stowed by the proper department on this most imporurally excites great interest
. From the inception of tant and interesting subject of publick concern. Capt the policy of transplanting the Indians within the Brown has been, for the last three years, principal several states, apprehensions have been extensively disbursing agent for the Indian Department in Arfelt that in the remote region proposed to be assign- kansas, and the country west of it, and has had amed to them, they would be assailed by the indigenous ple opportunities for acquiring information, which he tribes, and engaged in frequent hostilities. It has has faithfully improved. also been feared, (and the fear was founded on mis- The Choctaws, from their location and early emiconception or ignorance of the resources of the coun- gration, stand first. try allotted to them,) that, finding themselves strait- The principal part of this tribe were emigrated in
the years 1832–3; preparations for their removal The greater portion of the Cherokees west are were made in 1831, and many of them left their old farmers, have good and comfortable houses, and live, country late in that year ; but few, if any, however, many of them, as well, and as genteel, and in a pereached the new country till the spring of 1832. cuniary point of view will compare with the better
The country inhabited by the Choctaws is exten- classes of farmers in the states. As a people gen. sive and exceedingly fertile ; the face of the country erally, they are agriculturists ; and as such, their is generally high, or what is called rolling; some resources are equal, if not superiour to one fourth of parts of it mountainous ; the whole is well watered, the tillers of the soil in the old states. and has plenty of timber; there are some prairies, The Crecks and Seminoles. The section of counwhich, however, as well as the timber lands, are of try set apart for these tribes is about the same in first rate soil. The whole country is adapted to extent with that of the Choctaws, but not so mouncorn and stock; the northern and western portions tainous. The soil is considered to be equal in ferto corn and wheat, and other small grain; the south- tility to any in the southwestern section of the coun. ern part, bordering on Red river, to cotton.
try; it is also well watered, and has plenty of timThe first year's emigrants made corn, not only snf- ber; there are some prairies, which, however, are ficient for their own use, but had a considerable sur- of great advantage to the settler—the soil being rich plus, which was disposed of to Government for issue and easy to cultivate, and they are very profitable to those emigrants that arrived in the fall and win- for raising stock. ter of that year. The next year (1833) the emi- The Creeks are a corn-growing people ; those grants had a large surplus of corn, over ind above that have been in the country some years, raise corn their own wants, for market; over forty thousand in large quantities ; some of the principal farmers, bushels were purchased by the Government, and fed crib from five to ten thousand bushels of a season, to the emigrants of that year; since then, to the They do not raise much stock ; nor are they, as a present time, these people have been equally pros- people, so far advanced in civilization as the Chero. perous in their agricultural pursuits; many of them kees and Choctaws; though as agriculturalists, 80 have become extensive farmers, cultivating cotton, far as raising corn, they excel either of the above corn, and possessing large stocks of cattle ; they named tribes. They raise stock sufficient for their have cotton gins and mills of different kinds, as well own consumption, but none of any consequence for as shops and mechanicks; in fine it may be truly sale. said, that the Choctaws are rapidly advancing in ag- About four hundred Seminoles were emigrated ricultural knowledge, and in mechanick arts. last year; they reached their locations, however,
In travelling through the Choctaw country, one too late to make a crop ; their crops this year, I am sees little, if any, difference, in an agricultural point informed, are not very promising ; they are about of view, from new frontier white settlements; iheir changing their locations; they go farther west; their cabins are constructed with equal order and substan-object is better hunting-grounds. tiality, and apparently with as many comforts and The large number of Creeks that emigrated last conveniences; their fields are under good fences; winter, have planted extensively, and have a pros. they have gardens, and cultivate fruit-trees, peaches, pect of plentiful crops ; they are also collecting stock, apples, &c.; are civil and attentive to travellers, un- and are laying the foundation of numerous herds of derstand the value of money; and all of them, or cattle, hogs, &c. The resources of this people are, nearly so, have in their houses the common luxuries at present, equal to all their wants and comforts; and of coffee, tea, sugar, &c.
the superiour fertility of their land, aided by their Without going into a further detail in relation to evident tendency to industry, will in a few years, this tribe, it must be apparent thoy are rapidly ad place them in a condition equal to their neighbours, vancing in civilization, and I have no hesitation in the Cherokees and Choctaws. saying, that for all the comforts of domestick life, Senecas and Senecas and Shawnees. These tribcs their resources are ample and abundant, and far bet- inhabit a high, healthy, well-watered, and timbered ter than could possibly have been anticipated, prior country, the soil rich and productive. They were to their removal, in so short a time.
emigrated in 1832, are agriculturalists, and are main. The Cherokees. To this tribe has been allotted ly engaged in that pursuit; they raise wheat and a very extensive, as well as a very fine tract of coun- corn, and their country is well adapted to raising try; those parts over which I have travelled, pos- stock, of which they have considerable herds ; besess a soil of very superiour quality, adapted to the ing remote, however, from a market their cropping production of wheat, small grain of various kinds, is confined to their own wants, and for these they and corn of the largest growth; the whole country provide liberally of all the substantials of life. The is finely and abundantly timbered, and well water- use of coffee, tea, and sugar is common among them. ed, and the climate is exceedingly favourable to their cabins are well constructed, combining both stock.
comfort and convenience, and their arrangements in But a small number of this tribe have as yet re- farming have the appearance of neatness and order ; moved to the new country; those that have settled they have mills, shops, and some good mechanicks; there, however, and many of them have been in the their resources are abundant, and their condition apcountry several years, are, in a pecuniary point of parently happy. view, well off; they raise wheat and corn in great The Quapaws. These people were emigrated in abundance; and their stocks of cattle, of hogs, of the fall of 1834 ; their country, in point of soil, wa. sheep, &c., are numerous. The people find a mar- ter, timber, and health, is similar to and equally as ket for their surplus productions in the Government, good as their neighbours, the Cherokees, Senecas by supplying the garrison situated in their country, and Senecas and Shawnees, &c. They are not 80 and supplying the new emigrants with corn, beef &c.T far advanced in civilization, as the several tribes of
Indians above named; but a more honest, quiet, different names in different countries ; they are calpeaceable people, are not to be found in any section led inns, taverns, hotels, mansion-houses, &c. But of the Indian country. They are industrious, and whatever the name may be, their object is the same; are exceedingly desirous of making for themselves a they are the travellers' home. comfortable home. Their temporary location, doubt- In some parts of the world—England for exam. less, has in some measure abridged their exertions, ple—if a person who keeps a publick house refuses in the construction of good cabins, clearing and put- to receive a traveller into his house, or to find him ting under fence, large fields for raising corn, &c. victuals and lodging, on his presenting and offering
The Osages. This tribe has made but little pro- him a reasonable price for them, he is liable to be gress towards civilization ; their subsistence mainly prosecuted for damages, and may be fined. depends upon the game of the country. They raise In ancient times, places for the reception of trav. some corn and beans, but the culture is rude; hence ellers in the East, especially in Palestine, were calbut little is obtained therefrom. They raise no led caravansaries. In Hindostan, at the present stock ; they obtain their horses from those Indians lime, they are called choultries. residing far to the south and west of them. Their The engraving represents very accurately, one of country possesses excellent soil, is well-watered and these choultries. It is on a small sandy island, cal. timbered; not being agriculturalists, their condition led Ramiseran, situated in the straits between Ceyand resources are similar to other wild and roving lon and the main land (Hindostan,) and separated bands of Indians, whose occupations are hunting from it only by a narrow frith. It is one of the most and war.
beautiful and costly in all India. The foregoing comprises all the tribes of Indians Choultries are open on every side, so that travelresiding within the acting superintendency of the lers can approach them with convenience, from evSouthwestern territory, and with the exception of ery direction. The roof of one of these buildings is the last mentioned tribe, (Osages,) have been emi- supported by columns, which are sometimes highly grated to that country, the greater portion since 1831, ornamented. Such is the case, especially, with that and all are fast progressing in a knowledge of agri- at Ramiseram. The stone-work is also of the richculture, and of ihe mechanick arts; they are too far est kind. The building is quadrangular and quite advanced in civilization, in my opinion to retrogade. elevated. Its cornices and capitals of the pillars are Labouring, therefore, as they are, for their own hap- finished with great care. It stands upon a rocky piness, a discreet and correct management of them foundation, extending some distance into the sea, must ere long (constituted as society is) place them with a broad terrace round it, paved with stone, in a condition to appreciate, as well as in a few forming a square.
From three sides of this terrace, years to adopt, a form of government, based upon is a descent into the water, by a flight of stone steps. gulightened principles of political and civil rights. The Hindoos are much in the habit of bathing; their
Globe. religion, in fact, requires it. The stone steps lead
ing down into the sea are for this purpose.
There are many objects of curiosity on this little PUBLICK HOUSES.
island. Near the choultry which we have been doHouses for the accommodation of travellers have scribing, are several tombs, which the Mohamme
dans call the tombs of Cain and Abel, and their fam- with the hoof, and when this wedge receivės its duo ilies.
pressure as the animal walks, it keeps the bars in On the other side of the island is a very large and iheir proper state of expansion, and counteracts any high temple, the gateway of which is one hundred tendency in the hoof to permanent contraction. feet high, and composed of stones of the most enor- Thus then, its functions are indispensable to keep mous size. The gate itself is forty feet high. The the foot sound; for, if it were destroyed, the bottom temple is held to be uncommonly sacred, and no wa of the flexor tendon of the leg, would be exposed to ter is used in it for idolatrous purposes, but what is disease ; again, if it did not secrete oil to keep the brought from the river Ganges.
hoof moist, the latter would crack, as is often the case ; lastly, if it were dried up and deprived of its elastick power, the foot would become permanently contracted, and the horse lame, which is also a matter of very common occurrence.
Two things are evident from what we have just SHOEING HORSES.
stated :--1. The secretion, elasticity, and mechanNothing engenders so frightful a chain of diseases ical action of the frog, are absolutely necessary to in a horse, all tending to disable him, as improper keep the foot of the horse in a sound state ; 2. If, treatment of the animal's feet. Nature had never from improperly placing the shoe, or from any other taken greater pains to form an exquisite anatomical cause, the frog should be deprived of the stimulus specimen of mechanical power, than when it formed necessary to enable it to carry on its natural action, the foot of a horse ; and to this beautiful, delicate, the foot must fall into a state of disease. With and complicated formation, does he owe his power reference to this latter, from the position of the foot of speed over most others of the brute creation. In and the resources provided by nature, it can occur a state of nature, the horse's foot is seldom if ever but very seldom that any accidental cause deprives diseased ; in a state of domesticity, it is more or less the frog of its power of action; and, as it is an ununsound in seven cases out of ten. In a state of na- doubted fact that the shoe, when improperly put on ture, the foot, being unencumbered by a shoe, is not (as it is in seven cases out of ten) produces this prevented from assuming that position on the ground effect, by raising the heel and preventing the frog which keeps it in a sound condition, and enables from receiving the slightest pressure and the each of its component parts to discharge their sev- necessary pressure can alone give the proper stimeral functions. In a state of domesticity, the animal ulus—it is reasonable to conclude that, in most is obliged to wear a shoe, for the purpose of protect- cases of diseased feet in horses, the diseased action ing its hoof from the roughness of hard roads ; and is the effect of bad shoeing. this shoe is generally so constructed, as to infict If the farrier would observe the horse in a state considerable injury upon the foot, by incapacitating of nature-if he would examine the yet unbroken, its several component parts from performing their and consequently unshodden colt, he would find that functions, thereby producing a state of disease. the broad, circular foot presses fully on the ground, Contracted hoof, sand-cracks, thrush, grease, stiff- the frog receiving, as the animal walks, at each ness in the flexor tendon of the leg, weakness in the elastick rebound caused by the play of the pastern, pastern and knee-joints, and a tendency to genuflex- a slight pressure against the ground, which excites ion, are some of the various disturbances produced it, keeps it in healthy action, and indeed preserves by improperly shoeing a horse, so as to impede any the whole foot from disease. He would also perof the necessary actions of the foot. And yet, most ceive, after a more minute observation, that not only farriers, totally ignorant of the anatomy of the horse's is the frog an elastick body, but that the hoof itself, foot, and of the various uses of its several parts, ap- j though a horny substance, is elastick, and that it ply the shoe so as always to produce the effects we contracts and expands by the action of the muscles have just endeavoured to describe.
of the sensible foot, of which it is only the case or One of the most important organs of the foot of a covering, preserving it from injury, but yielding to horse is that portion which every body knows under all its impulsės. He would then, if he were not a the designation of the frog. Upon the health of this dolt, reason upon what he had observed, and infer organ depends that of the whole foot; and yet, the that for a horse to be sound upon its feet, it must ignorant farrier seems to have conceived so violent walk in that exact position which nature designed an antipathy to this frog ; that he always endeavours for it; and that any deviation from that position is to cut as much of it away as he possibly can, with- unnatural, and deprives the horse of a portion of its out actually wounding the animal; and as, from the power. He would also think that nature, by placing mode of shoeing generally adopted, a great portion the animal firmly on its heels, and not on the front of the frog is often dried up and decayed, the black- edge of its hoof, as most horses stand when imsmith finds no great difficulty in paring it away properly shod, did so for some wise purpose, and to almost nothing. The consequence of this we that the slight blows given to the frog as the animal shall endeavour to explain, by describing the use of walked, were not without an object, and therefore
ought to be continued even when the shoes were on. This organ is seated at the heel just beneath the It is much to be desired that a shoe were invented hoof and behind its bars. It forms a sort of case which should have the faculty of yielding to the for the end of the flexor tendon, which it covers different impressions which the hoof would impart like a bulb. It likewise secretes an unctuous liquor, to it through its elastick action, which action, how. which serves to keep the horn of the hoof moist ever, is but slight. In applying a hard, unyielding and to prevent it from cracking. The frog is also iron shoe to a horny sub nce which gently conan elastick wedge, which contracts and expands tracts and expands during the action of walking, a
degree of inconvenlence must always be felt by the of home-spun clothing, guns, and various necessaries, animal; but this inconvenience is greatly increased of life. Many prefer spending the night on the sweet, when the natural position of the foot is altered. It scented hay and corn blades of their cattle, which becomes, therefore, a matter of vital importance to are laid on the ground. All arranged within, the the well-being of the animal that the shoe should lumberers set their “dead-falls,” large “ steel-traps," be so formed and fastened on as to allow that action and “spring guns," in suitable places around their to continue unimpeded which nature has imparted camp, to procure some of the bears that ever prowl to the horse's foot. For this purpose we offer the around such establishments. following directions, hoping that, as we have called Now the heavy clouds of November driven by the the attention of our readers to the subject, they will northern blasts, pour down the snow in feathery give it their earnest attention.
flakes. The winter has fairly set in, and seldom do The horse's foot being circular and not oval, the the sun's gladdening rays fall on the wood-cutter's shoe should be made in that form; or rather the hut. In warm flannels' his body is enveloped, the hoof should be measured, and the shoe made ex- skin of a rackoon covers his head and brow, his actly to correspond. An oval or elliptick foot is moose-skin leggins reach the girdle that secures them generally, nay, we may say always, diseased. It around his waist, while on broad moccasins, or snowhas assumed that shape in consequence of the con- shoes, he stands from the earliest dawn until night, traction of the bars, brought on solely by a diseased hacking the majestick pines that for a century past state of the frog for want of pressure; and in no one have embellished the forest. The fall of these val. instance of oval-formed feet will the frogs be found uable trees no longer resounds on the ground; and, healthy. The moment the foot is lifted from the as they tumble here and there, nothing is heard but ground, the smell indicates the diseased frog, though the rustling and crackling of their branches, their perhaps cocknoy equestrians consider this the nat- heavy trunks sinking into the deep snows. Thou. ural perfume of the organ when in health.
sands of large pines thus cut down every winter The shoe should be as light as possible consist- afford room for the younger irees, which spring up ently with the labour the animal has to undergo. profusely to supply the wants of man. Before it is put on, the hoof should be pared away Weeks and weeks have elapsed; the earth's pure toward the heels, in such a manner that without the white covering has become thickly and firmly crustshoe the horse should stand with the frog close to ed by the increasing intensity of the cold, the fallen the ground, as when in a state of nature ; when the trees have all been sawn into measured logs, and shoe is on, it should be filed away towards the the long repose of the oxen has fitted them for haul. heels, being left only sufficiently thick to enable the ing them to the nearest frozen streams. 'The ice frog in the natural position of the animal without a gradually becomes covered with the accumulating rider or burthen, just to clear the ground; so that mass of timber, and, their task completed, the lum when the horse bears its burthen or its rider, the berers wait impatiently for the breaking up of the frog of the shoed foot should receive the same pres- winter. sure from the ground that it would do if the shoes At this period, they pass the time in hunting the were taken off and the animal turned loose. When moose, the deer, and the bear, for the benefit of their a horse is shod according to the present system, be- wives and children; and as these men are most exsides the various diseases brought on by the want cellent woodmen, great havock is made among the of the action of the frog, the animal walks upon its game. toes (the expression cannot be misunderstood,) and Many skins of sables, martins, and musk-rats the proper muscular action of the foot and leg is they have procured during the intervals of their la perverted. Hence many horses fall dead lame with bour, or under night. The snows are now giving out the farrier being able to assign any cause for it, way, as the rains descend in torrents, and the lumalthough he will talk dogmatically enough on the berers collect their utensils, harness their cattle, and subject, to confound those who know no better than prepare for their return. This they accomplish in . himself.
safety. From being lumberers they now become millers, and with pleasure each applies the grating file to the saws. Many logs have already reached the dams on the swollen waters of the rushing
streams, and the task commences, which is carried FORCE OF THE WATERS.
on through the summer, of cutting them into boards.
The great heats of the dog-days have parched the After surmounting all obstacles, the lumberers with ground; every creek has become a shallow, except their stock arrive at the spot which they have here and there, where in a deep hole the salınon and had in view, and immediately commence building a the trout have found a retreat ; the sharp slimy ancamp. The trees around soon fall under the blows gles of multitudes of rocks project, as if to afford of their axes, and before many days have elapsed a resting places to the wood-ducks and herons that low habitation is reared and fitted within for the ac- breed on the borders of these streams. Thousands commodation of their cattle, while their provender is of " saw-logs,” remain in every pool, beneath and secured on a kind of loft covered with broad shingles above each rapid or fall. The miller's dam has been or boards. Then their own cabin is put up; rough emptied of its timber, and he must now resort to bedsteads, manufactured on the spot, are fixed in the some expedient to procure a fresh supply. corners; a chimney, composed of a frame of sticks
It was my good fortune to witness the method em. plastered with mud, leads away the smoke; the ployed for the purpose of collecting the logs that skins of bears or deer, with some blankets, form their had not reached their destination, and I had the bedding, and around the walls re hung their changes more pleasure that it was seen in company with my