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del Espiritu Santo was given to this, the only remains of Quiros's continent.' The survey being now
HE completed, the group was found to extend from lati. tude 14° 29' 10 200 4' S., and from longitude 1660 41' to 170° 21' E., 125 leagues in the direction of north-northwest half west, and south-southeast half east. “As, besides ascertaining the extent and situation of these islands, he remarks, 'we added to them several new ones, and explored the whole, I think we have obtained the right to name them, and shall in future distinguish them by the name of the New Hebrides.'
Having spent more than forty days in examining this archipelago, he made sail from it on the first of September, and with a steady wind stood to the southwest. On the fourth he came in sight of an extensive coast beset with reefs, on which the sea broke with great violence. A passage through this dangerous barrier having been discovered, he came to anchor on the 5th, when his ship was immediately surrounded by a great number of natives in sixteen or eighteen canoes. They were of a peacea
[Man of New Zealand.) ble and friendly disposition, and offered no opposition to a landing, which was effected in the afternoon. pursued his course to the south till the morning of The country much resembled some parts of New ihe tenth, when, in latitude 29° 2' 30'' S., longitude Holland; the hills and uplands were rocky, and in- | 1680 16'' E., he discovered an island to which the capable of cultivation; the thin soil which covered name of Norfolk was applied. It was of considthem being scorched and burnt; and, indeed,' we erable height and about five leagues in circuit, ferare informed, ' were it not for some fertile spots on tile and luxuriantly wooded, but uninhabited, and the plains, and a few on the sides of the mountains, our voyagers were, perhaps, the first that ever set the whole country might be called a dreary waste.' foot upon its shores. The natires were robust and well made, in colour On the seventeenth they came in sight of New nearly approaching those of Tanna, but surpassing Zealand, and could distinguish the summit then in stature, and having finer features and more Egmont, covered with everlasting snow. The agreeable countenances. Their language appeared next day they anchored in Queen Charlotte's sound, to have many words in common with that used in for the third time, nearly eleven months after their New Zealand, in the Tonga islands, and in Tanna. former visit. Immediately on landing they looked In affability and honesty, they excelled the people for a bottle, containing a memorandum which had of any place yet visited.
been left for Captain Furneaux. It was removed, On the thirteenth Cook quitted his anchorage, and and circumstances soon occurred which showed that for two days sailed to the northwest, when, finding the Adventure had been here; while, from convera termination to the land in that direction, and a reef sing with the natives, of whom only a few appeared, extending as far as the eye could reach, he altered and those in a state of unusual timidity, it was inhis course to the southeast, and again came in sight ferred that some calamity had befallen her crew. of the coast on the seventeenth. He ran rapidly On the tenth of November, Cook departed from along it, and on the twenty-third reached its south- New Zealand, and with all sails set steered south eastern extremity, which was called Queen Char-by east, to get into the latitude of 54° or 55° S., lotte's Foreland. In altempting to get round this with the view of crossing the Pacific nearly in these point, some islands were discovered stretching in parallels, and thus exploring those parts left unnaviihe same direction as the mainland ; the largest re- gated in the previous summer. On the twenty-sevceived the name of Isle of Pines, while the desig- enth he was in latitute 55° 6' and longitude 138° nation of Botany was conferred upon one on which 56' W., when, abandoning all hope of finding land, a party landed. The whole of this survey was al-he determined to steer directly for the western tended with the greatest danger; and, considering mouth of the Straits of Magellan, which he reached the vast extent of sea yet to be investigated, the on the eighteenth of December,
With the excepstate of his vessel and her crew, and the near ap- tion of that achieved by his colleague, of which he proach of summer, oựr navigator, to use his own was then ignorant, this was the first run directly expression, was obliged, as it were by necessity, across the Pacific in a high southern latitude. “And for the first time, to leave a coast he had discovered I must obserre,' he writes, that I never made a before it was fully explored.' He gave it the ap- passage any where of such length, or even much pellation of New Caledonia, and fixed its position shorter, where so few interesting circumstances ocbetween latitude 19° 37' and 22° 30' S., and west curred; for, if I except the variation of the comlongitude 163° 37' and 167° 14'. With the excep-pass, I know of nothing else worth notice. . tion of New Zealand, it exceeds in size all the I have now done with the Southern Pacific ocean, islands of the Austral ocean, extending in length and flatter myself that no one will think that I have about eighty-seven leagues, though nowhere more left it unexplored; or that more could have been than ten in breadth.
done in one voyage, toward obtaining that end, than He lost sight of land on the first of October, and has been done in this.'
ARMERS' DEPARTMENT. will run through into it for further use. Both these
methods of cleaning wheat may be combined to adTILLAGE.
vantage. IMPROVEMENT in tillage may truly be said to be
Picking the largest heads by hand, is a slow but the basis, or real foundation on which the successful very thorough way, and more particularly beneficial introduction of all the new articles of field-culture where crops are sown expressly for seed. depends. When the ground is well tilled, it is in the Smut in wheat crops is perpetuated by the dust. most perfect condition for receiving the fertilizing of the smut adhering to the seed. It may be preprinciples of the atmosphere. Rain, snow, hail, vented by steeping the seed twenty-four hours in lie dews, and hoarfrost, &c. convey the nutriment of or a mixture of fresh lime and water made of half a vegetation, which floats in the air most plentifully pound of the former to one gallon of the latter. This into the bosom of the earth, as deep as it has been is certain prevention. Care should be taken that broken and well pulverized. It is the only effectual seed is not rendered foul by putting it in smutty means of rooting out weeds, so necessary to the ben-bags, or those where smutty wheat has been kept. eficial growth of all crops, and should be repeated till
The quantity of wheat sowed to the acre should they are in a great measure destroyed. The roots be from five pecks to two bushels, varying with the and fibres of weeds are the ligaments and braces time of sowing, and with the size of the grains of which in a great measure knit and bend the clods seed. Early, sown wheat should be in less quantity together, and are indissoluble, till by being exposed than late ; and wheat with small grains should be in to the action of the air, the roots within rot and de- less quantity than large, because there are more of cay, and the clods, almost by their own gravity, ex
them to a bushel. pand into small crumbles and are reduced to a per- will escape in a great measure the Hessian fly.
Wheat sown about the time or after the first frost fect state of pulverization.
The destroying of weeds, however, is not the only where the fly is not destructive it should be sown immediate benefit accruing from a due state of tillage ;
early. grubs, beetles, worms and maggots of
Furrow drains should be cut by passing the plough diferent
many kinds, which abound in most fields, may be gen
three or four times through the same furrow, and erally diminished, if not extirpated by the well they should be made through all low parts of the timed use of the plough, and its auxiliary necessary
field. They should be well cleared of loose earth to the reduction of the soil. Nothing so effectually by means of a shovel or hoe, so as to admit the surprevents the
ravages of the several tribes of subter- face water in wet seasons to pass freely off. ranean insects, as the frequent stirring and crumbling the surface of the ground, and not topped, or cut off
Corn should always be cut up, that is, cut off near of the ground. Large patches of several poles square, in a field of beans, are frequently destroyed above the ears. The former is more expeditious, it by the grub or cockchaffer; and many hundreds of cab- såves twice as much fodder, and is attended with a bage-plants by a kind of gray grub of less size. Both better crop of corn, as it is always diminished conthese execute their mischief under ground. They siderably by topping.
This has been proved by first eat the roots of the beans, even when in kid, repeated experiments, where the crops were meas
ured. when they wither, fall and die ; and the latter bites off the plant just under the surface. Tillage, duly, take such for this purpose as have the greatest num
Seed corn should be always selected in autumnperformed always destroys the whole race.
The improvement the soil acquires by means of ber of ears to a stalk. frequent and well timed tillage, is gradual and pro- chards to pick up falling apples. They will fatten
Hogs to be fattened may be turned into apple orgressive, and the longer it is kept in tillage, if duly performed, the more fertile it becomes. One plough
on them as well as on corn, if they have a plenty of
them. ing in the beginning of winter, and a second early in the spring, will be more effectual in pulverizing first ground to meal.
Grain fed to hogs should always, if possible, be the soil than half a dozen at any other time of the year. This improvement in tillage is so very clear
Considerable advantage is derived from feeding and certain, that it surprises one much that it is not cooked food (steamed or boiled) to hogs, and it should universally practised.
always be practised when the number is sufficient to warrant the erection of proper apparatus for it.
Cooked food for fattening cattle is of little advanBRIEF HINTS FOR AUTUMN WORK.
tage, and commonly not worth the trouble. Select seed wheat from that which grew in the Advantage is generally derived from using mixed most productive parts of the field—endeavour to ob- food for domestick animals. tain the largest seed, and sow none other—this if Straw may always be of great use to the farmer in practiced in yearly succession, will greatly improve many ways, and is well worth preserving. The folthe variety
lowing method of securing it is given by a corresSow none but clean seed--for farmers may aspondent of the Genesse Farmer.
66 Previous to well raise wheat as to raise weeds.
thrashing I go to a hay-stack, and twist a quantity Chess may be separated from seed wheat by a of bands, from six to ten feet long, which are placed good fanning-mill. It may also by using brine--if at the barn door, and when the straw is taken to the the brine is too strong, so that good plump wheat door, two men take a band and stretch it over the will not sink in it, dilute it with water until it will ; bundle of straw, then run each a hand under it, and and the chess and light imperfect grains will float, turn it ever endwise, when one of them fastens the and may be skimmed off. Then empty the wheat band, and the other prepares another band. In that into a basket set on a tub or barrel, and the brinc i manner two men will bind as fast as the swiftest
machine will thrash, and the straw is stacked as fond, and which grow here in perfection. These securely as wheat, and in one fourth of the time re- are interspersed with a variety of fruit-trees, and all quired when not bound.” When wanted it may be kinds of flowering shrubs. Canals flow down the afterward removed with far less labour than when avenues in straight lines, and generally terminate in stacked without binding.'
a large marble basin, ornamented with sparkling Strawberries may be transplanted with advantage, fountains of square or octagon shapes. The great in the early part of autumn.
number of avenues and canals, and the numbers of Fruit-trees may be removed and transplanted after. rills which are seen from any one point, have an the first of October. Most farmers who transplant uncommonly magnificent effect, and the different fruit-trees, suffer a great loss by not doing the work palaces belonging to the eight paradises are descried well. The principal care needed is, first, to dig the at different openings, glittering like so many gay holes large, say six feet across, and fifteen or eigh- pavilions. The traveller now mentioned, however, teen inches deep; secondly, to preserve, carefully, on drawing nearer, was less pleased with the archithe roots as entire and uninjured as possible, and tectural taste displayed in their structures. He not to suffer them to become dry out of the ground; found them gorgeous, but heavy and discordant, and thirdly, to fill the hole with finely pulverized, though loaded with every species of external ornarich earth, (not manure,) shaking it in, in small ment, in gilding, carving, painting, and inlaid mirquantities, and packing it closely
but gently about ror-glass. This was particularly the case with the the roots so as to leave them in their natural posi- Shehel Setoon, or Palace of Forty Pillars, the fation in the soil. The whole expense of this, would not vourite residence of the latter Sophi kings. The be more than half the price of the tree, and in five exhaustless profusion of its splendid materials reflectyears it would be three times the size which it ing their own golden or crystal lights on each other, would be if transplanted by the common way of dig- along with all the variegated colours of the garden, ging small holes and doing the work hastily and gave the appearance of an entire surface formed of imperfectly
polished silver and mother-of-pearl set with precious stones, a scene well fitted for a an eastern poet's dream, or some magick vision in the tales of an Arabian night. The front is entirely open to the gar
den, and it is sustained by a double range of columns, PERSIAN GARDENS.
upward of forty feet high, each column shooting up In the south part of the city of Ispahan, is to be from the united backs of four lions of white marble, seen the famous tract called Shaherbag, which bears and the shafts covered with arabesque patterns, and a great resemblance to Versailles. It consists of a foliages in looking-glass, gilding and painting ; some series of gardens, inclosed within four majestick twisting spirally, others winding in golden wreaths, walls : cach garden has a separate palace adapted or running into lozenges, stars, connecting circles, to the seasons, or to the changing humour of the and many intricacies of fancy and ingenious workroyal planter, who called them Hesht Beheste, or manship. The ceiling is equally ornamented, par the “ Eight Paradises." The prevailing plan of ticularly with the figures of all sorts of animals, from them all is that of long parallel walks, shaded by insects to the large quadrupeds. At some distance even rows of tall umbrageous planes, the celebrated within the front is the entrance to a vast interiour chenar trees, of which the Persians are extremely I saloon, in which all the caprice and cost of eastern
magnificence are incredibly lavished. The floors | hexagonal circuit of buildings in the centre. Under of both apartments are covered with the richest car- the arches, the bottom of the river is so paved as to pets of the age of Shah-Abbas, but as fresh as if make the water fall in the form of a cascade, which just laid down, a proof of the excellence of the dye, is in full view of a fine palace built directly opposite though some ascribe this and all similar phenomena, and surrounded with beautiful gardens. That these without any meaning, to the purity of the climate. bridges might have a sufficient river flowing beSo far as this cause is concerned, the only property neath them, Shah-Abbas introduced into the bed of of the atmosphere is the absence of dampness. A the Zenderood, another river, at a distance of eighty door in one angle of this saloon' opens into a spa- miles from Ispahan, by cutting a passage through cious and lofty banqueting hall, the sides of which some mountains at a great expense. Chardin de are hung with pictures, mostly descriptive of con- scribes the size of the river as equalling in spring vivial scenes, similar representations being also em- that of the Seine at Paris in winter. blazoned on the doors and pannels of the room near the floor. Its lower range is spotted with little recesses taking the shapes of bottles, flagons, and oth
BOMBAY. er vessels indispensable in those days at a Persian feast, though of a character equally different from Bombay, a city of Hindostan, is situated on an the abstemiousness that marked the board of the island of the same name, on the coast of Aurungabad, great Cyrus, and from the temperance which at the and connected with the main land by a causeway present moment presides at the Persian court. Sir constructed in 1805. This city is one of the three R. K. Porter gives an interesting account of the sub- presidencies of the English East India Company. jects and execution of six large pictures, four of It has a strong fort, a dock yard, and marine arsenal. which represent royal entertainments given to differ-| The finest merchant-ships are built here, all or teak. ent ambassadors in the reign of Shah-Abbas, and Bombay commands the trade of the NW. coast of two are battle pieces; these are, in general, ill-im- India and the Persian Gulf. At this place was the agined in point of taste, but excuted with great first missionary station established by the American nicely and observation. The Hall of audience ex- Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in hibits a profusion of very recent paintings, among 1813. which are several of the king, but wretched like- The view of the bay from the fort is beautiful. nesses, and altogether they betray a decline of this Bombay is a barren rock, unfit for agriculture ; but fine art in Persia, while a similar comparison of the it possesses great advantages for trade and for shipornamented work shows that considerable progress building. Their ships are mostly constructed by a in that department has been made. The river Zen- class of people called Parsees, who are worshippers derood, which divides the Shaherbag in two, has a óf fire. They were originally driven from Persia
" beautiful bridge of hewn stone and brick, composed by the Arabians. In the morning and evening, they of thirty-six arches, with a gallery on each side, pay their devotions to the sun. covered by a terrace, commanding a delightful view The number of inhabitants in Bombay is supposed of the surrounding gardens, and the suburb of Julpha, to exceed two hundred thousand. The town has a situated on the margin of the river, though now in very flourishing commerce. The accompanying ruins. A little lower is another magnificent bridge view represents a part of the harbor of Bombay built by Shah-Abbas, with wider galleries, and a where boats can enter.
YEAR OF INDE
NO. OF DAYS IN
J. Adams. George Washington.
SITTINGS OF CONGRESS.
In respect to agriculture, there is no comparison STATEMENT showing the commencement and ter- between the western cities; that of Cincinnatti bemination of each session of Congress held under ing so far superiour. The agricultural resources of the present constitution, with the number of days in the Miami and White-water valljes, with the exteneach :
sive region adjoining, being unsurpassed by any portion of the United States. This fact is known by the great exports of pork, flour, and whiskey, from Cincinnati and the adjacent streams. Pittsburgh and Louisville enter into no particular enumeration of their exports : while, however, the former is will
ing to make a specification of her manufactures, and | 1 Mar. 4, 1789 Sept. 29, 1789| 13 210 N. Y.
the latter of the goods she sells. Jan. 4, 1790 Aug. 12, 1790 14
Cincinnati exports eight millions of produce and ?! Dec. 6, 1790 Mar. 3, 1791| 15 88) Phil.
manufactures, and will soon double that. 1 Oct. 24, 1791 May 8, 1792) 16 981 do.
of manufactures, Pittsburgh claims to be the 2 Nov. 5, 1792 Mar. 2, 1793 17 119 do.
great seat in the West. But, we confess ourselves 1 Dec. 2, 1793 June 9, 1794 17 2 Nov. 3, 1794 Mar. 3, 1795 19
surprised to find how closely Cincinnati treads on 121 do.
her heels. Pittsburgh claims to manufacture fifteen 1 Dec. 7, 1795 June 1, 1796| 20
do. 2 Dec. 5, 1736 Mar. 3, 1797 21
millions per annum-including six millions of “other
manufactures."-Cincinnati claims, and proves, by 1 May 15, 1797 July 10, 1797 21 57
do. 2 Nov. 13, 1797 July 16, 1798 22
specifick enumeration, near thirteen millions. The 3 Dec. 3, 1798 Mar. 3, 1799 23
difference is not very great. Of the Pittsburgh man} 1 Dec. 2, 1799 May 14, 1800 24 165 do.
ufactures four millions are made up of the single 2 Nov. 17, 1800 Mar. 3, 1801 25
item of “rolling mills,” and near a million mors of 1 Dec. 7, 1801 May 3, 1802 26
148! do. 2 Dec. 6, 1802 Mar. 3, 1803 27
"glass works ;" while Cincinnati has but one rolling 88 do.
mill within herself, and no glass works. Taking 1 Oct. 17, 1803 Mar. 27, 1804 28
163 do. 2 Nov. 5, 1904 Mar. 3, 1805 29
these out, and the Cincinnati manufactures are much 119| do.
the greatest. In fact, the variety, amount, and dis1 Dec. 2, 1805 April 21, 1806 30 }
141 do. 2 Dec. 1, 1906 Mar. 3, 1807| 31
tribution of manufactures in Cincinnati is, for a new 1 Oct. 26, 1807 April 25, 1808 32
country, curious. Of commerce-meaning by that
183) do. 2 Nov. 7, 1808 Mar. 3, 1809 33
term the distribution of goods merely, Louisville 1 May 22, 1809 June 28, 1809 33 38
claims and shows the greatest amount. This fol2 Nov. 27, 1809 May 1, 1810 34 156
lows of course, from her position at the falls of the 3 Dec. 3, 1810 Mar. 3, 1811 35
Ohio, and from being the only commercial town of 1 Nov. 4, 1811 July 6, 1812 36
246) do. 2 Nov. 2, 1812 Mar. 3, 1813 37 122 do.
any consequence, in Kentucky. 1 May 24, 1813 Aug. 2, 1813 37
Of export commerce, we have already stated,
71 do. 2 Dec. 6, 1813 April 18, 1814 38 do.
Cincinnati has much the most. 3 Sept. 19, 1814 Mar. 3, 1815 39
In educational institutions, as well as agricultural & 1 Dec, 4, 1815 April 30, 1816 40 149/ do.
advantages, Cincinnati greatly predominates. In 2 Dec 2, 1816 Mar. 3, 1817 41
truth, she has a fair prospect of excelling, in this & 1 Dec. 1, 1817 April 30, 1818 42 141 do.
respect, any city of the United States. With the Nov. 16, 1818 Mar. 3, 18191 43
greatest advantages, in agricultural resources, instiDec. 6, 1819 May 15, 1820 44
162) do. 2 Nov. 13, 1920 Mar. 3, 1821 45
tutions, and in the variety of her mechanical indus111 do.
try, Cincinnati will retain her position and character 1 Dec 3, 1821 May 8, 1822 46
157 do. 2 Dec. 2, 1822 Mar. 3, 1823 47
of the “ Queen City of the West.”. She will wie d
92 do. 1 Dec. 1, 1823 May 27, *1824 48
the empire of mind, as long as mind shall be respect
179 do. Dec. 6, 1824 Mar. 3, 1825 49
ed in the valley of the Ohio. Dec. 5, 1825 May 22, 1826 50
Pittsburgh will always be a flourishing city. Seat
169 do. 2 Dec. 4, 1826 Mar. 3, 1827 51 90 do.
ed at the head of a mighty navigation, at the foot of 1 Dec. 3, 1827 May 26, 1828 52
the great Apalachian slope, with coal hills all around 2 Dec. 1, 1828 Mar. 3, 1829 53
her, she will remain mistress of these " who work in 1 Dec. 7, 1829 Mar. 31, 1830 54 176 do.
metals." Dec. 6, 1830 Mar. 3, 1831 55 881 do.
Louisville, placed at the falls of the Ohio, and 1 Dec. 5, 1631 July 16, 1832 56 225 do.
the commercial mart of Kentucky, will always pos2 Dec. 3, 1832 Mar. 3, 1833 57 91 do.
sess advantages for the distriubtion of goods. She Dec. 2, 1833 June 30, 1834 58 211 do. 2 Dec. 1, 1834 Mar. 3, 1835 59
will always continue to flourish while there is any
93 do. 1 Dec. 7, 1835 July 4, 1836 60 211) do.
obstruction at the falls, or any vigour within herself. Dec. 5, 1636 Mar. 3, 1837/ 61 891 do.
These three young and vigorous cities are not Nat. Intelligencer.
rivals. Nature has forbidden their rivalship; she has placed them where there is no interference of interests, and there should be no mean jealousy of superiority. They have grown up together, like
three beautiful sisters, and now they should be like COMPARATIVE STATISTICS.
those sisters, when married and separated to distant PITTSBURGH, CINCINNATI, AND LOUISVILLE.
homes, hearing of each other's prosperity with yearnThe great supports of a city are agriculture, man- strength of early affection.
ing hearts, and seeking mutual intercourse with the ufactures, commerce, and educational institutions.
'AIX AX 'IAX 'IIAX 'IITAX XIX "XX 'IXX 'IIXX 'IIIXX 'AIXX1
Andrew Jackson. J. Q. Adams. James Monroe.