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USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. hard and transparent, and without the defect of split
ting too freely. Fire proof Wood.—Doctor Fuehs, member of the Academy of Science at Munich, has discovered a Preparing Drawing Paper.--Reduce to a powder, composition by which he renders wood incombusti- and dissolve quickly in a glazed earthen vessel, conble; the composition is made of granulated earth and taining cold water, some gum adragant having been an alkali. To obtain it the inventor says, you must well worked with a wooden spatula to free it from dissolve some moist gravelly earth, which has been lumps. There must be a sufficient quantity of water previously well washed, and cleared from any hetero- to give to this diluted gum the consistence of a jelly. geneous maiter, in a solution of caustick alkali. This paper, and some sorts of stuffs, upon which, if this mixture has the property of not becoming decomposed composition be smoothly applied with a pencil, or by fire or water. When spread upon wood, it forms a brush, and dried before a gentle fire, will receive a vitreous coat, and is proof against the two elements. either water or oil colours ; in using water colours, The building committee of the royal theatre have they must be mixed with a solution of the above gum. twice publickly tried the composition on two small This cloth, or paper, so prepared, will take any colour buildings of six or eight feet in length, and a propor- except ink. When it is intended to retouch any partionate height; the one was covered with the compo- ticular part of the drawing, it should be washed with sition, and the other built in the usual manner. The a sponge, or clean linen, or a pencil, containing some fire was put equally in the two buildings; the one of ihe above mentioned liquid; if the part is only which was not covered with the composition was small, it will then rise quickly, and appear as if consumed, while the other remained perfect and repainted. entire. The cost of this process is very insignificant compared to its great utility, being about two francs
Glazing Earthenware.-M. Rochinski, a manufacthree centimes per 100 square feet. The royal thea
turer of earthenware at Berlin, has found a varnish tre at Munich has undergone this process, having
or glazing for common pottery, which, after trials about 400,000 square feet; the expense of which
made in the presence of the College of Medicine, was about 4 or 5000 francs.
offers no danger in regard to health, and resists the
action of the acids. This glazing is composed of five Cement for Iron Pipes.--For what is termed parts of litharge, two parts of well purified clay, and flanged joints, and all such as are not required to be one part of sulphur. These substances are pulvertaken apart, use an iron cement made of iron boring, ised, and mixed with a sufficient quantity of caustick pounded sal ammoniac and one quarter of sulphur. alkaline lye (soap makers' liqour,) so as to form a The exact proportion, however can only be ascertained mixture fit to be readily applied on the earthenware, from practice. This composition should be wetted and to cover it equally all over. Carefully baked, with water or urine, and driven into the joint with these wares offer no trace of lead. a hammer and caulking chisel ; it will then be found the most durable of all joints, if well made, and will
Meat.-There are several patent proresist steam of any pressure. If the joints are re
cesses for preserving meat, and other solid and Auid quired to be taken asunder frequently, this cement bodies ; but the one generally resorted, to consists in will not of course, be so convenient, and in such boiling them to exclude the air and then hermetically cases a platted rope or gaskin, with some glazier's sealing the cases in which they are enclosed. The putty, or white and red lead, will answer every pur- editor of this work has opened one case of cream pose.
which had by that means been successfully preserved
for eleven years. Damp Walls.-A hall, of which the walls were The last patent for this purpose was enrolled by constantly damp, though every means were employed Mr. Currie, and the object of the patentee is to preto keep them dry, was intended to be pulled down, vent the decomposition of vegetable and animal subwhen M. Schmitthals recommended, as a last re- stances by removing the oxygen of the atmosphere source, that the walls should be washed with sul- from them, and substituting in its place an atmosphere phurick acid. It was done, and the deliquescent of carbonick acid gas. salts being decomposed by the acid, the walls dried, The substances to be preserved, whether vegetable : and the hall was afterwards free from dampness. or animal, are to be placed in close receptacles, such
as vaults and tanks; the atmospherick air is then to ; Preparation of Quills.-M. Schloz, of Vienna, be extracted from such receptacles, and carbonick gives the following process for preparing quills for acid gas introduced, which being heavy will readily making pens, which it is said, will render them more insinuate itself into every cavity of the vessel and rest durable, and better than the best Hamburgh quills :- upon the top of the goods deposited therein, and by A boiler is to be about one-fourth part filled with that means prevent the re-entry of atmospherick air water, and the quills suspended in a perpendicular containing oxygen, in the absence of which the deposition over the surface of the water, with their tails composition of those substances could not take place. downwards, so that the extremity of the tail is not below the surface of the water. The boiler is then Bene Plant.--A few leaves of the plant when to be covered with a close cover, and kept boiling four green, plunged a few times in a tumbler of water, hours. The next day, after having cleared the quills makes it like a thin jelly, without taste or colour, of roughness, and rubbed them with a piece of woollen which children afflicted with the summer complaint cloth, let them be exposed to a moderate degree of will drink freely : it is said to be the best remedy heat; and on the following day they will be found over discovered.
in consequence of the numerous towns springing up on the Mississippi and its tributaries, and the uneb
bing tide of emigration swelling upon the rich lands THE IOWA COPPER-MINES.
of the great valley. The Iowa copper mines are located about one mile from Mineral Point, and thirty-five miles from Galena-embracing four hundred acres of land ; in HUNTING THE WILD BULL IN POLAND. which copper has been discovered at various points,
The Urus, a species of bison or wild bull, breeds in great abundance. It is found eighteen inches from the surface of the earth, and increases in value mal has been long proscribed, even under pain of
in the forests of Poland, but the hunting of this ani• and quantity with the depth of the pits.
death. On the twelfth of October, 1836, the GovThe great road and mail route from Galena and
ernor General of the province, Prince Dolgurickow, Green Bay, via. Fort Winnebago, passes through Mineral Point, and a rail-road has been projected, save a grand wild bull hunt in the ancient forest of and an appropriation made for its survey from Mil- Bialowicz. About two thousand hunters and trackwaukie on Lake Michigan, to some point on the ers had driven into an angle in the heart of the forest,
between two rivers, a troop of twenty of these aniMississippi near Galena, which passes through the mines. There is attached to the mineral tract, which of fires. The prince was stationed with his friends
mals, who were prevented from escaping by a circle is undulating prairie, nine hundred acres of woodland covered with a heavy growth of the best timber, for
on a spacious stage, while the trackers roused the
brakes. the business of smelting. It is proposed to form a stock company, for the
Suddenly emerging from a dense part of the forest, purchase of these mines. The real value of the within fifty yards of the stage, another troop of enormineral cannot be computed, but from the quality and mous urus, having at their head a male of immense quantity of the ore, which has been tested by science,
size, and whose long beard floated in the wind, was it may be considered the most important mineral dis perceived. The animals directed their course tocovery in the United States.
Copper ore found so
wards the spectators, but the leader was soon struck high on the Mississippi river is a mattter of great and this succeeded by three other shots from Princes
by a bullet from a gun fired by the Prince himself, consideration. A furnace is now in blast, and it only requires the erection of rolling-mills, for which ev
on the stage made the bull reel some two hundred ery facility is afforded, to supply the Upper Missis- paces, where he fell and was killed. The general sippi and Missouri with this article, without the im- that the greatest of the wanderers of the ancient for
shout by which this feat was accompanied proved mense cost of transportation, on that extensive ascending navigation ; and then there is a safe de- est of Bialowicz had then been prostrated. scending navigation, on the unobstructed bed of the wild herb called “ tomka,” for in the severe winters,
These animals feed almost exclusively upon a Mississippi, for the surplus manufacture to New-Or- when this fails them, they perish in great numbers. leans, or to the outlet of that great national canal, a This is the reason why they are only to be met with distance of two thousand miles. It is a fact now generally known, that no land pro- grass in question, is called “green” by the country
in this forest, which, because of the abundance of the luces better wheat than that of the mineral region people. As a memorial of this famous hunting match, of Wisconsin; and as fine crops may be seen growing on the prairie lands, in fields surrounded by the every body present carried away a fist full of this miner's shafts, as will at any time be found in Penn- grass, which has a strong smell, and something of sylvania, upon the best cultivated farms, tilled by the an almond taste, particularly when dried. In cutting
out the ure, the hunters remarked about the head a very best farmers in the world.
There is a body of land, extending from Green strong, smell of musk, the brain being, it is known, Bay to the Mississippi, embracing the country of
the chief depository of that substance. The flesh Fox River, Winnebago Lake, and the Mineral dis- may be eaten, though it has a wild flavour. The trict, which I believe to be unsurpassed in fertility
skin is very strong, but wants suppleness. and depth of soil. The Lakes and the Mississippi are now struggling for the mastery, and both points are filling up with an industrious and enterprising
DIETETICK MAXIMS. population so rapidly, that Wisconsin must enter the 1. A healthy appetite is to be acquired by early Union as a state, within two or three years. The rising-regular exercise in the open air—a cheerful material advantage of the lake country is its supply mind, and abstinence from intoxicating liquors. of lumber. The government, very properly, gave 2. The food should be eaten slowly ; so that it be new settlers the privilege of procuring pine from saw well masticated and mixed with the saliva. mills, erected on lands occupied by the Indians, but 3. Animal food is sovner digested in the stomach which could not be purchased ; and thus they erect than vegetable ; but it is more stimulating or heating comfortable buildings with ease and economy. But to the system. Flesh that has been long salted, this favour has not been extended to the people of dried hams, beef, &c., are less easily digested and the Upper Mississippi, where pine is very scarce, less nutritive than fresh meat. except on lands yet occupied by the Indians, and the 4. Farinaceous and vegetable food, generally, is consequence is that the poor settler finds it very dif- slower of digestion than animal
, but it is less heatficult to erect a comfortable dwelling, as pine boards ing. Many kinds of vegetable food are very nutrisell at from forty to seventy dollars per thousand tive. feet, and a sufficient supply can not be found. The 5. Animal food should not be over-boiled ; vegedemand for lumber is very great and daily increasing tables should be boiled till perfectly tender.
METACOMET, OF POKANOKET, CHIEF OF THE with the least probability of success; and this was WAMPANOAGS-CALLED, KING PHILIP.
fortified by a kind of block-house, directly in front, PHILIP, alias Metacomet, of Pokanuket, chief of and having flankers to cover a cross-fire. Besides the Wampanoags, was for many years, the inveterate high palisades, an immense hedge of fallen trees, of foe of the settlers in New England. Drake in his nearly a rod in thickness, surrounded it upon the "Indian Biography” thus describes his final capture outside, encompassing an area of about five acres. and death :
Between the fort and the main land, was a body of “ An army of fifteen hundred English, was raised water, over which a great tree had been felled, on by the three colonies, Massachusetts, Plimouth and which all must pass and repass, to and from it. On Connecticut, for the purpose of breaking down the coming to this place, the English soldiers, as many power of Philip among the Narragansets. They as.could pass upon the tree, which would not admit determined
this course, as they had been assur- two abreast, rushed forward, but were swept from it ed that in the spring they would come with all their in a moment, by the fire of Philip's men, Still, the force upon them. It was not known that Philip was English soldiers, led by their captains, supplied, the among them when this resolution was taken, and it places of the slain. But again and again, were they was but a rumour that they had taken part with him. swept from the fatal avenue. Six captains and a It was true, that they had promised to deliver up all great many men had fallen, and a partial, but mothe Wampanoags, who should flee to them, either mentary recoil from the face of death took place : alive or dead; but it is also true, that those who and but a handful had got within the fort. These made this promise, had it not in their power; were contending hand to hand with the Indians, and being persons, chiefly in subordinate circumstances, at fearful odds, when the cry of “ they ran ! they who had no right or authority to bind any but them- run !” brought to their assistance a considerable boily selves. And, therefore, as doubtless was foreseen of their fellow-soldiers. They were now enabled to by many, noņe of Philip's people were delivered, al- drive the Indians from their main breast-work, and though many were known to have been among them their slaughter became immense. Flying from wig: Thus in few words have we exhibited the main wam.to wigwam-men, women, and children, indisgrounds of the mighty, expedition against the Narra criminately, were hewn down and lay in heaps upon gansets in the winter of 1675.
the ground. Being now masters of the fort, at the reUpon a small island, in an immense swamp, in commendation of Mr. Church, General Winslow was South-Kingston, Rhode Island, Philip had fortified about to quarter the army. in it for the present, which himself, in a manner superiour to what was common offered comfortable habitations to the sick and woundamong his countrymen.
countrymen. Here he intended to pass ed, besides a plentiful supply of provisions. But the winter, with the chief of his friends, "They had one of the captains and a surgeon opposed the ineaserected about five hundred wigwams of a superiour ure ; probably from the apprehension that the woods construction, in which was: deposited a great store were full Indians, who would continue their attacks of provisions. Baskets and tubs of corn, were piled upon them, and drive them out in their turn. There one upon another, about the inside of them, which was doubtless, some reason for this, which was rendered them bullet proof. It was supposed that strengthened from the fact that many English were about three thousand persons had here taken up their killed after they bad possessed themselves of the residence.
fort, by those whom they had just dispossess. After nearly a month from their setting out, the ed of it. Still, had Church's advice been followed, English army arrived in the Narraganset country, perhaps many of the lives of the wounded would and made their headquarters about eighteen miles have been saved ; for he was seldom out in his judge. from Philip's fort. They had been so long upon ment, as his long successes proved afterward. Alter their march, that the Indians were long enough ap- fighting three hours, they were to march eighteen prized of their approach, and had made the best ar- miles, before the wounded could be dressed, and in rangements in their power to withstand them. They a most horrid and boisterous night. Eighty English. had already suffered much from the severity of the were killed in the fight, and one hundred and fisty season, being obliged to encamp in the open field, wounded ; many of whom died afterward. The and without tents to cover them!
English left the ground in considerable haste, leaving The nineteenth of December, 1675, is a memora- eight of their dead in the fort. Philip, and such of ble day in the annals of New England. Cold, in the his warriours as escaped unhurt, fled into a place of extreme—the air filled with snow—the army were safety, until the enemy had retired; when they reobliged, from the low state of their provisions, to turned again to the fort
. The English, no doubt, march to attack Philip in his fort. And but for the apprehended a pursuit, but Philip not knowing their treachery of one of his men, who, from his having distressed situation, and perhaps judging of their loss an English name, is supposed to have lived among from the few dead which they left, made no attempt the English--and by hope of reward, betrayed his to harass them. Before the fight was over, many countrymen into their hands. His name was Peter, of the wigwams were set on fire. Into these, hunand it was by accident that himself, with thirty-five dreds of innocent women and children had crowded, others, had just before fallen into the hands of the and perished in the general condagration and as a fortunate captain Mosely. No Englishman was ac- writer of that day expresses himself, “ no man knowquainted with the situation of Philip's fort ; and but erh how many." The English learned afterward for their pilot, Peter, there is very little probability from some that fell into their hands, that in all about that they could have effected anything against it. seven hundred perished. - For it was one o'clock on that short day of the year, Soon after this, Philip, with many of his followers, before they arrived within the vicinity of the swamp. left that part of the country, and resided in different 'There was but one point where it could be assailed places upon Connecticut river. Some report that